In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Isoglossa eranthemoides|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010o) [Recovery Plan] as Isoglossa eranthemoides.
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Isoglossa eranthemoides.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Isoglossa eranthemoides |
|Species author||(F.Muell.) R.Barker|
|Reference||Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 9: 229 (12 Sep. 1986).|
|Other names||Justicia eranthemoides |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Isoglossa eranthemoides
Common name: Isoglossa
Synonym: Justicia eranthemoides
Isoglossa is a herb that grows to 50 cm tall. Its paired leaves are oval or more elongated and 216 cm long. The white-petalled flowers are about 12 mm across, and are borne in clusters toward the tops of the stems. The five petals are of three kinds: two are erect, two droop to the sides and a central tube-like structure has three lobes. Capsules are up to 12 mm long and tapered at each end to form an elongated diamond shape. They spring open, expelling seeds explosively (NSW DECC 2005).
Isoglossa has a very restricted distribution in north east NSW from Tweed River to the Lismore area, with a single uncertain historical report from south east Queensland (NSW DECC 2005). Populations are centred around the upper reaches of the Tweed River (the eastern section of Mount Warning National Park (NP)), and in the vicinity of Inner Pocket Nature Reserve (NR), and to the south east in the Booyong-Nashua-Bexhill-Federal area (Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995).
Using data points from the Australian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) (CHAH 2008a), Isoglossa's estimated extent of occurrence is 1350 km².
Using data points from the AVH (CHAH 2008a), the extent of occupancy for Isoglossa is 100 ha. This figure was calculated by allocating each discrete point a 10 ha buffer.
Isoglossa has been collected at 10 locations that can be described as two broad populations (upper Tweed River and the Booyong area) and two disjunct populations (Bexhill and Inner Pocket NR). There is also one doubtful record from Canungra in Queensland (Quinn et al. 1995). Although fragmentation has occurred, a more widespread distribution is expected given the similarity of other areas to Booyong Flora Reserve (e.g. Boatharbour NR, Currie Park and Andrew Johnston Big Scrub NR) (Quinn et al. 1995). Quinn and colleagues (1995) and Kingston and colleagues (2004) provide a population summary:
|Population||Land tenure||Date last surveyed||No of plants||Population health|
|Booyong Reserve (Now part of Andrew Johnston Big Scrub NR||State||1993 & 1994||about 50||threatened by Tradescantia sp.|
|Lacks Creek, Inner Pocket NR||State||1994||about 20||fair|
|Mt Warning NP||State||2004|
No ex situ populations are conserved at any major botanic gardens or similar institution (CHABG 1994).
Isoglossa is protected in the following reserves:
- Parks of the Tweed Caldera: Mount Warning NP and Inner Pocket NR
- Andrew Johnston Big Scrub NR (incorporates Booyong Flora and Fauna Reserve).
The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change actively manages threatened flora in Mount Warning NP and Andrew Johnston Big Scrub NR (NSW NPWS 1997c; NSW NPWS 2004a).
Isoglossa occurs as an understorey component of highly diverse White Booyong (Argyrodendron trifoliolatum) subtropical rainforest sub-alliance. This vegetation community occurs in moist, protected situations in coastal lowlands, valleys, riparian zones, floodplains, and at the foothills of coastal ranges. These vegetation communities occur on fertile basic igneous geology (basalt or gabbro), metasediments, or alluvium. Climate of these areas is temperate to warm with reliable non-seasonal rainfall (more than 1300 mm). Subtropical rainforest may extend up escarpment gullies to an altitude of 900 m above sea level but are more common below 600 m. Isoglossa grows in lowland areas and a large percentage of rainforest where Isoglossa occurs (lowland with basic geology) has been cleared for agriculture.
The White Boyong subtropical rainforests suballiance is the most complex sub-formation in NSW (Floyd 1990). Structurally, this vegetation community is characterised by an uneven canopy, plank buttressing trees, strangling figs, palms, woody vines, large epiphytes, and an array of nonvascular plants (Keith 2004; Quinn et al. 1995). White Booyong subtropical rainforest sub-alliances are found at the base of the Tweed escarpment, Mt Warning, Nightcap Range, in addition to Mt Lindesay and Levers Plateau in the west of Border Ranges NP; however, Isoglossa has not been recorded over such a wide distribution.
