Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed marine
Listed migratory - Bonn
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the North Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012x) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
QLD:Estuarine crocodile (Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (DEHP), 2011e) [Database].
State Listing Status
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
WA: Listed as Other protected fauna (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Lower Risk (least concern) (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
Scientific name Crocodylus porosus [1774]
Family Crocodylidae:Crocodylia:Reptilia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Schneider,1801
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Salt-water Crocodile was harvested extensively in the wild throughout northern Australia, during the 1940s, 50s and 60s. A severe reduction in the population resulted in management measures being put in place by all range states and the Commonwealth. Full protection was given to the Salt-water Crocodile in Western Australia in 1970, in the Northern Territory in 1971 and in Queensland in 1974 (Burbidge 1987; Letts 1987).

Crocodylus porosus is listed on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) for all range countries, other than Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, where it is listed on Appendix II (Ross 1998). The Salt-water Crocodile was transferred to Appendix II for Australia in 1985 following a proposal (Webb et al. 1984) to farm the species (rather than collect specimens and eggs from the wild). Farming/ranching forms the basis of a sustainable-use management program that aims to save wild populations and their habitat by placing a commercial value on wild stocks (Webb & Vardon 1996). Appendix I of CITES contains species that are threatened with extinction and Appendix II contains species that, although not currently threatened, might become threatened, if trade is not strictly regulated.

The Salt-water Crocodile is listed Marine and Migratory under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.

The Salt-water Crocodile is the largest species of crocodile and the largest living reptile in the world. The species is sexually dimorphic (sexes are physically different); adult males are on average 5 m long and weigh more than 450 kg, whereas females are much smaller, generally around 3 m long and up to 150 kg. There are uncommon records of male Salt-water Crocodiles reaching more than 7 m in length and 1000 kg in weight. The upper body is grey, brown or almost black above, with irregular darker mottling; they are generally whitish on the underside. The snout of an adult is broad and granular; the distance from the tip to the centre of the eyes is less than twice the width of the head at eye level (Cogger 1996). The tail is highly muscular and is the main propulsion mechanism used in the water.

Juveniles are generally pale tan in colour, with black stripes and spots on the body and tail. An adult Salt-water Crocodile generally has 65–67 teeth and is believed to have the greatest bite pressure of any living animal (Cogger 1996; Erickson et al. 2012).

The Salt-water Crocodile is found in Australian coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, inland swamps and marshes (Webb et al. 1987). Despite the species’ common name, the Salt-water Crocodile can persist in freshwater bodies. The species' distribution ranges from Rockhampton in Queensland (Miller 1993; Taplin 1987) throughout coastal Northern Territory (McNamara & Wyre 1993; Webb et al. 1987) to King Sound (near Broome) in Western Australia (Burbidge 1987; McNamara & Wyre 1993).

Queensland distribution

In Queensland the Salt-water Crocodile inhabits reef, coastal and inland waterways from Gladstone on the east coast, throughout the Cape York Peninsula and west to the Queensland-Northern Territory border. A seven-year survey recorded 6444 sightings of the species in the waterways of the Southern Gulf Plains, Northern Gulf Plains, north-west and north-east Cape York Peninsula, Lakefield National Park, East Coast Plains, the Burdekin River catchment and the Fitzroy River catchment (Read et al. 2004).

Northern Territory distribution

In the Northern Territory the Salt-water Crocodile has been found in the following rivers: Mary, Adelaide, Daly, Moyle, Victoria/Baines, Finniss, Wildman, West Alligator, East Alligator, South Alligator, Liverpool, Blyth, Glyde, Habgood, Baralminar/Gobalpa, Goromuru, Cato and Peter John Rivers (Fukuda et al. 2007).

Western Australia distribution

In Western Australia the species is found in most major river systems of the Kimberley, including the Ord, Patrick, Forrest, Durack, King, Pentecost, Prince Regent, Lawley, Mitchell, Hunter, Roe and Glenelg Rivers. It is also found in Parrys Creek. The largest populations occur in the rivers draining into the Cambridge Gulf and the Prince Regent River and Roe River systems. There have also been isolated records in rivers of the Pilbara region, around Derby near Broome and as far south as Carnarvon on the mid-west coast (DEC 2009a).

