Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on ten species of Bats (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001a) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Chalinolobus dwyeri (Large-eared Pied Bat) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012ad) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the large-eared pied bat Chalinolobus dwyeri (Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM), 2011d) [Recovery Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Bats. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.1 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010m) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (29/03/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001h) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Bat Calls of New South Wales-Region based guide to the echolocation calls of microchiropteran bats (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2004a) [Database].
NSW:Bat Roosts - North east NSW. Natural Resource Management Advisory Series: Note 7 (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2004b) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Large-eared Pied Bat - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005bi) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
Scientific name Chalinolobus dwyeri [183]
Family Vespertilionidae:Chiroptera:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Ryan,1966
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Chalinolobus dwyeri

Common name: Large-eared Pied Bat

Other common name: Large Pied Bat

The Large-eared Pied Bat is a medium-sized insectivorous bat measuring a total length of approximately 100 mm and weighing 7–12 grams. It has shiny, black fur on the body with a white stripe on the ventral side of the torso where it adjoins the wings and tail. The ears are large, and lobes of skin adorn the lower lip and between the corner of the mouth and the bottom of the ear (Hoye & Dwyer 1995; Ryan 1966). Its relatively short, broad wings suggest it flies slowly and with considerable maneuverability (Qld DERM 2011).

Former distribution

The Large-eared Pied Bat's former distribution is poorly known. This species was first described in 1966 from Copeton in northern New South Wales (NSW) (Dwyer 1966; Ryan 1966). It has been suggested that there have been large declines in the available suitable habitat (Pennay 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010az).

It is not possible to evaluate past declines in extent of occurrence in the Large-eared Pied Bat for the following reasons:

  • It was only formally described in 1966 (Ryan 1966).
  • Like most insectivorous bats it is nocturnal and unobtrusive so opportunistic observations are uncommon (Qld DERM 2011).
  • Targeted surveys utilising appropriate techniques to record this species have only taken place since the 1990s (Qld DERM 2011).

Current distribution

The species' current distribution is also poorly known. Records exist from Shoalwater Bay, north of Rockhampton, Queensland, through to the vicinity of Ulladulla, NSW in the south (Qld DERM 2011). Despite the large range, it has been suggested that the species is far more restricted within the species' range than previously understood (NSW DECC 2007d).

Much of the known distribution is within NSW. Available records suggest that the largest concentrations of populations appear to be in the sandstone escarpments of the Sydney basin and the north-west slopes (Coolah Tops, Mt Kaputar, Warrumbungle National Park (NP) and Pilliga Nature Reserve (NR). Although the species is widely distributed, it is uncommon and patchy within this area. Sightings of note include Tottenham, west of Narromine (NSW), which is the furthest west record (Shelly 2001); Swansea Open Cut Mine area of the Wallarah Peninsula, north coast NSW (Conacher Travers 2006); a disused gold mine near Barraba (NSW) that included lactating females and dependent young (Spark 2006 pers. comm. cited in Qld DERM 2011); and Moreton NP (NSW) at the southern end of the species' range (Qld DERM 2011).

In Queensland, further records are known from sandstone escarpments in the Carnarvon, Expedition Ranges and Blackdown Tablelands. It is likely that these areas support a high proportion of the Queensland populations of the Large-eared Pied Bat, although estimates of the number of individuals present and their distribution in these areas has not been established. Additional records exist in the Scenic Rim near the NSW/Queensland border. The populations in this area appear to be reliant on the presence of roosts in volcanic rock types (Qld DERM 2011).

Roosting sites

No maternity roost sites are known in Queensland (TSSC 2010az). In NSW, four maternity roost sites have been recorded (Qld DERM 2011), however, one was permanently flooded in 1976 and one was abandoned in 2009 (TSSC 2010az).

Extent of occurrence and area of occupancy

The species extent of occurrence is approximately 570 000 km² based on the distribution range in Hoye and Dwyer (1995).

The area of occupancy is approximately 9120 km². This is calculated from the extent of occurrence and the detection rate of echolocation calls of 1.6% at 3154 sites across the range of the Large-eared Pied Bat (Hoye 2006 pers. comm.). One estimate suggests that during the breeding season, the area of occupancy is less than 1 km2 (TSSC 2010az). This estimate was made when there was only one active breeding site (TSSC 2010az), but now there are two (Qld DERM 2011).

