In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Litoria booroolongensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2007k) [Listing Advice].
APPROVED Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Litoria booroolongensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2007l) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, so that the Minister can consider adopting the NSW Booroolong frog recovery plan once it is completed (05/05/2008).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis) (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2011b) [Recovery Plan].
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis (Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
|Policy Statements and Guidelines||
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010h) [Admin Guideline].
Federal Register of
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (55) (07/12/2007) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2007c) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Litoria booroolongensis |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific Name: Litoria booroolongensis
Common Name: Booroolong Frog
There may be significant genetic divergence between Booroolong Frog populations from the Turon River south and those to the north (excluding the Turon River) (Donnellan pers. comm. cited in NSW OEH 2011b).
The Booroolong Frog is a medium sized tree frog. Adults grow to about 40 mm (males) to 55 mm (females). Their body colour may be dull grey, olive or reddish brown, and may be uniform or consist of indistinct black markings and salmon-coloured flecks. The abdomen is white. The backs of the thighs are dark brown, with a few small pale spots. The dorsum usually has a slightly warty appearance, while the ventral surface is pale and finely granular. The throat is smooth and white in females and dark in males. A faint, thin, black strip begins at the snout and passes through the eye, curving slightly over the small tympanum to the shoulder. The back of the thighs may be dark brown or covered in a yellow and black reticulated pattern. The fingers and toes have well developed discs, but of moderate size, and the toes are strongly, nearly fully webbed while the fingers are web-free. Webbing extends to the base of all discs except the second toe. The vomerine teeth (on roof of mouth) extend from between to behind the choanae (opening in roof of skull forming one end of nasal passage), and there are also small maxillary teeth (Barker et al. 1995; Moore 1961).
Males lack a distinct vocal sac and the call has been described as a purring 'qirk qirk qirk' lasting two or three seconds (Barker et al. 1995; Moore 1961; Robinson 1993) or a ‘craww craww craww craww’ (Smith & Hunter 2003).
The tadpole of the Booroolong Frog is free swimming (Anstis et al. 1998). The body is elongate and flattened, with a rounded snout, and well developed tail musculature. Individuals attain a total length of 50 mm prior to metamorphosis. The eyes are dorso-lateral and the mouth is ventral. Dorsal body colour is uniform rusty-brown with some darker mottling, which continues along the tail muscle. A conspicuous dark brown band is present across the lower back region. The under surface has an almost uniform gold sheen, with some darker patches. The oral disc is large, and a band of oral papillae surround the entire margin. There are two rows of anterior labial teeth, and three posterior rows (Anstis et al. 1998).
The Booroolong Frog is restricted to tablelands and slopes in NSW and north-east Victoria at 200–1300 m above sea level (NSW OEH 2011b). The species is predominantly found along the western-flowing streams and their headwaters of the Great Dividing Range, and a small number of eastern-flowing streams in the north end of its range (Spark 2009).
The Booroolong Frog occurs along 520 km of stream across 56 streams in 28 creeks and rivers (Hunter 2013a). Its range extends from Tamworth in northern NSW to the Southern Highlands in Victoria (TSSC 2007k). Though this represents a large extent of occurrence, the area of occupancy of the species is likely to represent only a tiny portion of this range (TSSC 2007k). Within Victoria the species has been recorded at Burrowye Creek at Burrowye and on the Murray River at Jingellic (Gillespie & Hunter 1999), both sites are freehold pastoral land (Vic. DSE 2001).
The species has disappeared from 50% of its known range since the mid 1980s (Hunter 2013a). Declines have been most noticeable in the New England Tablelands (Anstis et al. 1998; Heatwole et al. 1995; Hunter 2013a), although it still occurs in the Namoi and Manning catchments in the southern part of this area (Gillespie 1999, 2000; Spark 2009). Declines have also occurred in the central and southern parts of the species' range (Gillespie 1999, 2000; Hunter 2007). Monitoring of populations on the south-west slopes and central tablelands indicates extinction of the species from two of the 13 monitored sites, which is an indication that declines are ongoing (Hunter 2013a). Previously known populations from the Blue Mountains are extinct (NSW SC 2005b).
There are no records supported by photos or specimens from eastern flowing streams south of Sydney (NSW OEH 2011b). The Booroolong Frog has now largely disappeared from the Northern Tablelands and is now rare throughout most of the remainder of its range.