Global Distribution

The Salt-water Crocodile also occurs in India, throughout South-east Asia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Isolated populations occur in Palau, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu (Groombridge 1987; Ross 1998).

Prior to 1970, the Salt-water Crocodile was hunted in a manner that was shown to be unsustainable. In the Northern Territory, as few as 3000 Salt-water Crocodiles were present when hunting ceased. Since the species became protected, the Northern Territory population has increased to 30–40 000 in 1984 and 70–75 000 in 1994.

The total Australian population is currently estimated to be approximately 100 000, although some authors estimate the population is even higher; between 100 000 and 200 000 (Fukuda et al. 2007). The findings of a 10 year survey on the distribution and abundance of the Salt-water Crocodile in Queensland have been summarised by Read and colleagues (2004):

Region (Queensland) Kilometres surveyed Non-hatchling crocodiles sighted
Southern Gulf Plains 550.4 296
Northern Gulf Plains 267.3 271
North-West Cape York Peninsula 910.8 1884
North-East Cape York Peninsula 413.5 247
Lakefield National Park 757.2 1148
East Coast Plains 1058.8 434
Burdekin River Catchment 57.3 6
Fitzroy River Catchment 159.0 19
Total 4174.3 4303

In the Northern Territory and Western Australia, Fukuda and colleagues (2007) have summarised the following population information:

River State Sightings per kilometre
Mary River Northern Territory 5.99
Adelaide River Northern Territory 3.41
Daly River Northern Territory 4.75
Moyle River Northern Territory 5.71
Victoria/Baines Rivers Northern Territory 1.65
Finniss River Northern Territory 5.32
Reynolds River Northern Territory 4.62
Cambridge Gulf, West Arm Western Australia 0.79
Ord River Western Australia 2.32
Wildman River Northern Territory 7.06
West Alligator River Northern Territory 3.08
South Alligator River Northern Territory 3.96
East Alligator River Northern Territory 4.99
Liverpool River Northern Territory 3.48
Blyth River Northern Territory 4.12
Glyde River Northern Territory 5.05
Habgood River Northern Territory 4.22
Baralminar/ Gobalpa River Northern Territory 0.59
Goromuru Northern Territory 3.27
Cato/Peter John Rivers Northern Territory 3.28
Roper River Northern Territory 1.55

Population trends

Leach and colleagues (2009) summarised research into Salt-water Crocodile populations and found the population trend to be increasing. Four main observations led to this conclusion:

  • The biomass of animals in some waterways continues to increase, including in rivers where the increase in abundance has plateaued. This is consistent with the expectation of the maturing size and age structure of a large, slow-growing species that is continuing to recover from the threshold of extinction in the 1970s.
  • The distribution of the Salt-water Crocodile is expanding upstream to re-colonise accessible freshwater habitats in the Northern Territory (Letnic & Connors 2006 cited in Leach et al. 2009).
  • There is an increase in the number of individuals that are living in marginal habitat, such as the coasts and seas (Nichols & Letnic 2008 cited in Leach et al. 2009).

The number of animals removed from the Intensively Managed zone in the Darwin Harbour has increased in recent years, indicating that animals are increasingly dispersing in search of territory (Delaney et al. 2008 cited in Leach et al. 2009).

General habitat

Studies from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory) indicated that the Salt-water Crocodile mostly occurs in tidal rivers, coastal floodplains and channels, billabongs and swamps (Webb et al. 1987) up to 150 km inland from the coast (Webb et al. 1983f). It has been noted that evaporation in isolated channels may lead to salinity levels that are twice that of seawater. The Salt-water Crocodile usually inhabits the lower (estuarine) reaches of rivers, while the upper reaches are inhabited by Crocodylus johnstoni (Fresh-water Crocodile); although, areas of overlap occur in some rivers (Webb et al. 1983a). In Queensland, the species is usually restricted to coastal waterways and floodplain wetlands. Populations may also be found hundreds of kilometres upstream, such as in the Fitzroy River and the waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria (Read et al. 2004).