Fragmentation

Available roosts are not evenly distributed throughout the range of the Large-eared Pied Bat. In particular, the populations in north-east NSW and south-east Queensland, Shoalwater Bay and Blackdown Tablelands are likely to be isolated with little interaction with their nearest populations (Qld DERM 2011).

In general, the Large-eared Pied Bat has been poorly surveyed across its current known distribution. Non-targeted surveys have been carried out in parts of the species' range such as those undertaken by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage in the Sydney Basin and Hunter Valley (NSW DEC 2004h, 2004i, 2004j, 2005bh) and southern Queensland (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997a).

Total abundance

There is insufficient data to estimate abundance or population trends of the Large-eared Pied Bat. Also, no site monitoring of known roosts has occurred. Some data were collected in the early 1960s, but this site was subsequently flooded by Copeton Dam (Hoye & Dwyer 1995).

It has been suggested that the species is unlikely to undergo extreme natural fluctuations in population numbers, extent of occurrence or area of occupancy (Hoye 2006 pers. comm.), although the justification for this is unknown.

Site population characteristics

The Large-eared Pied Bat appears to exist in a number of small populations throughout its range. Colonies seldom contain more than 50 individuals, but the level of interaction between adjacent colonies has not been ascertained. The largest known populations of the Large-eared Pied Bat occur in those areas dominated by sandstone escarpments. In Queensland, targeted surveys have not been undertaken to determine the size or distribution of populations. However potential habitat occurs in substantial areas of sandstone escarpments including Carnarvon National Park, Blackdown Tableland National Park, Expedition National Park and Isla Gorge National Park. If sufficiently large populations occur in these reserves, this would form an important area to target recovery actions (Qld DERM 2011).

Important populations supporting higher numbers of individuals include those present in the sandstone escarpments of the Hunter Valley, Sydney Basin and Southern Tablelands of NSW, and the sandstone escarpments of Carnarvon, Expedition Ranges and Blackdown Tablelands Queensland. Additional smaller populations of importance occur in limestone caves and caves and mines with rocks of volcanic origin in the western and north-east parts of its range in NSW, south-eastern Queensland, as well as Shoalwater Bay north of Rockhampton (Qld DERM 2011).

The following locations support populations of the Large-eared Pied Bat (Qld DERM 2011) and it is unlikely that many of these locations actively manage habitat for the benefit of the Large-eared Pied Bat: 

State Tenure Location
NSW  Conservation Bouddi National Park (NP), Big Scrub Flora Reserve, Blue Mountains NP, Bungonia Nature Reserve (NR), Coolah Tops NP, Goulburn River NP, Mt Kaputar NP, Morton NP, Munghorn Gap NR, Pilliga Scrub  NR, Richmond Range NP, Royal NP, Warrumbungle NP, Wollemi NP and Yengo NP
Other Bingara State Forest (SF), Bourbah SF, Giro SF, Irrigapa SF, Kerringle SF, Montrose SF, Olney SF, Pilliga SF, Pilliga East SF, Pilliga West SF, Ruttley SF, Yarrigan SF, Watagan SF, Yalcogrin SF and Crown Land near Ulan
Queensland  Conservation Carnarvon Gorge NP, Lamington NP, Main Range NP and Blackdown Tableland NP
Other Blackdown Tableland SF, Gambubal SF, Road reserves in the Wivenhoe Dam, Lake Moogerah area, west of Mt Barney area and private land adjacent to Mt Mistake

Roosting habitat

Sandstone cliffs and fertile woodland valley habitat within close proximity of each other is habitat of importance to the Large-eared Pied Bat (NSW DECC 2007d). Records from south-east Queensland suggest that rainforest and moist eucalypt forest habitats on other geological substrates (rhyolite, trachyte and basalt) at high elevation are of similar importance to the species (Gynther 2011 pers. comm. cited in Qld DERM 2011; Mathieson 2011 pers. comm. cited in Qld DERM 2011).

Available roosts are not evenly distributed throughout the landscape. The species requires a combination of sandstone cliff/escarpment to provide roosting habitat that is adjacent to higher fertility sites, particularly box gum woodlands or river/rainforest corridors which are used for foraging (Pennay 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010az). Almost all records have been found within several kilometres of cliff lines or rocky terrain (Qld DERM 2011). Roosting has also been observed in disused mine shafts, caves, overhangs and disused Fairy Martin (Hirundo ariel) nests (Hoye & Dwyer 1995; Schulz 1998). It also possibly roosts in the hollows of trees (Duncan et al. 1999).

