Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Allocasuarina robusta
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2006ej) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009) [Recovery Plan] as Allocasuarina robusta.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (48) (10/11/2006) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2006b) [Legislative Instrument] as Allocasuarina robusta.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Allocasuarina robusta
Scientific name Allocasuarina robusta [16377]
Family Casuarinaceae:Casuarinales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Macklin) L.A.S.Johnson
Infraspecies author  
Reference Johnson, L.A.S. (1982) Notes on Casuarinaceae II. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 6(1): 78 [comb. et stat. nov.]8.
Other names Casuarina paludosa var. robusta [27709]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Allocasuarina robusta

Common name: Mount Compass Oak-bush

Other names: Mount Compass Sheoak


Allocasuarina robusta is conventionally accepted and there is no controversy on the taxonomy.

The Mount Compass Oak-bush is an erect, rigid shrub growing to 3 m high (Wilson & Johnson 1989). The branchlets are reddish-brown to greyish (Macklin 1927) and up to 20 cm long (Wilson & Johnson 1989). The articles (stem segments) are smooth and cylindrical, 7–14 mm long and 0.7–1.1 mm in diameter, with between five and seven suberect to spreading teeth (the reduced leaves) (Wilson & Johnson 1989). The shrub may have male and female flowers on the same or different plants (Macklin 1927). The male flower spikes are terminal on the branchlets, or have no stalk on older branches. The male flower heads are 0.5–4.5 cm long, with between five and nine whorls per centimetre. The female flowers are in short heads terminating the lateral branchlets. They have conspicuous red styles. The infructescences (woody cones) are stalkless or on a short stalk and are 12–20 mm long and 7–12 mm in diameter (Wilson & Johnson 1989).

The Mount Compass Oak-bush is endemic to South Australia. It is restricted to the southern Mount Lofty Ranges, on the Fleurieu Peninsula south of Adelaide, in the Mount Compass and Hindmarsh Valley areas (Wilson & Bignall 2008). The species' range is encompassed by the Mount Lofty Ranges and Greater Adelaide Natural Resource Management (NRM) region and the Kanmantoo IBRA (Interim Bioregionalisation of Australia) region.

The current extent of occurrence of the Mount Compass Oak-bush is estimated to be 184 km² (ADHERB 2005; SA DEH 2005). Locations with no recent records were not used in the calculations of the extent of occurrence. The extent of occurrence of this species has declined over the past 50 years (TSSC 2006ej). Historical records show that the Mount Compass Oak-bush previously occurred in Kuitpo Forest (1926) and around Yankalilla (1948) (ADHERB 2005). However, recent records do not extend further north than Nangkita or further west than Myponga.

There is insufficient data to accurately estimate the current area of occupancy for the Mount Compass Oak-bush. The known populations are small, and it is estimated that the area of occupancy is likely to be less than 0.18 km². There is also insufficient data to assess whether the species' area of occupancy has declined. Extensive vegetation clearance across the species' range, and the species' present restriction to roadsides and remnant vegetation would suggest that the species was more widespread before settlement (TSSC 2006ej).

Small roadside populations at the outer extent of the distribution are unlikely to be viable. These small populations are subject to threats such as damage by vehicles and weed spraying, and there is one report of plants being in poor health (ADHERB 2005). The loss of small roadside populations may result in a further decline in the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy.

The Mount Compass Oak-bush occurs in a single area in the lower Fleurieu Peninsula. Its current distribution is considered to be severely fragmented. Most of the population occurs as widely-separated small stands on roadsides, with a limited probability of recolonisation if destroyed (TSSC 2006ej).

There have been no surveys specifically targeting the Mount Compass Oak-bush.

The population size of the Mount Compass Oak-bush is not known, but based on the limited number of State Herbarium of South Australia records, it is considered to be scarce. Around 174 mature individuals were recorded from a survey of eight populations between 1990 and 2005 but the number of individuals in the remaining eight populations is not known (SA DEH 2005; J. Van Weenen, pers. comm.).

The Mount Compass Oak-bush occurs in a number of small populations. There are 21 recorded localities (ADHERB 2005, SA DEH 2005; Wilson & Bignall 2008) for the species, 16 of which support extant populations. There are insufficient data to determine whether genetic exchange occurs between these small populations. There are no data on trends in population numbers, although repeated collections from the same locations (ADHERB 2005) suggest that population numbers may remain relatively stable in each location.