Vegetation that occurs in association with Isoglossa includes Red-fruited Ebony (Diospyros mabacea) and Southern Ochrosia (Ochrosia moorei), both listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act; and Southern Fontainea (Fontainea australis), Red Lily Pilly (Syzygium hodgkinsoniae), Ball Nut (Floydia praealta), Red Bopple Nut (Hichsbeachia pinnatifolia), Rough-leaved Queensland Nut (Macadamia tetraphylla) and Heart-leaved Bosistoa (Bosistoa selwynii), all of which are listed as Vulnerable under the EPBC Act.
When not in flower, this species is vegetatively very similar to another member of Acanthaceae, Pseuderanthemum variabile. Pseuderanthemum variabile is common and widespread; so Isoglossa may not be as restricted as records suggest (Sheringham & Westaway 1995). Pseuderanthemum variabile is the only member of that genus in Australia, and may be an early introduction from Malesia (Harden 1992).
Brunoniella spiciflora (F.Muell. ex Benth.) Bremek. has been misidentified as Isoglossa in some publications (Jessup 2003).
The main identified past threat is land clearing. The extreme rarity of the species is probably due to habitat clearing of its lowland rainforest habitat for urban and agricultural development (Quinn et al. 1995). Burgman and colleagues (2007) suggest that restricted habitat and small potential occupancy is still a problem. This narrow potential range can lead to localised extinction associated with stochastic events.
The main current threats to this species include grazing, weed invasion and inadvertent habitat destruction associated with Park maintenance and development (NSW DECC 2005). Inadvertent damage during bush regeneration and construction of walking tracks in areas of habitat is also a threat. In the area adjacent to Inner Pocket NR, grazing cattle are particularly threatening (Sheringham & Westaway 1995).
Quinn and colleagues (1995) noted that the Booyong population was under extreme threat from the invasive weed, Tradescantia albiflora. This invasive species forms dense ground cover carpets that suppress native species. The mesic nature of such vines also impact on Isoglossa through adding dry fuel that increases fire risk during dry periods (NSW Scientific Committee 2008).
The Big Scrub Rainforest Landcare Group has focussed on the restoration of Isoglossa to improve population conditions. This project had a dual aim of improving the population condition of the Australian Leaf-wing Butterfly, Doleschallia bisaltied australis, as Isoglossa is an important host plant of this insect (Kanowski et al. 2003).
A monitoring strategy has previously been in place that regularly surveyed the condition of Isoglossa, but this program has ceased. Chester and Bushnell (2005) state that monitoring of Isoglossa, Elaeocarpus spp., Uromyrtus australis, and associated ecological communities should be reinstated to better gauge trends of eastern Australia sub-tropical complex notophyll rainforest. The Conservation Programs and Planning Division of the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service monitors the health of known Isoglossa sites in Mt Warning NP (Chester & Bushnell 2005).
The NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change suggests the following recovery actions for land and park managers (NSW DECC 2005):
- Finalise and distribute the draft threatened species profile and environmental impact assessment guidelines.
- Undertake monitoring of sub-units of the species to identify changes in size, distribution and age structure; and to determine whether any identified changes are related to threatening processes and/or to management actions such as weed removal.
- Monitor effectiveness of recovery actions, ensure outcomes are being met.
- Undertake surveys for the species in priority areas identified as potential habitat.
- Collect flowering, fruiting, and vegetative material of the species from all sub-units for the NSW Herbarium.
- Establish live ex-situ collections.
- Ensure there is no confusion with other similar species during regeneration projects.
- Assess known populations and undertake appropriate weed control, especially in reserves.
- Liaise with relevant Council Bushfire Risk Management Committees, to ensure this species is integrated with appropriate fire management strategies.
- Liaise with the Northern Rivers Catchment Management Authority to ensure that relevant recovery actions are taken into account in the preparation and implementation of the Northern Rivers Catchment Management Authority projects.
- Negotiate with relevant Councils and landowners, and assess whether zoning changes affect Isoglossa; provide management information to relevant landowners.
- Investigate options for excluding domestic stock and/or fencing off known populations.