The structure of primary nursery roosts appears to be very specific, i.e. arch caves with dome roofs (that need to be deep enough to allow juvenile bats to learn to fly safely inside) and with indentations in the roof (presumably to allow the capture of heat). These physical characteristics are not very common in the landscape and therefore a limiting factor. Retaining connectivity between remnant vegetation is likely to be important (NSW DECC 2007d; Pennay 2008; Pennay 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010az).

Landscape associations

The majority of records are from canopied habitat, suggesting a sensitivity to clearing, although narrow connecting riparian strips in otherwise cleared habitat are sometimes quite heavily used (NSW DECC 2007d).

In NSW this species has been recorded from a large range of vegetation types including: dry and wet sclerophyll forest; Cyprus Pine (Callitris glauca) dominated forest; tall open eucalypt forest with a rainforest sub-canopy; sub-alpine woodland; and sandstone outcrop country. In south-east Queensland the species has primarily been recorded from higher altitude moist tall open forest adjacent to rainforest (Duncan et al. 1999).

Dwyer (1966) originally recorded breeding Large-eared Pied Bats in a disused mine at Copeton, NSW. However, this mine has since been flooded by Copeton Dam (Hoye & Dwyer 1995). Lactating and pregnant females have been captured adjacent to sandstone escarpments near Ulan, NSW (Fly By Night 2004) and adjacent to rhyolite cliffs near Lismore (Parnaby 1984). Breeding females have also recently been recorded in sandstone caves near Coonabarabran, NSW (Pennay 2008).

During fire and periods of extreme rainfall, Large-eared Pied Bats are likely to shelter within their roosts in caves, sandstone overhangs, tunnels and culverts (Hoye 2006 pers. comm.).

Habitat modelling

Habitat modelling based on surveys in the southern Sydney region (NSW DECC 2007d) suggest that the Large-eared Pied Bat is largely restricted to the interface of sandstone escarpment (for roost habitat) and relatively fertile valleys (for foraging habitat) (Pennay 2008). Survey work in the Brigalow Belt South region of NSW supports this modelling (Pennay 2008).

Some populations of the Large-eared Pied Bat would rely in part on the following threatened ecological communities:

  • Cumberland Plain Shale Woodlands and Shale-Gravel Transition Forest
  • Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla dominant and co-dominant)
  • White Box-Yellow Box-Blakely's Red Gum Grassy Woodland and Derived Native Grassland
  • Weeping Myall - Coobah - Scrub Wilga Shrubland of the Hunter Valley
  • Temperate Highland Peat Swamps on Sandstone
  • Grey Box (Eucalyptus microcarpa) Grassy Woodlands and Derived Native Grasslands of South-eastern Australia
  • New England Peppermint (Eucalyptus nova-anglica) Grassy Woodlands.

From the limited data of Dwyer's examination of a colony in the early 1960s (Dwyer 1966), females can give birth at one year of age and males also appear capable of breeding at this age. Life expectancy and natural mortality have not been determined. Females have low fecundity giving birth to only one or two young per year (Hoye & Dwyer 1995).

Breeding in the disused mine tunnel at Copeton, NSW, was recorded during two consecutive summers from 1961 by Dwyer (1966). Mating appears to occur in early winter. During autumn and early winter, males had enlarged testes and the muzzle glands of both sexes were swollen indicating that scent secreted from these glands may be a secondary sexual attractant during the mating period (Dwyer 1966). Females were pregnant in October and by early December they had all given birth and were lactating. Females most often had two young (average litter size of 1.8) with a juvenile sex ratio of males to females being 12:11. The nursery colony was established in September by both adult females and males with the majority of adult males leaving by the time the young were born in early summer. In late February and during March the juveniles had left the roost. The adult females left the roost after the juveniles and the site were abandoned during the winter months (Dwyer 1966).

The generation life span has not been determined for the Large-eared Pied Bat. Based on the life expectancy of other bat species it is likely to be between two and ten years (Hoye 2006 pers. comm.).