Nesting habitat

Preferred nesting habitat of the Salt-water Crocodile includes elevated, isolated freshwater swamps that do not experience the influence of tidal movements (Webb et al. 1987). Floating rafts of vegetation also provide important nesting habitat (Webb et al. 1987). In the Northern Territory, most nest sites are found on the north-west banks of rivers (Magnusson 1980a) and are usually exposed to the midday sun, but shaded in the early morning and late evening (Webb et al. 1983f).

Studies in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, found that the Salt-water Crocodile nests during the wet season, between November and May, with a peak between January and February. Courtship occurs 4 to 6 weeks before nesting and continues through the nesting period (Webb et al. 1987). Large males control a territory through aggression and signalling, and consequently fertilise most reproductively active females within it. During courting, the females approach the males and an elaborate process of swimming together, body contact and rubbing follows (Grigg & Gans 1993).

The Salt-water Crocodile is a mound nester, preferring areas with tall vegetation and permanent water close by. One clutch with an average of 52-60 eggs is laid per season (Cogger 2014; Webb et al. 1977, 1987). Eggs are ovoid in shape and measure approximately 8 cm in length, 5 cm in width and weigh 113 g (Webb et al. 1983f; Webb & Manolis 1989). Incubation time varies between 65 and 114 days, with the adult female remaining nearby to defend the nest throughout this period (Magnusson 1979b). The temperature of the nest is determined by heat generated within the nest and the external ambient temperature (Magnusson 1979c). The temperature of the nest determines the sex of the hatchlings. Males are produced between 31–33 ºC and females dominate the ratios above and below these temperatures (Magnusson 1982). High annual egg mortality is caused by rainfall washing away nests and exposing eggs (Magnusson 1982; Webb et al. 1977).

Once the eggs hatch, the adult female excavates the nest after hearing the calls of the hatchlings and carries them to the water (Webb et al. 1987). Once in the water, hatchlings are stimulated by the calls of other hatchlings and form crèches (Magnusson 1980b), which are guarded by the mother for up to two months (Webb et al. 1977). Hatchlings may move up to 9 km during the first month in the water (Magnusson 1979a).

The Salt-water Crocodile is estimated to live beyond 70 years of age (Webb et al. 1984).

Feeding behaviour

Studies conducted in the Northern-Territory on subadult Salt-water Crocodile individuals up to 180 cm in length have provided a detailed account of stomach contents and diet (Taylor 1979). Samples recovered from 289 Salt-water Crocodiles (209 from the dry season and 80 from the wet season) have shown that the amount of food consumed does not vary between seasons, although the type of food varies between habitats.

Food sources

The Salt-water Crocodile’s primary food sources are crustaceans, insects and mammals; however, only larger individuals ate mammals. Studies indicate that in areas of higher salinity (mangroves), the Salt-water Crocodile eats larger volumes of crab and a smaller volume of shrimp and insects. In freshwater swamps and upper mangroves, individuals consumed more insects (Taylor 1979). The Salt-water Crocodile is an opportunistic feeder and uses either an ‘active hunting’ or a ‘sit and wait’ strategy (Cooper & Jenkins 1993). Rocks and stones that are known to be ingested may function as gastroliths, improving digestion, or may serve other functions such as acting as ballast (Webb & Manolis 1989).

Fish were previously thought to be a major component of the Salt-water Crocodile diet; however, they have only been recorded feeding regularly on Goby fish (Pseudogobius spp.). Individuals have been observed unsuccessfully hunting other fish species. Only larger individuals were recorded as feeing on vertebrate prey, suggesting a shift in feeding behaviour and prey with a corresponding increase in age (Taylor 1979). Adult Salt-water Crocodiles are known to prey on a variety of species, including mud crabs, birds, sea turtles, fish, flying foxes, dingoes, cats, dogs, pigs, buffalo, cattle, horses and, occasionally, humans (Webb & Manolis 1989).

The Salt-water Crocodile is an ectotherm and the species’ distribution and individual behaviour is determined by the surrounding temperature. Continual movement into and out of water is the main thermoregulatory behaviour. Behaviours such as basking, shade seeking and mouth gaping are common to regulate temperature when out of the water (Grigg & Gans 1993).