- Ensure park infrastructure projects do not adversely affect this species.
- Investigate options for expanding reserve estate to include other populations.
Management documents include:
- Andrew Johnston Big Scrub Nature Reserve Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 1997c; NSW NPWS 2006e).
- Parks and Reserves of the Tweed Caldera Plan of Management (NSW NPWS 2004a).
- Inner Pocket Nature Reserve Fire Management Strategy (NSW NPWS 2006d).
- Mount Warning National Park Fire Management Strategy (NSW NPWS 2006a).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Isoglossa eranthemoides in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nz) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||
Isoglossa eranthemoides in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nz) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
|Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Tradescantia albiflora (Wandering Jew, Wandering Trad, Trad, Creeping Christian, Wandering Tradescantia, Water Spiderwort, Wandering Willie, Wandering Creeper)||Isoglossa eranthemoides in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nz) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development||Isoglossa eranthemoides in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006nz) [Internet].|
Burgman, A., D. Keith, S.D. Hopper, D. Widyatmoko, & C. Drill (2007). Threat syndromes and conservation of the Australian flora. Biological Conservation. 134(1):73-82.
Chester S. & G. Bushnell (2005). Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves of Australia - a monitoring strategy. Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2008a). Australia's Virtual Herbarium. [Online]. Canberra: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Available from: http://avh.rbg.vic.gov.au/avh/.
Council of Heads of Australian Botanic Gardens (CHABG) (1994). Census of plants in botanic gardens. [Online]. Canberra: Australian National Botanic Gardens. Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chabg/census/census.html.
Floyd, A.G. (1990). Australian rainforests in New South Wales. Sydney: Surrey Beatty & Sons.
Harden, G.J. (Ed.) (1992). Flora of New South Wales Volume 3. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Jessup, L.W. (2003). Flora of South-eastern Queensland: Volume 1: Changes to names or status of taxa. [Online]. Queensland Herbarium. Toowong, Queensland: Queensland Herbarium, Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/register/p00721aa.pdf.
Kanowski, J., C.P. Catterall, A.J. Dennis & D.A. Westcott (2003). Animal-Plant Interactions in Rainforest Conservation and Restoration. Workshop Proceedings, 11 November 2003. Cairns: Cooperative Research Centre for Tropical Rainforest Ecology and Management.
Keith, D.A. (2004). Ocean Shores to Desert Dunes; the native vegetation of New South Wales and the ACT. New South Wales: Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment and Climate Change.
Kingston, M.B., J.W. Turnbull & P.W. Hall (2004). Tweed Vegetation Management Strategy, 2004, Volume 3 of 3 - Appendices. Murwillumbah: The Tweed Council, Ecograph, Ecological and Geographical Information Consultants.
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005). NSW threatened species profiles Isoglossa . [Online]. New South Wales: National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10438.
NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010o). Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland. [Online]. Sydney South, New South Wales: Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/border-ranges-rainforest-biodiversity-management-plan.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1997c). Big Scrub Nature Reserves (Incorporating Andrew Johnston Big Scrub, Victoria Park, Davis Scrub, Heayters Hill. Boatharbour and Wilson Nature Reserves) Plan of Management. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/pomFinalBigScrub.pdf.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2004a). Parks & Reserves of the Tweed Caldera, Plan of Management. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/parkmanagement/MountWarningNPMgmtplan.htm. [Accessed: 19-Jun-2008].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006a). Mount Warning Fire Management Strategy. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/fmsWollumbin.pdf.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006d). Inner Pocket Nature Reserve Fire Management Strategy. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/firemanagement/InnerPocketNRFms.htm. [Accessed: 19-Jun-2008].
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006e). Amendments to Big Scrub Nature Reserves Plan of Management. [Online]. Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/bigScrubPomAmendments.pdf. [Accessed: 19-Jun-2008].
NSW Scientific Committee (2008). Final Determination: Exotic Vines and Scramblers - key threatening process listing. [Online]. NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/determinations/ExoticVinesKtp.htm. [Accessed: 19-Jun-2008].
Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.
Sheringham, P. & J. Westaway (1995). Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Isoglossa eranthemoides in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 14 Mar 2014 06:30:42 +1100.