Breeding females were discovered in a sandstone cave near Coonabarabran in 2004 (Pennay 2008). Between 14 and 40 adult females were observed to carry twin young over three separate summers from November 2001. The young were estimated to have been born in late November, and Pennay (2008) found that the timing of birth, age of young and the number of pups raised by each female were similar to the observations made by Dwyer (1966) from the disused Copeton mine. However, the cave at Coonabarabran was not vacated during winter with 15 adults observed within the cave in August 2004. The difference may be due to the differences in the thermal properties of natural sandstone caves compared to the mine tunnel (Pennay 2008).

The diet and foraging behaviour of the Large-eared Pied Bat has not been well studied. The relatively short broad wings of this bat suggest that it is maneuverable and forages below the canopy (Qld DERM 2011). Hoye (2006 pers. comm.) notes that the species forages for insects at night around roost sites for a distance of up to several kilometres. However, it is not known if it targets particular groups of insects, such as moths (Qld DERM 2011).

The Large-eared Pied Bat has been recorded congregating in groups of up to 50 breeding females at maternity roosts (Dwyer 1966). Individuals disperse from the maternity roosts around April and these roosts are largely unused until the following September. The distance bats move from the maternity roost to over wintering roosts has not been established, but is likely to be less than 100 km (Hoye 2006, pers. comm.).

The Large-eared Pied Bat is a distinctive bat. The glossy black dorsal fur, white fur lining the body on the ventral surface, relatively large ears and fleshy lobes around between the ears and lips are all distinctive features of this bat species (Hoye & Dwyer 1995).

Recommended survey approach

The use of electronic bat detectors is the best means of non-invasive survey, and the most efficient in terms of data collection and area coverage (DEWHA 2010m). Trapping with harp traps and mistnets, and roost searches in caves, mines, rock overhangs, culverts and crevices could be undertaken to confirm presence or roosting (DEWHA 2010m). Harp traps are effective in areas of lower densities, but mistnets are not. Surveys are best conducted from October through to March (DEWHA 2010m).

Recommended acoustic detection devices include the Anabat ZCA system (recording to CF card), though other frequency-division and time expansion detectors connected to digital recorders could be used (DEWHA 2010m). The species has a distinctive frequency modulated call, characteristic frequency 22–25 kHz, with the characteristic frequency in successive pulses alternating by c. 2 kHz (Pennay et al. 2004; Reinhold et al. 2001). Calls of the Large-eared Pied Bat are unlike those of other bat species throughout its range (Pennay et al. 2004).

Recommended survey protocol include:

1. Prior to the survey

Determine the potential for rocky outcrops, caves and mines to occur in the area by examining topographic and geological maps, and contacting state government mines and forestry departments, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, caving groups, bat researchers and local councils (DEWHA 2010m). Where appropriate, information on caves and mines may be obtained from local residents (DEWHA 2010m).

2. Passive acoustic detection

A range of potential roost habitats can be examined by passive detection with unattended recorders placed in the vicinity of mines, caves and rocky outcrop, and also in foraging sites such as vegetation corridors and flyways, sandstone gorges, over watercourses, isolated waterholes and in representative vegetation types (DEWHA 2010m). Quality search-phase echolocation calls are diagnostic but these may not be recorded from bats emerging from underground roosts if bat detectors are placed at the entrance. Unattended detectors should be left overnight at multiple locations (DEWHA 2010m).

3. Active acoustic detection

For larger project areas, walking or driving transects using hand-held detectors may be used in conjunction with unattended detectors (DEWHA 2010m). Transects should begin at dusk (DEWHA 2010m).

4. Roost searches

Where no known roost sites have been identified in the planning stage, several hours may be required to conduct ground-based surveys for caves, mines, rock overhangs and crevices (DEWHA 2010m). For large survey areas in gorge country, ground-based searching could be expected to take several days (DEWHA 2010m). Daytime entry of subterranean structures such as culverts, mines and caves should be undertaken carefully to avoid risking the safety of personnel and disturbance to resting bats (DEWHA 2010m). Identification can be made from capture within roosts (DEWHA 2010m). Disturbance resulting from capture of bats should be compensated by the collection of unambiguous and verifiable evidence of occupancy – in the form of photographs of the distinctive pelage, and external measurements (DEWHA 2010m).