Sydney's Taronga Zoo began a captive breeding program for the Booroolong Frog in 2007 with 34 frogs. More then 600 frogs were released in south-west NSW in 2008 (Taronga Zoo 2008; The Sydney Morning Herald 2008).
Extensive frog surveys in the Northern Tablelands have been undertaken by the North-east Forest Biodiversity Study (NSW NPWS 1994), Regional Forests Assessment Program, Gillespie (2000) and others (NSW NPWS 2004).
Despite extensive surveys for riverine frogs throughout north-east Victoria (Watson et al. 1991), the Booroolong Frog remained undetected until 1999. The discovery of the species in Victoria was the result of a brief, one-off survey (Gillespie & Hunter 1999).
The Booroolong Frog persists at low densities compared with other Litoria species (Gillespie 1999). It is estimated that fewer than 5000 individuals remained in the wild. Prior to 1990, the species was considered both common and secure (Tyler 1992) and it was abundant throughout the Northern Tablelands in the 1980s (Heatwole et al. 1995). Between the 1980s and 2000s, the Booroolong Frog underwent a severe contraction across its known range (Anstis 2002; Gillespie & Hines 1999). Since 2003 the majority of extant populations have declined as a result of stream drying (NSW OEH 2011b). If wetter conditions in the early 2010s continue, habitat that has not been degraded by sedimentation or weeds are likely to be recolonised (Hunter 2013a).
The Booroolong Frog experiences large annual fluctuations in abundance, particularly for males, due to the short life cycle of the species and variation in survivorship prior to sexual maturity (Hunter 2007). Area of occupancy variations and local extinction over short periods are associated with these fluctuations (Hunter 2013a).
The Booroolong Frog is known to occur in 28 populations (a river or creek connected by habitat, which supports a population). The following table presents location information for the species. Where indicated, conservation works include stock restrictions in the riparian zone, weed control/eradication and re-establishment of native riparian vegetation (Hunter 2013):
|Catchment||Population||Streams occupied||Length of stream occupied (km)||Length in conservation reserve (%)||Threats||Conservation works in progress|
|Drying||Weeds and sedimentation|
|Murray||Jingelic Creek||Jingelic Creek||7.5||0||X||X||X|
|Horse Creek||Horse Creek||0.1||0||X||X|
|Manus Creek||Manus Creek||19.5||80||X||X|
|Sappling Yards Creek||5.5||90||X||X|
|McCabe Creek||McCabe Creek||0.1||0||X||X||X|
|Maragle Creek||Maragle Creek||15||0||X||X||X|
|Maragle Back Creek||4||0||X||X|
|Tooma River||Tooma River||6.5||100|
|Burrowye Creek (Victorian population)||Burrowye Creek/Guy Forest Creek||20||0||X||X||X|
|Koetong Creek (Victorian population)||Koetong Creek||unknown||unknown||X||X|
|Murrumbidgee||Goobragandra River||Goobragandra River||40||50||X|
|Sandy Waterfall Creek||5||0|
|Mountain Creek||Mountain Creek||4.5||0||X||X|
|Macpherson Swamp Creek||Macpherson Swamp Creek||4||50||X||X|
|Brungle Creek||Brungle Creek||15.5||0||X||X|
|Bombowlee Creek||Bombowlee Creek||8||0||X||X|
|Gilmore Creek||Gilmore Creek||23||0||X||X||X|
|Adelong Creek||Adelong Creek||18||0||X||X|
|Yaven Yaven Creek||Yaven Yaven Creek||30||20||X||X|
|Umbango Creek||Umbango Creek||12||0||X||X|
|Jounama Creek||Jounama Creek||7||100|
|Yarrangobilly River||Yarrangobilly River||10.5||100|
|Lachlan||Abercrombie River||Abercrombie River||> 20||20||X||X||X|
|Burra Burra Creek||unknown||0||X||X|
|Tuena Creek||> 5||80||X|
|Central West||Sewells Creek||Campbell River||2.5||0||X|
|Chain of Ponds Creek||3||0||X||X|
|Native Dog Creek||3.5||0||X||X|
|Captain Kings Creek||7||0||X||X|
|Upper Fish River||Fish River||1.5||0||X||X|
|Duckmaloi River||> 1||0||X||X|
|Lower Fish River||Fish River||2||0||X||X|
|Turon River||Coolamigal Creek||3.5||100||X||X|
|Round Swamp Creek||> 2||0||X||X|
|Namoi||Cockburn River||Cockburn River||31||0||X|
|Mulla Mulla Creek||> 10||0|
|Swamp Oak Creek||21||0|
|Oakey Creek or Jamiesons Creek||4||0||X|
