In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Zieria granulata|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Zieria granulata (Illawarra Zieria) Recovery plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, 2005c) [Recovery Plan] as Zieria granulata.
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Zieria granulata.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Zieria granulata |
|Species author||(F. Muell.) C.Moore ex Benth.|
|Reference||Flora Australiensis 1: 307 (30 May 1863).|
|Other names||Boronia granulata |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images
An erect and bushy shrub, to 6 m high (Harden 2002; Mills & Jakeman 1993; Fairley & Moore 2000; SGAP 2000; Armstrong 2002; NSW DEC 2004a) with small white flowers 3.5-4.5 mm in diameter (Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002j). Plants are densely covered with glandular tubercles (small wart-like growths) (NSW DEC 2004a).
The species has a fragmented distribution on the volcanic lowlands around Kiama and Shellharbour, in the Illawarra Region of the south coast of NSW (Mills & Jakeman 1993; Fairley & Moore 2000; Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002j). It is found from Albion Park in the north to Foxground in the south, mostly between Oak Flats and Toolijoa and has a range of 22 km (Mills & Jakeman 1993; NSW NPWS 2002j; NSW DEC 2004a). Plants have been recorded growing in highly disturbed environments including along roadsides and fencelines, amongst regrowth in cleared paddocks and in dense Lantana thickets (NSW DEC 2004a).
The species is reserved in Budderoo NP (Minnamurra) and Killalea State Park (near Shellharbour) (Mills & Jakeman 1993; Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002j). It is also known to occur on land controlled by Kiama Council at Saddleback Mtn, Kiama and at Jerrara Dam (Mills & Jakeman 1993). Most known plants occur on freehold land with many of the others growing in road reserves (Mills & Jakeman 1993; Armstrong 2002). Sites in council reserves and on road verges are listed in the draft recovery plan (NSW DEC 2004a).
In 2004, the total population size of Z. granulat was estimated to be at least 8000 mature individuals. 26 populations are known from 97 highly fragmented sites where populations are defined as groups of individuals more than 1 km apart and sites are discrete groups of plants separated by 200 m or more.The biggest populations are at Dunmore Hills (4213 plants), Toolijooa (2365 plants) and West Kiama (1496 plants). Only ten sites support more than 300 individuals. For more information on the size of each population and site details, see the draft recovery plan (NSW DEC 2004a).
In 1993, there were 37 known populations and a total of 6291 individual plants. 34 populations were described in detail by Mills & Jakeman (1993). A further two populations outside their study area were mentioned, one near Broughton Creek in theToolijooa area, east of Berry (1000 plants) and the other at Boral Quarry at Dunmore (400 plants).
Details of populations as in Mills & Jakeman (1993):
|Site no.||Location||Land tenure||Date/Approx. no. of plants|
|1||Jamberoo - Albion Park Road, above Turpentine Creek Bridge||Council||1993 - 17|
|2||S of Regal Heights, Albion Park||Freehold||1993 - > 600|
|3||SW of Regal Heights, Albion Park||Freehold||1993 - 12|
|4||Wallaby Hill Road, S of Jamberoo||Council, freehold||1993 - >200|
|5||Wallaby Hill Road, S of Jamberoo||Council, freehold||1993 - 50+|
|6||Wallaby Hill Road, S of Jamberoo (mainly w. side of the road)||Council, freehold||1993 - 200+|
|7||Long Brush Road, W of Kiama||Council||1993 - 15|
|8||Cedar Ridge Estate (top of Willow Gully)||Freehold (partly council?)||1993 - > 100|
|9||Saddleback Road, near the junction with Jerra Road||Council||1993 - 40|
|10||Saddleback Road, 500 m E of Trig Station||Council||1993 - 5 (plus 4 seedlings)|
|11||Lookout, Saddleback Mt||Council reserve||1993 - 9+|
|12||Above Kiama Swimming Pool, Quarry Leisure Centre||Council||1993 - 170+|
|13||Portion 212, Foxground||Freehold||1989 - 2|
|14||Jerrara Dam site, Jamberoo Valley||Council||1983 - 269+|
|15||Killalea State Recreation Area, Shellharbour||CaLM reserve||1987 - 348+|
|16||NW arm of Spring Creek, Kiama||Freehold||1993 - 89+|
|17||S of Boral quarry, Kiama||Freehold||1993 - 25|
|18||S of CSR quarry, Oak Flats||Freehold||1993 - 1000's|
|19||Ridge to the S of CSR quarry, Oak Flats||Freehold||1993 - 1000's|
|20||Track nw. side of Saddleback Mt, Kiama||Freehold||1993 - 1|
|21||Powerline easement, N of Kanahooka||Freehold||1993 - 89|
|22||Roadside S of Jerrara Dam, NE of "Woodgrove"||Council||1988 - 50-100|
|23||Near "Sunny Vale", S of Shellharbour||Freehold||1983 - 50-100|
|24||Whispering Gallery, W of Dunmore||Freehold||early 1980's - 20|
|25||Rocklow Road, Dunmore||Freehold||early 1980's - 50-100|
|26||500 m E of "Ravens Hill", near Toolijooa||Freehold||1984 - 50-100|
|27||1.5 km W of Bombo, N of Kiama (edge of Tabbagong Forest)||Freehold||early 1980's - 5|
|28||S side of "Flying Fox Gully", N of Jamberoo||Freehold||1988 - 10|
|29||Irwins Creek, below se. side of Barren Grounds||Freehold||early 1980's - 10-50|
|30||Property between "Bonnie Doone" and Jerrara Dam, Jamberoo Valley||Freehold||early 1980's - 60|
|31||S of Saddleback Road, just E of Trig Station||Freehold||1993 - 64|
|32||Saddleback Rd, E of "The Pines"||Council||1993 - 1|
|33||W of Broughton Village||Freehold||1993 - 40|
|-||New tennis court area, Noorinan Street, Kiama||Freehold||1994 - 30+|
NB: See Mills & Jakeman (1993) for specific information for each population including: local government area, height of plants, cover/abundance, seedling numbers, regeneration notes, presence/absence of buds, flowers and fruit, fire response, geology, soils, topography, drainage, environment, vegetation, and location of voucher specimens.