5. Trapping

Success with trapping is most efficient in the vicinity of potential roosts (DEWHA 2010m). Harp traps and mistnets are useful for detecting this species, and can be set overnight in forest flyways, near scarps and cliffs and in riparian zones (DEWHA 2010m). Captured individuals should be released only at night, or into roosts during the day if these are known, and bats should be held for the minimum amount of time after being removed from traps and nets (DEWHA 2010m). If bats are cleared from harp traps in the early morning, they should be kept at room temperature until the following night (DEWHA 2010m). Reference calls should be recorded from individuals released after trapping so that identification information is available for verification (DEWHA 2010m).

Known threats

The only confirmed threat the Large-eared Pied Bat is disturbance and damage to primary nursery sites (Duncan et al. 1999) by animals (particularly Goats (Capra hircus)) and humans (Pennay 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010az). The first known primary nursery site was destroyed by the flooding of Copeton Dam in 1976 (Qld DERM 2011). One of the other three known primary nursery sites being monitored was abandoned after disturbance by macropods (TSSC 2010az). Many suitable roost caves in the Pilliga have been used by Goats and/or other animals and these are not used by the bats (Pennay 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010az).

Clearing or timber harvesting in or around roosts has the potential to affect foraging resources and fragment surrounding vegetation. This is likely to be particularly detrimental in the vicinity of maternity roosts where pregnant and lactating females sufficient food resources to raise young. Also, clearing could alter microclimate, including solar radiation and groundwater levels (Qld DERM 2011).

One of the two currently known breeding sites is a disused mine in Barraba, NSW (Qld DERM 2011). These sites may be important, particularly where caves are uncommon or not suitable for roosting. However, disused mines often become active if commodity prices make them economical or they can be filled for safety reasons (Qld DERM 2011).

Portions of the range of the Large-eared Pied Bat occur in conjunction with mine leases for underground coal in both NSW and Queensland. Alteration of habitat following subsidence due to longwall mining has been listed as a key threatening process in NSW. Much of the habitat of the Large-eared Pied Bat occurs in sandstone that is underlain by coal seams and are potentially at risk of collapse from underground mining (Qld DERM 2011).

Potential threats

Potential threats to the species include loss of foraging habitat; predation by Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other predators; habitat destruction for agriculture and urban development; severe drought; and impacts of forestry operations (Duncan et al. 1999; Dwyer 1964; Hoye 2006 pers. comm.; Pennay 2008; Pennay 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010az).

Genetic bottlenecks and inbreeding depression

Colonies of the Large-eared Pied Bat may be at a greater risk of extinction from random events when the colonies become small through the loss of genetic variability, enabling factors such as genetic bottlenecks and inbreeding depression to affect the population (Qld DERM 2011).

At present nothing is known about the genetic similarities between populations of Large-eared Pied Bats. Movement of this species between areas has not been noted and its dispersal ability and habits are not known. It has relatively short broad wings that suggest it forages below the canopy (Hoye & Dwyer 1995). This would also suggest that its dispersal ability is significantly less than another better studied cave roosting species, the Eastern Bent-wing Bat (Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis). Significant clearing of vegetation in the range of the Large-eared Pied Bat since European settlement is likely to have further decreased the ability of individuals to move between areas of suitable habitat.

The following recovery objectives have been identified for the Large-eared Pied Bat:

  • Identify priority roost and maternity sites for protection (Qld DERM 2011).
  • Implement conservation and management strategies for priority sites (Qld DERM 2011), especially as the species has narrow habitat requirements (sandstone overhangs and higher productive landscapes) (NSW DECC 2007d).
  • Management of the species should focus on the protection and enhancement of higher fertility soils (NSW DECC 2007d).
  • Educate the community and industry to understand and participate in the conservation of the Large-eared Pied Bat (Qld DERM 2011).
  • Research to augment biological and ecological data to enable conservation management (Qld DERM 2011).
  • Collect genetic data throughout the distribution of the Large-eared Pied Bat (Qld DERM 2011).
  • Reassess status of and threats to the Large-eared Pied Bat following targeted survey and research (Qld DERM 2011).

There has been only one study targeted directly at the Large-eared Pied Bat. It was undertaken during the first half of the 1960s at Copeton Dam (Dwyer 1966). This study investigated population dynamics, roosting and breeding at a population utilising disused mines.

The Action Plan for Australian Bats (Duncan et al. 1999) provides management guidelines and conservation objectives for the species. The Australian handbook for the conservation of bats in mines and artificial cave-bat habitats (Thomson 2002) provides management guidelines for cave-dwelling species that may inhabit disused mine sites.

