Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Persoonia nutans
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan] as Persoonia nutans.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Persoonia nutans.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Persoonia nutans R. Br (Nodding Geebung) Draft Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2005bi) [State Recovery Plan].
NSW:Nodding Geebung - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005ir) [Internet].
NSW:Persoonia nutans Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003l) [Information Sheet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Persoonia nutans (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2004e) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Persoonia nutans
Scientific name Persoonia nutans [18119]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Br.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 10 (8 Mar. 1810) 162.
Other names Persoonia nutans var. apiculata [54107]
Linkia nutans [54475]
Persoonia apiculata [52994]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images
http://farrer.riv.csu.edu.au/ASGAP/gall5ac.html

Scientific name: Persoonia nutans

Common name: Nodding Geebung

Conventionally accepted as Persoonia nutans (CHAH 2010).

Nodding Geebung is an erect to spreading shrub that has been recorded growing 0.5–2.5 m tall (Robertson et al. 1996; Weston 1995b; Weston & Johnson 1991). The stems and branches are reddish in colour, with young branchlets sparsely to moderately hairy. Leaves are long and thin, 1–3 cm long, 1–1.8 mm wide, usually flat, with margins curved backwards. They are sparsely hairy when immature, and smooth when mature. Flowers have stalks 7–12 mm long that begin where leaves and stems join. They are yellow in colour, pendant shaped with a long smooth tube that seems to split into longer petals 8.5–11 mm long that curve backwards to often touch the base of the flower (NSW DEC 2005bi; NSW DECCW 2005ir).

Nodding Geebung is restricted to the Cumberland Plains region of western Sydney, NSW. It is known from an area between Richmond and Macquarie Fields, particularly near the Nepean and Georges Rivers (Robertson et al. 1996; Weston 1995b; Weston & Johnson 1991). The range of the species is fragmented, with approximately 99% of the known populations occurring in the north of the distribution at Agnes Banks, Londonderry, Castlereagh, Berkshire Park and Windsor Downs. Local Government Areas where the species occurs include Penrith, Hawkesbury, Liverpool, Campbelltown, Bankstown and Blacktown (NSW DEC 2005bi).

The extent of occurrence for the Nodding Geebung is approximately 38km2 (NSW DEC 2005bi).

The ecology of the Nodding Geebung makes surveying difficult because when mature plants are not present at a site, soil seed banks may be present that require a disturbance event (e.g. fire) for germination (NSW DEC 2005bi).

There are at least 27 populations of Nodding Geebung and at least 5500 individuals in total. Population figures fluctuate and are difficult to collate as the species is a fire sensitive obligate seeder (i.e. germinates following fire) (NSW DEC 2005bi). Eighty four percent of populations are recorded with less than 50 individuals, with only two populations supporting greater than 500 plants (NSW DEC 2005bi).

The population trend for the Nodding Geebung has declined due to a loss of habitat in its known range to mining, agriculture, industrial, rural and residential development. Also, many areas have approved development consents which may see the loss of many individuals if not whole populations (NSW DEC 2005bi). As the species fluctuates in numbers due to disturbance events, many of the populations surveyed previously may be extinct (NSW DEC 2005bi).

However, due to the ecology of the species as a disturbance coloniser and obligate seeder post fire, it is likely that further populations will be found. Suitable habitat, within its range is available, especially near Holsworthy to the south and Shanes Park to the north of the main populations (NSW DEC 2005bi). The following table presents a summary of population information. Survey years data may only represent site surveys and not comprehensive location surveys (NSW DEC 2005bi):