Salt-water Crocodile hatchlings remain near the nest for up to two months (Webb et al. 1977), although they can disperse up to 9 km in their first month, with movements over 20 km recorded within six months (Magnusson 1979a). Within one year, over 90% of surviving crocodiles are within 5 km of their nest site (Webb & Messel 1978). Individuals between 2 and 6 years of age may travel up to 80 km from their nest site.

The movement patterns of older animals are not well known, but the movements of relocated animals demonstrate their ability to make long distance movements (up to 280 km) (Walsh & Whitehead 1993).

Tracking experiments

A study by Brien and colleagues (2008) tracked nine Salt-water Crocodile individuals in a non-tidal waterhole in the Lakefield National Park (Far North Queensland). They found that during the late dry to early wet season, males had an average home range of 23.89 ha and females 5.94 ha. They also found that both males and females were most active from late afternoon until midnight. The average daily movements and largest daily movements of the individuals tracked are tabulated below (Brien et al. 2008):

Animal Sex Average daily movement (m) Largest daily movement (m)
1 Female 226 360
2 Female 762 2712
3 Female 151 233
4 Female 120 420
5 Female 163 372
6 Female 143 286
7 Male 1853 5694
8 Male 370 1340
9 Male 137 1075

In Australia, threats to the Salt-water Crocodile include mortality due to fishing nets and the effects of habitat destruction (Taplin 1987). In Arnhem Land, Northern Territory, feral animals such as the Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) destroy wetland habitat by increasing drainage and reducing vegetation (Webb et al. 1984, 1987).

Globally, habitat destruction and illegal harvesting of the species are the major threats (Ross 1998).

In Australia, state and territory government agencies have the primary responsibility for management of the Salt-water Crocodile. The Federal government becomes involved in the industry when Salt-water Crocodile products are exported. A Crocodile industry operates in the Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia. The Northern Territory and Western Australia have Commonwealth-approved management plans in place. Queensland utilises hatchlings sourced under the Northern Territory plan or via an approved captive breeding program. Further information about the management of the Salt-water Crocodile industry and trade in Australia and internationally can be found at the Department’s website.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Saltwater Crocodile has been identified as a conservation value in the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) Marine Region. The "species group report card - marine reptiles" for the North (DSEWPaC 2012x) Marine Region provides additional information.

Documents relevant to the management of the Salt-water Crocodile can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Illegal hunting/harvesting and collection Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bubalus bubalis (Water Buffalo, Swamp Buffalo) Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gj) [Internet].

Brien, M.L., M.A. Read, H.I. McCallum & G.C. Grigg (2008). Home range and movements of radio-tracked estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) within a non-tidal waterhole. Wildlife Research. 35:140-149.

Burbidge, A.A. (1987). The management of crocodiles in Western Australia. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 125-127. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Cogger, H.G. (1996). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. Chatswood, NSW: Reed Books.

Cogger, H.G. (2014). Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia - 7th edition. Collingwood, VIC: CSIRO Publishing.

Cooper, P.H. & R.W.G. Jenkins (1993). Natural history of the Crocodylia. In: Glasby, C. J., G. J. B. Ross & P. L. Beesley, eds. Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A, Amphibia and Reptilia. Page(s) 337-349. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2009a). Management Plan for the Commercial Harvest and Farming of Crocodiles in Western Australia 1 January 2009-31 December 2013.

Erickson, G., P. Gignac, S. Steppan, A. K. Lappin, K. Vliet, J. Brueggen, B. Inouye, D. Kledzik & G. Webb (2012). Insights into the ecology and evolutionary success of Crocodilians revealed through bite-force and tooth pressure experimentation. PLOS One. 7(3):e31781. [Online]. Available from: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0031781.

Fukuda, Y., P. Whitehead & G. Boggs (2007). Broad-scale environmental influences on the abundance of saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus). Australia. Wildlife Research. 34:167-176.

Grigg, G. & C. Gans (1993). Morphology and physiology of the Crocodylia. In: Glasby, C. J., G. J. B. Ross & P. L. Beesley, eds. Fauna of Australia. Volume 2A, Amphibia and Reptilia. Page(s) 326-343. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Groombridge, B. (1987). The distribution and status of world crocodilians. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 9-21. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Leach G.J., R. Delaney & Y. Fukuda (2009). Management Program for the Saltwater Crocodile in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2009 - 2014. Darwin: Northern Territory Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport.