Table 1: Known populations of the Mount Compass Oak-bush (ADHERB 2005)

Locality Date of most recent record No. of individuals Land Tenure Comments
Glenshera Swamp 2002 few Conservation Park  
Hindmarsh Falls 1996 40 (mostly composed of older, senescing individuals) City of Victor Harbor Council Reserve SA DEH 2005
Hindmarsh Valley - Pambula Rd 1991 5-6 roadside  
Mount Compass 1988 few (less than 10) private?, roadside
Mount Compass - Victor Harbor Rd 1990 3 roadside  
3 km west of Mount Compass 2004 'sporadic' roadside  
Mount Alma Road 1991 10 roadside  
Nangkita 1971 no data roadside  
Haskett Road 1989 common roadside  
Hindmarsh Valley - Myponga 1991 few roadside  
Myponga 1988 no data Heritage agreement SA DEH 2005
Hindmarsh Valley Road 1991 35-45 roadside  
Spring Mount Road 1998 30-40 roadside  
Yundi 1990 8-10 roadside J. Van Weenen 2005, pers. comm.
Cleland Gully 1991 no data roadside  
Kuitpo 1926 extinct? unknown  
Inman Hills 1925 extinct? unknown  
Square Waterhole 1943 15-20 unknown J. Van Weenen 2005, pers. comm.
Myponga 1918 extinct? unknown  
Yankalilla 1948 extinct? unknown  
Upper Hindmarsh Valley 1934 extinct? unknown  

Historic State Herbarium of South Australia records indicate several locations where the Mount Compass Oak-bush is no longer found. These include Square Waterhole, Inman Hills, Yankalilla, Upper Hindmarsh Valley, and Kuitpo. There are no estimates of population size for these records, but disappearance of the species from these sites would suggest an overall decline in the population. The decline in wetland habitat in swamps in the southern Fleurieu Peninsula would also indicate that populations may have declined (Croft 1999).

The Mount Compass Oak-bush is a woody perennial and is thus unlikely to undergo extreme natural fluctuations in population numbers.


Hybridisation occurs commonly within the Allocasuarina genus (Wilson & Johnson 1989), although none has been specifically reported for A. robusta.

Three known populations of the Mount Compass Oak-bush occur within reserve systems. The population at Hindmarsh Falls is within a recreation reserve managed by the Hindmarsh Tiers Biodiversity Group (which consists of the SA Department for Environment and Heritage, Threatened Plant Action Group, City of Victor Harbour Council and South Australian Water).

There is a population within a 38 ha site covered by a Heritage Agreement near the township of Myponga (Neagle 1995; SA DEH 2005). A Heritage Agreement is a contract between a landholder and the State Government of South Australia to protect in perpetuity a specified area of native vegetation. The agreement is registered on the land title and is transferred with land ownership.

The population at Glenshera Swamp occurs within the Glenshera Conservation Park managed by the SA Department for Environment and Heritage. However, none of these reserves is actively managed specifically for the Mount Compass Oak-bush (TSSC 2006ej).

The Mount Compass Oak-bush occurs in upland heaths and open woodlands with a heathy understorey (Macklin 1927). The species has been recorded from sandy soils, typically in low-lying, poorly-drained areas or areas bordering swamps, or drains (ADHERB 2005). These areas may be waterlogged for part of the year but become dry seasonally. The species is distributed on landforms of glacial origin, with steeply eroded valleys that have become filled with sands and gravels (Laut et al. 1977). Soils comprise siliceous sands, although in swamps, soils may also be peaty (Croft 1999). The species occurs at elevations greater than 200 m.

It has been recorded from the following habitat in the Hindmarsh Valley area:

  • open forest (Eucalyptus leucoxylon, E. fasciculosa, Acacia verticilata, A. retinodes)
  • wet swale of clay loam over ironstone with E. fasciculosa, E. ovata, E. leucoxylon and Leptospermum continentale
  • E. obliqua/ovata/viminalis woodland with Xanthorrhoea-heath understorey
  • E. fasciculosa, E. obliqua, Melaleuca decussata, Hakea rostrata, Hibbertia sp. over weeds in low lying swampy area (Department for Environment & Heritage cited in Wilson & Bignall 2008)

  • The climate across the Mount Compass Oak-bush's distribution in characterised by warm, dry summers with a mean daily maximum temperature of 26.9 °C in January. The winters are cool and wet with a mean daily minimum of 4.5 °C in July (Bureau of Metereology climate records, Myponga). Monthly rainfall exceeds evaporation between May and September, the period when most rain falls. The species occurs in areas that receive 800–900 mm of rain annually.

