In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Planchonella eerwah|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pouteria eerwah (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008tg) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Pouteria eerwah.
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (87) (23/09/2009) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2009i) [Legislative Instrument] as Planchonella eerwah.
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Planchonella eerwah |
|Species author||(Bailey) P.Royen|
|Reference||Blumea 8 (15 Jun. 1957) 302.|
Sideroxylon eerwah 
Pouteria eerwah 
Sersalisia eerwah 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
Scientific name: Planchonella eerwah
Common name: Shiny-leaved Condoo
Other names: Black Plum, Wild Apple
Conventionally accepted as Planchonella eerwah (CHAH 2010). Previously known as Pouteria eerwah.
The Shiny-leaved Condoo is a tree growing up to 40 m high. Foliage is dense and glossy (Hauser & Blok 1998), with young branchlets greyish, hairy and exuding a milky latex when cut. Leaves are egg or spatula-shaped, 414 cm long, leathery and hairless with raised venation on both surfaces. The fruits are firm-fleshed, spherical, 36 cm long, red-purple to black, and contain three to five seeds. Flowers and fruits occur throughout the year with peak flowering from August to January (Barry & Thomas 1994; Harden et al. 2006; Stanley & Ross 1986).
Endemic to Queensland (Hauser & Blok 1998), the Shiny-leaved Condoo was presumed extinct for a large part of last century until its rediscovery at Ivory's Knob, southwest of Ipswich in 1980 (Barry & Thomas 1994).
The Shiny-leaved Condoo is restricted to three locations within south-east Queensland:
- Nambour-Maleny district
- Beenleigh-Ormeau-Pimpama district
- Ipswich-Beaudesert district.
There are seven known populations of the Shiny-leaved Condoo with an estimated combined population of 160 to 80 individuals (Wiley et al.1999). Some populations traverse land tenures and are described separately below.
Population land tenures (from Barry & Thomas 1994):
|Area/Population||Approximate number of individuals||Land Tenure|
|Nambour- Maleny district|
|Triunia National Park||Approximately 18 trees (ten juveniles and eight adults) on the northern edge of the park||National Park|
|Near Triunia National Park||One specimen (3 m tall) on the boundary of the national park||Freehold Land (0.25 ha)|
|Mary Cairncross Park||One adult specimen||Caloundra City Council Scenic and Park Purposes Reserve|
|Mt Eerwah||One specimen on the southern side of Mt Eerwah|
|Bahr's Scrub and Bahr's Hill||12 trees||Freehold Land|
|Darlington Range||12 trees||Freehold Land|
|Darlington||Six plants of varying age in a remnant less than 1 ha in size|
|Shaw's Pocket Rd||Several small remnants (>1 ha) and a few roadside and riparian or gully corridors||Freehold Land|
|Upper Ormeau Rd||On 60 ha where it is reported to be 'quite common'||Freehold Land|
|Sullivan's scrub, Pimpama||Scattered population of at least 12 trees|
|Jimboomba-Beaudesert||Two sites: two trees within a 0.25 ha remnant and approximately six trees in a 0.5 ha remnant||Freehold Land|
|Woollaman Creek approximately 6 km south-southeast of Flinders Peak||24 trees||Freehold Land|
|Ivory's Knob, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Flinders Peak||Two populations (4–5 individuals and 2–3 individuals)||Freehold Land|
|Scott's Scrub and Mt Elliot over a 15 ha area||50–60 individuals. The recently gazetted 'Flinders Peak Conservation Estate' includes the northwest corner of Scott's Scrub, however the majority of the Scott's Scrub population occurs outside the reserve||Freehold Land/Conservation Estate|
One population occurring in the Nambour-Maleny district is protected in the Triunia National Park. Part of one population, in the Ipswich area, is protected in the Flinders Peak Conservation Reserve (Wiley et al. 1999).
The species grows in subtropical rainforest, dry rainforest and Hoop Pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) vine scrub (Forster et al. 1991; Hauser & Blok 1998; Leigh et al. 1984; Williams et al. 1984). All known areas in which the Shiny-leaved Condoo occurs are warm and subtropical with an annual rainfall of between 6501000 mm. Sixty percent of the annual rain falls in the summer months (Wiley et al. 1999).
Nambour-Maleny populations occur in complex notophyll vine forest on basaltic well-drained, dark reddish brown sandy loams on moderately inclined slopes with altitudes ranging from 100420 m (Barry & Thomas 1994). Forests are often dominated by Argyrodendron sp., Broad-leaved Whitewood (Atalaya multiflora), Giant Ironwood (Choricarpia subargentea), Brush Poison Tree (Excoecaria dallachyana), and Crows Ash (Flindersia australis). The Shiny-leaved Condoo occurs in both the canopy and lower strata of these forests (Barry & Thomas 1994; Wiley et al. 1999).