Letts, G.A. (1987). The management of crocodilians in Australia - introductory comments. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 103-105. Sydney, Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Magnusson, W.E. (1979b). Incubation period of Crocodylus porosus. Journal of Herpetology. 13:362-363.

Magnusson, W.E. (1979c). Maintenance of temperature of crocodile nests (Reptilia, Crocodilidae). Journal of Herpetology. 13(4):439-443.

Magnusson, W.E. (1980a). Habitat required for nesting by Crocodylus porosus (Reptilia: Crocodilidae) in northern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 7:149-156.

Magnusson, W.E. (1980b). Hatching and creche formation by Crocodylus porosus. Copeia. 1980(2):359-362.

Magnusson, W.E. (1982). Mortality of eggs of the crocodile Crocodylus porosus in northern Australia. Journal of Herpetology. 16(2):121-130.

Magnusson, W.E. (1979a). Dispersal of hatchling crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) (Reptilia, Crocodilidae). Journal of Herpetology. 13(3):227-231.

McNamara, K.J. & G.J. Wyre (1993). The conservation, management and farming of crocodiles in Western Australia. In: Crocodiles, Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. 435-450. Gland, IUCN.

Miller, J.D. (1993). Crocodiles in Queensland: A Brief Overview. In: Crocodiles, Proceedings of the 2nd Regional Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group. 272-289. Gland, IUCN.

Read, M.A., J.D. Miller, I.P. Bell & A. Felton (2004). The distribution and abundance of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, in Queensland. Queensland. Wildlife Research. 31:527-534.

Ross, J.P. (1998). Crocodiles: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan; Second Edition. [Online]. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Available from: http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/natsci/herpetology/act-plan/plan1998a.htm.

Taplin, L.E. (1987). The management of crocodiles in Queensland, Australia. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 129-140. Sydney, Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Taylor, J.A. (1979). The foods and feeding habits of subadult Crocodylus porosus Schneider in northern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 6:347-359.

Walsh, B. & P.J. Whitehead (1993). Problem crocodiles, Crocodylus porosus, at Nhulunbuy, Northern Territory: an assessment of relocation as a management strategy. Wildlife Research. 20:127-135.

Webb, G. & C. Manolis (1989). Crocodiles of Australia. Page(s) 160. Sydney, Reed.

Webb, G., S. Manolis, P. Whitehead & G. Letts (1984). A proposal for the transfer of the Australian population of Crocodylus porosus Schneider (1801) from Appendix I to Appendix II of C.I.T.E.S. Page(s) 82. Darwin: Conservation Commission of NT.

Webb, G.J.W. & H. Messel (1978). Movement and dispersal patterns of Crocodylus porosus in some rivers of Arnhem Land, northern Australia. Australian Wildlife Research. 5:263-283.

Webb, G.J.W., G.C. Sack, R. Buckworth & S.C. Manolis (1983f). An Examination of Crocodylus porosus Nests in Two Northern Australia Freshwater Swamps, with an Analysis of Embryo Mortality. Australian Wildlife Research. 10:571-605.

Webb, G.J.W., H. Messel & W. Magnusson (1977). The Nesting of Crocodylus porosus in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory. Copeia. 1977(2):238-249.

Webb, G.J.W., P.J. Whitehead & S.C. Manolis (1987). Crocodile management in the Northern Territory of Australia. In: Webb, G. J. W., S. C. Manolis & P. J. Whitehead, eds. Wildlife Management: Crocodiles and Alligators. Page(s) 107-124. Sydney, Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Webb, G.J.W., R. Buckworth & S.C. Manolis (1983a). Crocodylus johnstoni in the McKinlay River Area, N.T. III Growth, movement and the population age structure. Australian Wildlife Research. 10:383-401.

Webb, J.W. & M.J. Vardon (1996). Conservation through sustainable use: a discussion of concepts and guidelines for use. In: Kitchener, D. J., Suyanto, A, ed. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Eastern Indonesian-Australian Vertebrate Fauna. Manado, Indonesia. November 22-26. Page(s) 83-87. Perth: Western Australian Museum.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Crocodylus porosus in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 2 Sep 2014 22:36:00 +1000.