    The Mount Compass Oak-bush occurs in a number of plant communities, although typically it occurs in open eucalypt forests to woodlands with a heathy understorey. At Glenshera Swamp the plant occurs in E. baxteri woodland on sandy, wet soils. Associated species include Melaleuca decussata and Boronia nana. Near Mount Compass, the Mount Compass Oak-bush occurs on low-lying flats with heath, bordering swamps (ADHERB 2005). These swamps have mainly been cleared, but remnant vegetation comprises an overstorey of E. obliqua and E. ovata over Hakea rugosa, H. rostrata, Acacia melanoxylon, E. fasciculosa, and Banksia marginata with an understorey of introduced grasses and Juncus spp.

    On roadsides in the Mount Compass and Hindmarsh Valley region, the species typically occurs in E. leucoxylon, E. fasciculosa woodlands although it also frequently occurs in areas where there is no overstorey (the overstorey may have been cleared). Associated species include Melaleuca decussata, Hakea rostrata, Hakea rugosa, Acacia melanoxylon, Allocasuarina striata, Banksia marginata and Leptospermum spp. The understorey in these areas depends on soil moisture availability and includes exotic grasses in drier sites, and native sedges in wetter sites (ADHERB 2005).

    The Mount Compass Oak-bush is placed in Section Cylindropitys of Allocasuarina, which has many closely related species, often with very limited distribution. Particular care is required to distinguish between Mount Compass Oak-bush and co-occurring closely related species such as A. striata and A. paradoxa. A. paradoxa has hairless articles with more rounded ridges and, compared with A. robusta, the teeth are less spreading and are mostly non-overlapping. A. striata has shorter articles, shorter, more slender teeth, persistent male bracteoles (small bracts) and shorter cone peduncles than Mount Compass Oak-bush (Wilson & Johnson 1989). Other Allocasuarina species which occur within the southern Mount Lofty Ranges and may be confused with Mount Compass Oak-bush are A. muelleriana and A. verticillata. A. verticillata has longer branch segments with more teeth and is a larger shrub or a tree (Dashorst & Jessop 1998). The ridges on the branchlets are angular in A. muelleriana but rounded in Mount Compass Oak-bush (Jessop & Toelken 1986). A. muelleriana occurs on stony soils whereas Mount Compass Oak-bush occurs on sandy to peaty soils (Dashorst & Jessop 1998).

    There have been no studies addressing threats specific to the Mount Compass Oak-bush, but general threats to plant populations in the Mount Lofty region (Long 1999) are relevant to this species. In addition, the Mount Compass Oak-bush species profile in Wilson and Bignall (2008) details an analysis of threats facing this species, including the identification of rabbit grazing and disturbance as a high threat.

    Habitat loss and fragmentation
    Vegetation clearance across the range of the species has resulted in the fragmentation of remaining vegetation into small isolated patches (Long 1999), resulting in habitat loss that could limit the future expansion of populations. Across most of its range the species only occurs on roadsides, with few populations occurring in substantial vegetation remnants. Although vegetation clearance may no longer be a threat, vegetation fragmentation exacerbates other current threats.

    Road maintenance
    Roadside plants may be damaged or destroyed during road maintenance or by vehicles. Damage from vehicles has been reported for Mount Compass Oak-bush growing on the roadside near Hindmarsh Falls. Roadside populations may also be destroyed by herbicide spraying of roadside weeds (ADHERB 2005).

    Agricultural practices and changes to hydrology
    Agricultural practices across much of the species' range may create threats related to altered hydrological regimes (Long 1999). Farm dams change the natural flow of creek systems and may lead to drying of the swampy areas favoured by the species. The exclusion of water from swamps, the drainage of swamps and groundwater extraction may also affect the hydrological conditions in the species' habitat (MLR Southern Emu-wren Recovery Team 1998). Vegetation clearance in catchments may increase run-off, resulting in erosion of stream banks and the loss of alluvial soils. Roadside populations could be threatened by fertiliser and pesticide drift from adjacent agricultural or forestry land. Pest animals associated with agriculture could affect recruitment by browsing seedlings. Increased nutrients in run-off from improved pastures and horticultural crops may exacerbate weed problems in roadside areas (J. Van Weenen 2005, pers. comm.).