Location code (lower case letter denotes site code) Location (tenure where known) Survey years Number of sites in mature population cohorts
<10  11–50  51–200  200–500  >500 
BA1a Birmingham Avenue, Villawood (freehold) 1996 1        
BA2  Bankstown Biodiversity Strategy lists a site near east Hills Park            
BLa, BLb Wianamatta Regional Park 1997, 1993 2        
BL3, BL4 Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey lists populations for Shanes Park and east of Bells Creek            
C1a Simmo's Beach Recreation Reserve, Maquarie Fields (community land) 2004   1      
L1a North Holsworthy Military Area (Commonwealth Defence Department)            
L2a Pleasure Point, on track parallel and north of Heathcote Road            
L3a, L3b Voyager Point (freehold) 2001, 2004 2        
L4a Orange Grove Road, industrial area, Hargrave Park            
L5a, L5c Christadelphian Heritage School and Kemps Creek Primary School area, Kemps Creek (freehold) 1997, 2003 1      
P1a–P1c Castlereagh Nature Reserve (NR) 1996   1  
P2a, P2b, P2d, P2e Castlereagh NR and adjacent freehold 1996, 1990, 2004 3        
P3a–P3b Berkshire Park in bushland contiguous with Castlreagh NR (Crown Land) 1995 2        
P3c Castlereagh NR 1996 1        
P4a Trail south of Smeaton Road, Rickaby's Creek - east of Londonderry Road, Londonderry (Deerubbin Local Aboriginal Land Council) 1996        
P5a Londonderry (freehold) 2002        
P8a–P8m Castlereagh - Londonderry (Crown Land and adjacent freehold) 1996, 2000 8 2 1   2
P9a–P9b Agnes Banks, Richards Road (Crown Land) 1985, 2004 1      
P10a–P10c Agnes Banks NR, reserve addition to the north, adjacent private property and sand mining area 1996, 2004       1 (also, one site contained 7000–12 000 prior to development)
P11a Between First and Second Roads, Berkshire Park (freehold) 2000        
P13a Bushland between John Morony Centre and Llandilo Road (Department of Corrective Services) 1996        
P15a–P15d Castlereagh - Londonderry (Crown Land) 1996 2 2      
P17a Sheridan Road, Castlereagh (freehold) 2004 1        
P18a Corner Spence and Government Roads, Berkshire Park (Crown Land) 1995 1        
P19a O'Brien Road, Londonderry (freehold)            
P20a 101 Londonderry Road, Londonderry (freehold)   1        
P21a Former Air Services Australia property, Cranebrook (freehold)     1      
P22a South of M4, west of Erskine Park Road, St Clair   1        
H1a The Driftway, Western Sydney University            
H2a–H2n Windsor Downs NR 1996 11 3      
H3a London Place Grose Wold (freehold) 2002 1        

Nodding Geebung is present in Agnes Bank NR, Windsor Downs NR, Castlereagh NR and Wianamatta Regional Park (NSW DEC 2005bi). The species is present on many areas of crown land collectively known as the Castlereagh-Londonderry Crown Lands, many of which are subject to lands claim under the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983 (NSW) (NSW DEC 2005bi).

The Nodding Geebung has a disjunct distribution that is presumably influenced by soil type. The species is confined to aeolian and alluvial sediments, below 60 m above sea level. In the north, these deposits are extensive, whereas in the south they are limited and the species is less abundant. Drainage may also influence the distribution of the species as it is more common on the deeper sands at Agnes Banks than at the edge of the deposit next to the Londonderry clay. At other locations on the Cumberland Plain it occurs on gently undulating low rises as opposed to swales or other low lying areas (Blombery & Maloney 1992; Harden 1991; Robertson et al. 1996; Weston 1995b; Weston & Johnson 1991). Vegetation communities in which the species has been found include Agnes Banks Woodland, Castlereagh Scribbly Gum Woodland, Cooks River/Castlereagh Ironbark Forest and Shale Sandstone Transition Forest (NSW DEC 2005bi).

Associated species include Scribbly Gum (Eucalyptus sclerophylla), Parramatta Red Gum (Eucalyptus parramattensis subsp. parramattensis) and Narrow-leaved Apple (Angophora bakeri), with understorey shrub species Wallum Banksia (Banksia aemula), Fern-leaved Banksia (Banksia oblongifolia), Hairpin Banksia (Banksia spinulosa subsp. spinulosa), Variable Smokebush (Cononspermum taxifolium), Silky Hakea (Hakea sericea), Finger Hakea (Hakea dactyloides), Prickly-leaved Paperbark (Melaleuca nodosa), White Feather Honeymyrtle (Melaleuca decora) and Showy Parrot-pea (Dillwynia sericea) (NSW NPWS 2003l).

Nodding Geebung is an obligate seed regenerator. Fire (or other disturbance) kills all plants and regeneration is dependent upon recruitment from a soil seed bank. Consequently, populations are dynamic throughout the landscape, and fluctuations in space and time of above ground individuals are a natural occurrence (NSW DEC 2005bi). It is not known how long seeds last in the soil, or if they are all germinated by a single disturbance event. It is considered unlikely that high levels of germination occur without disturbance as a germination trigger (NSW DEC 2005bi).

Nodding Geebung flowers from November to April, with peak flowering in December and January (NSW DEC 2005bi; NSW DECCW 2005ir; Robertson et al. 1996; Weston 1995b; Weston & Johnson 1991), however, flowering may occur sporadically throughout the year (Bernhardt & Weston 1996). Wasps and native bees are likely to be the main pollinators with bees Leioproctus spp. and Chalicodoma spp. collected on flowering plants (Bernhardt & Weston 1996; Robertson et al. 1996).