|Peel River||Swamp Creek or Burrow Creek||0.1||0|
|Wombramurra Creek||> 7||1||X|
|Hunter||Isis River||Isis River||> 1||0||X|
|Manning||Barnard River||Barnard River||> 1||100||X|
The Booroolong Frog occurs along permanent streams with some fringing vegetation cover such as ferns, sedges or grasses (Anstis 2002; Robinson 1993). Adults occur on or near cobble banks and other rock structures within stream margins, or near slow-flowing connected or isolated pools that contain suitable rock habitats (NSW OEH 2011b). Streams range from small slow-flowing creeks to large rivers (The Victorian Frog Group 1999) in dissected mountainous country, tablelands, foothills and lowland plains (Anstis et al. 1998; Gillespie 1999). The species is associated with the following vegetation associations (NSW DECC 2005ap):
- wet sclerophyll forests (shrubby and grassy sub-formation)
- dry sclerophyll forest (shrub/grass and shrubby sub-formation)
- grassy woodland
- forested wetland
- freshwater wetland
- cleared grazing land and pasture.
Primary habitat requirements for the Booroolong Frog are extensive rock bank structures along permanent rivers (Gillespie 1999; Hunter & Smith 2006). Individuals have also been observed using artificial man made structure, such as weirs (Spark pers. comm. cited in NSW OEH 2011b). The key feature of these rock structures are rock crevices in relatively shallow, slow to medium flowing sections of stream (Hunter & Smith 2006). Failure to locate the Booroolong Frog along ephemeral streams, and the decline of the species from streams that dried during recent severe droughts demonstrates the reliance of this species on permanent water (Hunter & Smith 2006; Hunter 2013a).
The Borroolong Frog is a seasonal breeder. Males begin calling in August, from exposed rocks or rock crevices, near shallow pools or runs (NSW OEH 2011b). Breeding occurs during spring and early summer. Tadpoles metamorphose in late summer to early autumn. The eggs are small and pigmented and are laid in large numbers in submerged rock crevices. Tadpoles grow in slow flowing connected or isolated pools (Anstis 2002).
The larval life span of embryos raised to metamorphosis in captivity was 75 days (Anstis 2002).
The Booroolong Frog's generation length is two years at lower altitudes and three years at higher altitudes (> 600 m), and the species has a maximum age of four years (NSW OEH 2011b). At lower altitudes, males reach sexual maturity in one year and females in two years (Hunter 2001). A study of museum specimens based on growth rings in bones, indicated sexual maturity of males in two years and females in three years (Gillespie unpub. data cited in NSW OEH 2011b).
Anuran frogs, such as the Booroolong Frog, are generalist predators of arthropods (Duellman & Trueb 1994 cited in Hunter 2013a). Booroolong Frog Tadpoles are generalist benthic grazers and probably feed on algae and other organic detritis (Inger 1986 cited in Hunter 2013a).
During summer, the Booroolong Frog sometimes basks in the sun on exposed rocks near flowing water (NSW SC 2005b). By day, frogs shelter under rocks or amongst vegetation near the ground on the stream edge (Anstis 2002; Robinson 1993). Several individuals may be found sheltering together (NSW OEH 2011b). Juveniles and adults have been observed under rocks within the riparian zone during winter (Anstis et al. 1998; NSW OEH 2011b). The dispersal capabilities and non-breeding habitats of the species are unknown, but the species is relatively sedentary (Hunter 2013a). Hunter (2001) found that the majority of recaptured individuals moved less than 50 m within a season, with maximum movements of up to 300 m being recorded across seasons.
This Booroolong Frog vaguely resembles Leseur's Frog (Litoria lesueuri) and the Stony-creek Frog (Litoria wilcoxi), from which it is ready distinguished by the well-webbed feet and body pattern (Hunter 2013a). Peter's Frog (Litoria inermis), which is also similar, has a warty skin and is not normally found in the mountains (Robinson 1993).