A recovery plan for the Large-eared Pied Bat was prepared for the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service (Qld DERM 2011) but is not publicly available.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Animal control Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Listing Advice on ten species of Bats (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001a) [Listing Advice].

Conacher Travers Environmental Consultants (Conacher Travers) (2006). Ecological Site Report Coastal and Northern Sectors, Wallarah Peninsula.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2010m). Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Bats. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.1. [Online]. Canberra: DEWHA. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/epbc/publications/threatened-bats.html.

Duncan, A., G.B. Baker & N. Montgomery (1999). The Action Plan for Australian Bats. [Online]. Canberra: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/bats/index.html.

Dwyer, P.D. (1964). Fox predation on cave-bats. Australian Journal of Science. 26:397-98.

Dwyer, P.D. (1966). Observations on Chalinolobus dwyeri (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) Australia. Journal of Mammalogy. 47:716-718.

Fly By Night Bat Surveys Pty Ltd (Fly By Night) (2004). Monitoring of the Bat Fauna of Ulan Underground Coal Mine Lease and Rehabilitation Areas of Ulan Open Cut Coal Mine during 2004. Report to Mount King Ecological Surveys. December 2004.

Hoye, G.A. (2006). Personal communication.

Hoye, G.A. & P.D. Dwyer (1995). Large-eared pied bat Chalinolobus dwyeri. In: Stahan, R, ed. The Mammals of Australia. Page(s) 510-511. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2007d). Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna of the Greater Southern Sydney Region: Volume 2 Species of Conservation Concern and Priority Pest Species. A joint project between the Sydney Catchment Authority and the Parks and Wildlife Division of DECC. Information and Assessment Section, Metropolitan Branch, Climate Change and Environment Protection Group, DECC.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2004h). The vertebrate fauna of south western Blue Mountains National Park. A report by the Conservation Assessment and Data Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2004i). The vertebrate fauna of Kanangra-Boyd National Park. A report by the Conservation Assessment and Data Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2004j). The vertebrate fauna of the Nattai and Bargo Reserves. A report by the Conservation Assessment and Data Unit, Department of Environment and Conservation. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005bh). The vertebrate fauna of north-eastern Wollemi National Park. A report by the Information and Assessment Section, Department of Environment and Conservation. NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.

Parnaby, H.E. (1984). A review of the significance of the bat fauna of rainforest and associated eucalypt forest in New South Wales. Sydney: National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Pennay, M. (2008). A maternity roost of the Large-eared Pied Bat Chalinolobus dwyeri (Ryan) (Microchiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in central New South Wales Australia. Australian Zoologist. 34:564-569.

Pennay, M., B. Law & L. Reinhold (2004). Bat calls of New South Wales: Region based guide to the echolocation calls of Microchiropteran bats. Hurstville: NSW Department of Environment and Conservation.

Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1997a). Systematic Vertebrate Fauna Survey Project: Stage I - Vertebrate fauna survey in the south east Queensland bioregion.

Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management (Qld DERM) (2011). National recovery plan for the Large-eared Pied Bat Chalinolobus dwyeri. Draft. Report to the Department of Environment and Water Rources, Canberra. Brisbane: Queensland Parks and Wildlife Services.

Reinhold, L., B. Law, G. Ford & M. Pennay (2001). Key to the bat calls of south-east Queensland and north-east New South Wales. Forest Ecosystem Research and Assessment Technical Paper 2001-07. Queensland: Department of Natural Resources and Mines.

Ryan, R.M. (1966). A new and imperfectly known Australian Chalinolobus and the taxonomic status of African Glauconycteris. Journal of Mammalogy. 47:86-91.

Schulz, M. (1998). Bats and other fauna in disused Fairy Martin Hirundo arial nests. Emu. 98:184-191.

Shelly, D. (2001). Flora and Fauna of the Tottenham/Bobadah District. Dubbo: Department of Land and Water Conservation, Dubbo.

Thomson, B. (2002). Australian Handbook for the Conservation of Bats in Mines and Artificial Cave-Bat Habitats. [Online]. Melbourne: Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research. Available from: http://www.acmer.uq.edu.au/publications/attachments/BatReportAmeef15.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010az). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Chalinolobus dwyeri (Large-eared Pied Bat) . Unpublished report. Canberra: Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Chalinolobus dwyeri in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 21 Apr 2014 08:05:02 +1000.