Fruiting has been recorded in small plants of 30 cm tall. Plants 1 m tall have supported up to 300 fruit, with larger individuals recorded as carrying "thousands" of fruit (NSW DEC 2005bi). The fruit is fleshy, with one or two seeds enclosed in a hard woody stone, shed at maturity (December–October) (Benson & McDougall 2000). Seed is likely to be dispersed by large birds such as Currawongs (Strepera graculina), and mammals such as rats (Rattus spp.), kangaroos (Macropus spp.) and possums (e.g. Trichosurus vulpecula) that eat the fruit (NSW DEC 2005bi).

Surveys are best conducted during the summer months when the Nodding Geebung is in peak flowering. Such surveys should include enough effort to effectively capture seedlings as the species often occurs as scattered individuals at low density. Survey sites that have recently been burnt (under 3 years), or have not been burnt for a long period may only contain the species in the soil seedbank (NSW DEC 2005bi).

Inappropriate fire regimes

Fires that are too frequent or infrequent may be detrimental to the Nodding Geebung due to a lack of seedling recruitment (NSW DEC 2005bi; NSW NPWS 2004e). The NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service recommends a fire interval that is greater than every ten years (NSW DEC 2005bi). As fires occur more frequently than every decade in the species habitat local extinctions may be occurring (NSW DEC 2005bi; NSW NPWS 2004e).

Habitat damage or destruction

The habitat of the species has been fragmented and reduced by clearing and urban development, with populations within the Liverpool area still threatened by residential development. Areas of the Agnes Banks populations are also targeted for mining. Degradation of habitat occurs through unrestricted vehicular access and rubbish dumping, that also increases weed invasions within populations and habitat of the Nodding Geebung. A past threat to the species included agricultural activities (NSW DEC 2005bi; NSW NPWS 2004e).

Honey Bee competition

European Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) are said to inefficiently transfer the pollen of many native Persoonia species, and thus may threaten the seeding ability of the Nodding Geebung where they compete with native pollinators (NSW DEC 2005bi; NSW NPWS 2004e).

Other threats

The collection of wild material, infection of populations by the root-rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi and climate change may also affect the species and its habitat (NSW DEC 2005bi; NSW NPWS 2004e).

The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW DEC 2005bi) has developed a draft national recovery plan for the Nodding Geebung that identifies six specific objectives that will assist the recovery of the species:

  • minimise the loss and fragmentation of habitat using land-use planning mechanisms
  • identify and minimise the operation of threats at sites where Nodding Geebung occurs
  • implement a survey and monitoring program that will provide information on the extent and viability of the Nodding Geebung
  • provide public authorities with information that assists in conserving the species
  • raise awareness of the species and involve the community in the recovery program
  • promote research questions that will assist future management decisions.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat modification through open cut mining/quarrying activities Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:War, Civil Unrest and Military Exercises:Disturbance throught military operations Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass) Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Andropogon virginicus (Whisky Grass, Broomsedge) Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Apis mellifera (Honey Bee, Apiary Bee) Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Acacia baileyana (Cootamundra Wattle) Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes A Review of the Status of Five Rare Plants in the Cumberland Plain (Nash, S. & Matthes, M., 1995) [Report].
Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat clearance for rural, peri-urban and urban development Persoonia nutans recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2006d) [Recovery Plan].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br Page(s) 1-49. (Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M., 1996) [State Recovery Plan].

Benson, D. & L. McDougall (2000). Ecology of Sydney plant species: part 7b Dicotyledon families Proteaceae to Rubiaceae. Cunninghamia. 6(4):1016-1202.

Bernhardt, P. & P.H. Weston (1996). The pollination ecology of Persoonia in eastern Australia. Telopea. 6(4):775-804.

Blombery, A.M. & B. Maloney (1992). The Proteaceae of the Sydney Region. Kenthurst, NSW: Kangaroo Press.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2005bi). Persoonia nutans R. Br (Nodding Geebung) Draft Recovery Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/recoveryplanDraftPersooniaNutans.pdf.

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2006d). Persoonia nutans recovery plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/p-nutans.html.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005ir). Nodding Geebung - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10598.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003l). Persoonia nutans Threatened Species Information. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/TSprofilePersooniaNutans.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2004e). Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Persoonia nutans. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/PersooniaNutans0805EIA.pdf.

Robertson, G., Matthes, M. and Smith, M. (1996). Conservation Research Statement and Species Recovery Plan for Persoonia nutans R.Br. Page(s) 1-49. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW NPWS. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/p-nutans/index.html.

Weston, P.H. (1995b). Subfam. 1. Persoonioideae. In: Flora of Australia. 16:47-125. Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.

Weston, P.H. & L.A.S. Johnson (1991). Taxonomic changes in Persoonia (Proteaceae) in New South Wales. Telopea. 4(2):269-306.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Persoonia nutans in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 23 Aug 2014 18:05:23 +1000.