Where the Booroolong Frog does not co-occur with similar species (certain areas of the south-west slopes), the male advertisement call and tadpoles can also be used to identify the presence of the species (Hunter 2013a). Males call from exposed rocks in shallow, flowing sections of mountainous streams during spring and summer (Anstis 2002).
Appropriate survey techniques include day time searches for tadpoles and sheltering frogs and night time spotlight searches for active frogs (Hunter & Smith 2006; Hunter 2013a). Spotlight surveys along 500 metre sections of stream during the breeding season, and under suitable conditions (low water levels and temperatures above 10 °C), has a very high detection rate (greater than 95%) (Hunter & Smith 2006).
The Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs (DEWHA 2010h) includes survey design principles when planning a frog survey and includes recommendations for survey methods for the Booroolong Frog and habitat that it occurs in (DEWHA 2010h).
The National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis) (NSW OEH 2011b) includes the methods of existing monitoing programs for the species.
Stream drying (drought and climate change)
The Booroolong Frog's short life means that failed recruitment over one or two years can cause localised extinction (NSW OEH 2011b). Agriculture has severely modified streams, eradicating refugia and limiting the Booroolong Frog's resilience to drought. Localised extinctions were caused by drought in the 1980s and the 2000s when many previously permanent streams dried in the southern and central tablelands of NSW and Victoria (Vic. DSE 2001; NSW OEH 2011b). Extreme drought is predicted to be more severe and prolonged with climate change (CSIRO 2007) and, as a result, localised extinction events may become more severe (NSW OEH 2011b).
The timing and rapid nature of the Booroolong Frogs' decline from the New England Tablelands, which coincided with the disappearance of several other frog species in this region (Berger et al. 1998; Mahony 1999), is likely to be due to an outbreak of Chytridiomycosis (NSW OEH 2011b). Declines have been recorded from higher altitude sites, where the habitat remains intact (TSSC 2007k; Hunter & Gillespie 1999), compared to persistence at lower altitudes, which is consistent with other Chytridiomycosis induced declines (Berger et al. 1998; Lips 1999). Sick and dead infected Booroolong Frogs have been observed in the wild on several occasions, and healthy frogs have tested positive for infection (NSW OEH 2011b; Spark 2009). Chytridiomycosis is unlikely to be the cause of declines at lower altitudes (Hunter 2013a).
Degradation of Boorolong Frog habitat is caused by land clearance, overgrazing, timber harvesting, use of heavy machinery in the riparian zone and soil ripping to establish crops adjacent to occupied streams, or in the headwaters of catchments in which the species has been recorded (Gillespie 1999, 2000; NSW OEH 2011b). These activities increase erosion and sediment loads, smother and entrain rock crevices by sediments and weeds, and reduce the quality and extent of breeding habitat for the species (Hunter 2007; Hunter & Smith 2006). The colonisation of the riparian zone by environmental weeds (particularly willows (Salix spp.) and the Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus)) also significantly reduces the extent of suitable habitat for the Booroolong Frog (Hunter & Smith 2006). Willows disrupt the life-cycle of the Booroolong Frog as their surface roots fill all rock crevices required by this species for oviposition.
In the southern part of its range the Booroolong Frog persists in areas that have been cleared for pasture (Gillespie 1999), however these populations are typically small and highly fragmented (Hunter 2003). The species' habitat is continuing to be modified, primarily through cattle grazing and weed invasion, in a manner that is likely to continue to contribute to the decline of this species (Gillespie 1999; Hunter & Smith 2006; Smith & Hunter 2008).
Changes in hydrology
The modification of hydrological regimes as a result of irrigation and hydro-electric power generation has an adverse affect on the Booroolong Frog. Specific changes to the aquatic environment that adversely impact the species include (Bevitt et al. 1998; Doeg 1987; Erskine 1996; Ligon et al. 1995; Vic. DSE 2001):
- Significant rises in water level and velocity during the breeding period that may flush eggs and larvae downstream.
- Reduced temperatures of sub-surface releases of water from dams during the summer months that are likely to inhibit larval growth and development of obligate stream breeders.
- Reduced temperatures that may favour trout, a predator of the species.
