In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Denhamia parvifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mg) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Denhamia parvifolia |
|Reference||Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 67 (30 Jul. 1956) 30.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Denhamia parvifolia
Common name: Small-leaved Denhamia
Other names: Narrow-leaved Denhamia
Conventionally accepted as Denhamia parvifolia (CHAH 2010).
The Small-leaved Denhamia is a shrub growing to approximately 3 m in height. It has elliptic to obovate leaves, which are 5–30 mm long by 3–9 mm wide, dark green on the upper surface and pale green on the lower surface. Foliage is said to be hard, with pointy teeth around the edges. Flowers are white to yellowish and form racemes (unbranched groups of flowers on short floral stalks) up to 3 cm long. Capsules are yellowish, ovoid, three-valved and grow to 6–8 mm in length and 5–6 mm in width (Jessup 1984; Smith 1956; Stanley & Ross 1986).
Endemic to south-east Queensland, the Small-leaved Denhamia has been recorded from the Eidsvold area, south to Chinchilla, and east to near Kingaroy (Forster et al. 1991; Jessup 1984; Pollock 1997b; Smith 1956).
The species has been recorded at seven locations, with only 23 individuals found in total (Barry & Thomas 1994).
The Small-leaved Denhamia is recorded in State Forests SF40 (Currieside Parish), SF70 (Coondarra, Jarrah, Kragra and Roscommon Parishes), and SF132 (Brovinia Parish) (Pollock 1997b).
The Small-leaved Denhamia grows on soils derived from various geological substrates including labile to sub-labile sandstone, siltstone and shale, as well as basic and acidic igneous rocks (Barry & Thomas 1994). It has been recorded on fertile, red-brown, sandy, clay loams on hill slopes and crests of variable aspect (Pollock 1997b). The species is restricted to semi-evergreen vine thickets (softwood scrub) and Acacia harpophylla (Brigalow) - softwood scrub communities, at elevations of 160–560 m above sea level (Jessup 1984; Pollock 1997b). The Semi-evergreen vine thickets of the Brigalow Belt (North and South) and Nandewar Bioregions are listed as an Endangered ecological community under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (SEWPAC 2010).
Associated species include Queensland Ebony (Diospyros humilis), Crow's Ash (Flindersia australis), Wilga (Geijera parviflora), Crow's Apple (Owenia venosa), Python Tree (Austromyrtus bidwillii), Prickly Pine (Bursaria incana), Currant Bush (Carissa ovata), Deeringia amaranthoides and Canthium species (Pollock 1997b). The species is occasionally found in Narrow-leaved Ironbark (Eucalyptus crebra) forest (Pollock 1997b).
Flowering of the Small-leaved Denhamia has been recorded in October, with fruiting from December to March (Forster et al. 1991; Pollock 1997b; Queensland Herbarium n.d.).
Identified threats to the Small-leaved Denhamia include changed fire regimes, invasion by exotic weeds, grazing pressure and the legacy of historic broad scale vegetation clearing (ANRA 2007; Pollock 1997b).
Infestations of Lantana (Lantana camara) threaten populations (Pollock 1997b) as does competition from other weeds such as Green Panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) and Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) (Pollock 1997b). Lantana invasion, assisted by fire, the Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) and cattle (Bos sp.) disturbance can increase the frequency of hot fires which, in turn, leads to a further increase in density of Lantana (Fensham et al. 1994 cited in Pollock 1997b).
The range of the Small-leaved Denhamia has been fragmented due to clearing for agriculture, especially pasture establishment. It is rare at most sites and the remaining habitat is mainly land leased for grazing or roadside or local council reserves (Barry & Thomas 1994; Pollock 1997b). Populations in the vicinity of Edenvale near Kingaroy are threatened by clearing for residential housing development (Pollock 1997b).
Management documents for the Small-leaved Denhamia can be found at the start of this profile. Other documents relevant to the species include:
- Burnett Mary Region, 'Back on Track', Draft Biodiversity Action Plan (QLD EPA 2008).
- Management Program for Protected Plants in Queensland 2006-2010 (QLD EPA 2006a).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Denhamia parvifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gx) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage)||Denhamia parvifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gx) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel-grass, Black Buffel-grass)||Denhamia parvifolia in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006gx) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass, Green Panic, Hamil Grass)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Sus scrofa (Pig)|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Denhamia parvifolia (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008mg) [Conservation Advice].|
Australian Natural Resouces Atlas (ANRA) (2007). Biodiversity Assessment - Brigalow Belt South - Species at Risk and the Threatening Process. [Online]. Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/nsw/ibra-bbs-species-threats.html.
Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (SEWPAC) (2010). Threatened Ecological Communities- Semi-evergreen vine thickets of the Brigalow Belt (North and South) and Nandewar Bioregions". [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicshowcommunity.pl?id=24&status=Endangered. [Accessed: 12-Jan-2011].
Forster, P.I., P.D. Bostock, L.H. Bird & A.R. Bean (1991). Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland with Assessment of Conservation Status. Indooroopilly: Queensland Herbarium.
Jessup, L.W. (1984). Celastraceae. In: Flora of Australia. 22:150-180.
Pollock, A.B. (1997b). Denhamia parvifolia. Species Management Profile, June 1997 Flora and Fauna Information System. 2. Qld Department of Natural Resources, Brisbane.
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2006a). Management Program for Protected Plants in Queensland 2006-2010. [Online]. Queensland Government. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/trade-use/sources/management-plans/flora-qld/pubs/qld-protected-plants.pdf. [Accessed: 19-May-2008].
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2008). Burnett Mary Region 'Back on Track' Draft Biodiversity Action Plan. Queensland Government, Australian Government, Burnett Mary Regional Group.
Queensland Herbarium (n.d.). Collection Records (no date), Queensland Herbarium specimens.
Smith, L.S. (1956). New species and notes on Queensland plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 67(1):29-40.
Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008mg). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Denhamia parvifolia. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/18106-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Denhamia parvifolia in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 29 Aug 2014 15:23:04 +1000.