The population north of Kanahooka, on the floodplain of Lake Illawarra (population 21 in the table above), is growing well north of the species' normal distribution, and appears to have been introduced in translocated soil (Mills & Jakeman 1993; NSW NPWS 2002j).
A large stand of old plants at Broughton Creek (not listed in the table above) is likely to be one of the most significant known populations because most other populations are regrowth vegetation with a small number of plants (Mills & Jakeman 1993).
The preferred habitat is dry, rocky ridges and outcops with shallow volcanic soil but the species is sometimes also found on the moist slopes of the Illawarra escarpment (Mills & Jakeman 1993). On the majority of sites, soils are derived from Permian Gerringong Volcanics, mostly on Bumbo Laterite (Mills & Jakeman 1993; Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002j).Other sites are on Budgong Sandstone, talus and alluvium (Robinson, M. 1999 in Armstrong 2002), as well as Bass Point Sandstone, Blow Hole Latite, Bong Bong Basalt, Illawarra Coal Measures, Irwins Ck Breccia, Saddleback Agglomerate and Saddleback Latite (Robinson 1999 in NSW NPWS 2002j). The altitudinal range is from near sea level to 500 m asl with most sites below 200 m. Much of the natural habitat of the species has been cleared for agriculture and many sub-populations now occupy road verges and paddock edges (Mills & Jakeman 1993).
The species grows amongst subtropical rainforest and paperbark scrub and is also associated with Melaleuca armillaris and Dodonaea viscosa in Eucalyptus tereticornis woodland (Harden 2002; Mills & Jakeman 1993; Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002j). Other associated native species include Acacia mearnsii, Cheilanthes sieberi, Commersonia fraseri, Hibbertia scandens, Hibiscus heterophyllus, Indigofera australis, Leptospermum laevigatum, Leucopogon juniperinus, Notelaea venosa, Pittosporum undulatum and Pteridium esculentum (Mills & Jakeman 1993). For more details on associated vegetation, see the draft recovery plan (NSW DEC 2004a).
White flowers occur Aug. to Oct. (Mills & Jakeman 1993; Fairley & Moore 2000), or between late spring to summer (SGAP 2000; Armstrong 2002; Robinson 1999 in NSW NPWS 2002j; Harden 2002), with fruiting specimens observed in summer (Armstrong 2002).
The species is known to resprout from stems and the root system following physical damage, including grazing and slashing (M. Robinson, pers. comm. in Armstrong 2002; NSW NPWS 2002j; NSW DEC 2004a).
Nectar-seeking flies (viz. Biblio imitator: Bioblionidae; Callophora hillii: Calliphoridae) have been observed on the blossoms of Z. granulata and both insect taxa appeared effective as pollen vectors (Armstrong 2002).
Seed dispersal in Zieria spp. is by forcible ejection from the mature fruit (Armstrong 2002). The presence of an elaiosome (an ant-attracting appendage to the seed) indicates that secondary dispersal by ants (termed myrmecochory) may also occur (Robinson 1999). It appears likely that some form of dormancy mechanism exists for Z. granulata seed and that occasional disturbance is required to break this dormancy. However, low levels of seedling recruitment have been observed without any disturbance ( NSW DEC 2004a).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Zieria granulata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006xe) [Internet].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Zieria granulata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006xe) [Internet].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Zieria granulata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006xe) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Lantana camara (Lantana, Common Lantana, Kamara Lantana, Large-leaf Lantana, Pink Flowered Lantana, Red Flowered Lantana, Red-Flowered Sage, White Sage, Wild Sage)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Slashing and herbicide application for weed control|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat clearance for rural, peri-urban and urban development|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Armstrong, J.A. (2002). Zieria (Rutaceae): a systematic and evolutionary study. Australian Systematic Botany. 15:277-463.
Fairley, A. & P. Moore (2000). Native Plants of the Sydney District, An Identification Guide. Roseville, NSW; Kangaroo Press.
Harden, G.J. (ed.) (2002). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two - rev. edn. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Mills, K. & Jakeman, J. (1993). Survey of the Rare Plant Species Ziera granulata (Rutaceae), Illawarra Region, New South Wales. Jamberoo: Kiama Council & Kevin Mills & Assoc.
NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2004a). Zieria granulata (Illawarra Zieria) Recovery Plan. Page(s) 1-61. [Online]. NSW Dept of Environment and Conservation, Hurstville. Available from: http://www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au/PDFs/recoveryplan_draft_zieria_granulata.pdf.
NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (2002j). Threatened species information: Zieria granulata. [Online]. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/TSprofileZieriaGranulata.pdf.
Society for Growing Australian Plants; Canberra Region Inc (2000). SGAP ACT Database. [Online]. Available from: http://members.ozemail.com.au/~mightyq/plants/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Zieria granulata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 1 Aug 2014 23:04:24 +1000.