The Beenleigh-Ormeau-Pimpama populations occur in araucarian notophyll and microphyll vine forest, on nutrient poor soils derived from metasediments, on steep hills, in gullies and on ridges from 80260 m altitude (Barry & Thomas 1994).
Populations in the Ipswich-Beaudesert areas occur in small remnants of notophyll vine forest with emergents on rocky slopes and drainage lines on a variety of soils, whilst those in the Flinder's Peak-Ivory's Knob area occur in araucarian microphyll vine forest on hillslopes and shallow gorges on a sedimentary substrate (Barry & Thomas 1994). These forest types are often dominated by Flindersia species, with occasional emergent Hoop Pine and Tulipwood (Harpullia pendula).
Flowering is recorded from January to April, in June, and August to September. Fruits are reported from January to September and November to December (Forster et al. 1991). Some trees fruit prolifically. The fruit is apparently readily eaten by native animals (Leigh et al. 1984). Seed viability is very high when seed is sown fresh (L.Bird in Wiley et al. 1999).
Past land clearing, logging and quarrying operations greatly reduced the available habitat of the species. Land clearing is still a threat at several of the species known habitat sites. For example, as part of the Brisbane-Gold Coast corridor, rural residential development was affecting the Beenleigh-Ormeau-Pimpama populations (Barry & Thomas 1994). Substantial clearing of native vegetation also occurred in the Flinder's Peak-Ivory's Knob area and continues to pose a significant threat to these populations (Barry & Thomas 1994). However, most populations in the Ormeau area occur in remnant vegetation as defined under the Queensland Vegetation Management Act 1999 and are, therefore, currently protected from clearing (Environmental Protection Agency 2008).
Vegetation clearing has increased exposure of all known sites to weed invasion, such as Lantana (Lantana camara), which may prevent regeneration of Shiny-leaved Condoo around the edges of remaining scrub (Barry & Thomas 1994; Leigh et al. 1984). Other weeds affecting populations include Glycine (Neonotonia whitii), Corky Passionflower (Passiflora superosa), Umbrella Tree (Schefflera actinophylla), and exotic grasses (Wiley et al. 1999). Destruction of seedlings by fire is also a threat where weeds have increased the fire hazard (Barry & Thomas 1994; Wiley et al. 1999).
Other threats to Shiny-leaved Condoo include seed predation by insects and habitat disturbance by feral pigs (Sus scrofa) (Barry & Thomas 1994, Wiley et al. 1999).
Management documents for the Shiny-leaved Condoo include:
- Recovery Plan for Pouteria eerwah (Wiley et al. 1999).
- Border Ranges Biodiversity Management Plan: defining plant functional groups for use in resuorce-limited multi-species recovery implementation scenarios (Kooyman & Rosetto 2007).
- Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs (EA 2005).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Bertya sp. Mt Ernest (G.Leiper AQ 507685) in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abm) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pouteria eerwah (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008tg) [Conservation Advice].|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Bertya sp. Mt Ernest (G.Leiper AQ 507685) in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abm) [Internet].|
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Bertya sp. Mt Ernest (G.Leiper AQ 507685) in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abm) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pouteria eerwah (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008tg) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||
Bertya sp. Mt Ernest (G.Leiper AQ 507685) in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006abm) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Sus scrofa (Pig)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Pouteria eerwah (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008tg) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Environment Australia (EA) (2005). Threat Abatement Plan for Predation, Habitat Degradation, Competition and Disease Transmission by Feral Pigs. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pig/index.html.
Forster, P.I., P.D. Bostock, L.H. Bird & A.R. Bean (1991). Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland with Assessment of Conservation Status. Indooroopilly: Queensland Herbarium.
Harden, G., W. McDonald & J. Williams (2006). Rainforest trees and shrubs: A field guide to their identification. Nambucca Heads, Australia , Gwen Harden Publishing.
Hauser, J. & J. Blok (1998). Fragments of Green. Aust. Rainforest Conservation Society, Bardon, Qld.
Kooyman, R. & M. Rosetto (2007). Border Ranges Biodiversity Management Plan: defining plant functional groups for use in resource-limited multi-species recovery implementation scenarios. [Online]. Flora Report prepared for NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/border-ranges/pubs/brrb-management-plan-app6.pdf.
Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2008a). Copy of the certified Regional Ecosystem map for the purpose of the Vegetation Management Act 1999 Online RE maps. [Online]. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/REMAP.
Stanley, T.D. & E.M. Ross (1986). Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume Two. Brisbane, Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.
Wiley, C., A. Telford, R. Suede, C. Santos, P. Pitt & T. Lawn (1999). Recovery Plan for Pouteria eerwah. University of Queensland.
Williams, J.B., G.J. Harden & W.J.F. McDonald (1984). Trees and shrubs in rainforests of New South Wales and southern Queensland. Armidale, NSW: Botany Department, University of New England.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Planchonella eerwah in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 11 Mar 2014 08:41:41 +1100.