- Sub-surface waters that may be anoxic (lacking/low in oxygen), have different pH and higher concentrations of activated heavy metals, which in turn may be detrimental to eggs, embryos and tadpoles.
- Reduced peak flows resulting from dams that may allow build-up of sediments and colonisation of stream channels by vegetation.
Nearly all streams currently occupied by the Booroolong Frog are also inhabited by a range of exotic fish species including Brown Trout (Salmo trutta), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), European Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), Redfin Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Mosquito Fish (Gambusia holbrooki) (Gillespie 1999, 2000; Hunter & Gillespie 1999). Recent experimental work has demonstrated that these fish all have the potential to prey on the tadpoles and eggs of the Booroolong Frog (Hunter 2003; Hunter et al. 2011). The impact of fish on the Booroolong Frog's historic decline is unknown, but may be greatest in habitat that is degraded (Hunter 2013a).
Herbicides have the potential to impact amphibians through a range of processes, including acute toxicity and endocrine disruption (Bidwell & Gorrie 1995; Hayes et al. 2002). There have been no observations of herbicides impacting the Booroolong Frog despite extensive application in the vicinity of breeding populations (Hunter 2013a).
Minister's reasons for recovery plan decision
Current threats to the species, such as habitat disturbance, the disease Chytridiomycosis and predation of tadpoles by introduced fish, and the need to develop greater information about the species suggest that a recovery plan would be a useful management tool. A recovery plan was adopted by the Australian Government in 2012 (NSW OEH 2011b).
The primary aim of the Booroolong Frog Recovery Program is to address the impact of habitat degradation. Works underway include weed eradication and control, limiting stock access to the riparian zone, and promoting the establishment of native riparian vegetation. This work is being undertaken by various Catchment Management Authorities (Murray, Murrumbidgee, Lachlan, Namoi). The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage have been facilitating these programs, through providing technical advice and monitoring, and undertaking weed control within reserves (Hunter 2013a).
Abatement of Chytridiomycosis is considered a low priority considering the persistence of Booroolong Frog populations with the disease (Hunter 2013a). Similarly, there is limited ability to mitigate stream drying, although the maintenance of a captive colony could provide frogs for reintroduction in areas of extinction or in suitable habitat (Hunter 2013a; McFadden et al. 2010).
The National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis) (NSW OEH 2011b) includes a general approach to riparian restoration and protection that would benefit the species.
The National Recovery Plan for Booroolong Frog (Litoria booroolongensis) (NSW OEH 2011b) identifies the following recovery actions:
- Complete systematic surveys.
- Determine the taxonomic status of northern and southern populations.
- Identify genetic sub-division across the species range.
- Continue and expand riparian protection and restoration.
- Regulate the establishment of softwood plantations.
- Enforce legislation protecting streams and water flow.
- Reduce the transmission of potentially harmful pathogens.
- Determine current impacts and prevent impacts from introduced predatory fish.
- Implement an effective monitoring program.
- Model the influence of predicted climate change.
- Develop efficient reintroduction techniques.
- Assess the capacity to use assisted colonisation.
- Determine impact of herbicides.
- Determine the current impact of Chytridiomycosis.
- Determine the influence of reduced water quality.
- Increase public awareness and provide specific education and training.
- Establish a recovery team.
Other recovery actions identified by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW DECC 2005ap) include:
- Maintain natural stream channel morphology.
- Protect streams and streamside vegetation from disturbance by stock.
- Control weeds, particularly willows, and rehabilitate streamside habitats.
- Develop expertise in captive husbandry of the species.
- Develop a contingency strategy for establishing a captive population in the event that further precipitous declines occur.
- Investigate less known potential locations of Booroolong Frog and subsequently develop, negotiate and implement conservation management agreements at confirmed high priority sites.
- Use management agreements and incentives for riparian fencing and re-snagging to reduce further habitat degradation and enhance the extent of suitable habitat.
- Determine the influence of habitat disturbance on persistence, abundance and demography.
- Identify age specific mortality schedules and factors regulating population size.
- Determine current distribution and abundance in relation to landscape and habitat quality attributes.
- Negotiate, develop and implement conservation management agreements for known high priority sites.
Other recovery actions identified by the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE 2001) include:
- Conduct targeted surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of the Booroolong Frog in the vicinity of Burrowye Creek and two tributaries (Koetong and Flaggy Creeks) of the Murray River that have high potential for supporting the species.
- Monitor known populations of the Booroolong Frog to determine population fluctuations and evaluate management actions.
- Determine optimum strategies for revegetation of streams, the removal of willows and the use of stock grazing regimes to maintain appropriate vegetation cover.
- Subject to agreement by landholders, revegetate streamside habitat at Burrowye Creek and construct fences to exclude stock from this site. Vegetation growth may be managed by seasonal grazing by stock. Revegetation should be initially conducted over 50% or less of the area occupied by Booroolong Frogs to determine the consequences of increased vegetation cover on the species.
- Encourage the co-operation of local Landcare groups in rehabilitation works for the habitat of the Booroolong Frog.
Research activities on the Booroolong Frog include Gillespie (1999, 2000), Hunter (2001, 2007), Hunter and Smith (2006), Hunter and colleagues (2011), McFadden and colleagues (2010) Spark (2009).
Management documents relevant to the Booroolong Frog are at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Litoria booroolongensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2007k) [Listing Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities||Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Gambusia holbrooki (Eastern Gambusia, Mosquitofish)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Litoria booroolongensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2007k) [Listing Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout)||Commonwealth Listing Advice on Litoria booroolongensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2007k) [Listing Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation||Perca fluviatilis (Redfin, Redfin Perch)|
|Salmo trutta (Brown Trout)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation||Cyprinus carpio (European Carp, Common Carp)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease||
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Litoria booroolongensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2007k) [Listing Advice].
Anstis, M. (2002). Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia. A guide with keys. Sydney, NSW: Reed New Holland.
Anstis, M., R.A. Alford & G.R. Gillespie (1998). Breeding biology of Litoria booroolongensis. Transactions Of The Royal Society Of South Africa. 122:33-44.
Barker, J., G.C. Grigg. & M.J. Tyler (1995). A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.
Berger, L., R. Speare, P. Daszak, D.E. Green, A.A. Cunningham, C.L. Goggin, R. Slocombe, M.A. Ragan, A.D. Hyatt, K.R. McDonald, H.B. Hines, K.R. Lips, G. Marrantelli & H. Parkes (1998). Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rainforest of Australia and Central America. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA. 95:9031-9036.
Bevitt, R., W. Erskine, G. Gillespie, J. Harris, P.S. Lake, B. Miners, R. Rutherford & I. Varley (1998). Expert Panel Environmental Flow Assessment of Various Rivers Affected by the Snowy Mountains Scheme. Report to the NSW Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney.
Bidwell, J.R. & J.R. Gorrie (1995). Acute Toxicity of a Herbicide to Selected Frog Species. Prepared for the Western Australian Department of Environmental Protection, Perth. Curtin Ecotoxicology Program, Curtin University of Technology.
Commonwealth Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH) (2006o). Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/chytrid.html.
CSIRO (2007). Climate Change in Australia - Technical Report 2007.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010h). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Frogs. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.3. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-frogs.html.
Doeg, T.J. (1987). Response of the macroinvertebrate fauna of the Mitta Mitta River, Victoria, to the construction and operation of the Dartmouth Dam: Irrigation release. Occasional Paper Museum Victoria. 1:101-128.
Erskine, W.D. (1996). Downstream hydrogeomorphic impacts of the Eildon Reservoir on the mid-Goulburn River, Victoria. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society. 108:1-15.
Gillespie, G.R. (1999). Survey of the Distribution and Habitat of the Booroolong frog Litoria Booroolongensis on the South-western Slopes of the Great Dividing Range in New South Wales. Report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Queanbeyan. Arthur Rylah Institute, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.
Gillespie, G.R. (2000). Survey, monitoring and management of the Booroolong frog and spotted tree frog in New South Wales. Report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Queanbeyan. Arthur Rylah Institute, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.
Gillespie, G.R. & D. Hunter (1999). The Booroolong Frog Litoria booroolongensis Moore (Anura: Hylidae): an addition to the frog fauna of Victoria. Victoria Naturalist. 116 (3):112-114.
Gillespie, G.R. & H.B. Hines (1999). Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. In: A. Campbell, ed. Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs. Page(s) 109-130. Canberra: Environment Australia.
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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Litoria booroolongensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 10 Mar 2014 11:54:24 +1100.