    Weeds
    Populations on roadsides are threatened by weed invasion from neighbouring pastures (J. Van Weenen 2005, pers. comm.). Competition from weeds may prevent recruitment or may weaken mature shrubs, making them susceptible to disease.

    Recreational pressures
    The population at Hindmarsh Falls is potentially threatened by recreational use of this reserve. Threats include weed invasion and trampling.

    Disease and grazing
    Approximately one third of its known distribution occurs within 2 km of confirmed or suspected root-rot Phytophthora infestations (Wilson & Bignall 2008). Grazing by kangaroos and cattle may be an issue (K. Brewer/ J. Smith pers. comms. cited in Wilson & Bignall 2008) and the threat posed by grazing and disturbance by rabbits is regarded as high (Wilson & Bignall 2008).

    The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC 2006en) recommended the following recovery and threat abatement actions required for the Mount Compass Oak-bush:

    Local priorities:

    • Regular inspection of known sites to identify any changes in threats.
    • Regular inspection of known sites to identify any changes in the number of individuals of the species.
    • Survey work in suitable habitat or potential habitat to locate any additional populations.
    • Fencing of known sites in reserve areas to prevent public access.
    • Ensure any changes to agricultural activities do not impact on known sites.
    • Identify and remove weeds in the local area, which could become a threat to the species.
    • Pursue the option of conservation covenants with landholders on whose property this species occurs.

    Regional priorities:

    • Protect areas of native vegetation, which contain populations of the species or which could support populations in the future.
    • Ensure chemicals used to eradicate weeds on roadside verges do not impact on the species.
    • Ensure road maintenance activities in areas where the species occurs do not impact on known populations.
    • Management of any change to hydrology which may result in changes to the water table levels.

    This list does not encompass all actions that may be of benefit to this species, but highlights those that are considered to be of highest priority at the time of listing.

    Recovery actions to restore habitat for the nationally threatened Southern Emu-wren (Mount Lofty) (MLR Southern Emu-wren Recovery Team 1998) may indirectly have a positive impact on the management of threats or recovery of this species. Relevant recovery actions proposed or underway for Southern Emu-wren (Mount Lofty) include:

    • increasing the quality and area of vegetation, and decreasing the fragmentation of habitat.
    • defining key structural and floristic features of swamp and dry-heath habitats to refine habitat restoration and monitoring methods.
    • determining the response of swamp vegetation to grazing and burning trials.

    Other threats could be abated by:

    • registering roadside populations as roadside significant sites and installing roadside markers to alert roadside maintenance workers.
    • developing weed and pest animal control programs.

    The Millenium Seed Project is collecting and storing seeds from some populations (W. Stubbs 2005, pers. comm.). These seeds could be used to grow plants to replace any lost populations.

    There are no recovery plans or management documentation for the Mount Compass Oak-bush. However, the Threatened Plant Action Group Site Action Plan for Hindmarsh Falls discusses the management and threat abatement needed for the area in which the Hindmarsh Falls population is found (TPAG 2004). In addition, the Draft Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communites of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Wilson & Bignall 2009), includes management activity that may be of direct benefit to the Mount Compass Oak-bush.

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Pollution:Agricultural Effluents:Herbicide application Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Pesticide drift Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Allocasuarina robusta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008zo) [Conservation Advice].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].

    Croft, S. (1999). Management Guidelines for Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps. Draft Report prepared for the Mount Loft Ranges Southern Emu-wren Recovery Program.

    Dashorst, G.R.M. & J.P. Jessop (1998). Plants of the Adelaide Plains and Hills. Adelaide South Australia, Botanic Gardens of Adelaide and State Herbarium.

    Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia (SA DEH) (2005). Biological Database of South Australia (Plants Populations, Roadside Vegetation, Opportune, Survey and Reserve databases).

    Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.

    Laut, P., P.C. Heyligers, G. Keig, E. Loffler, C. Margules, R.M. Scott & M.E. Sullivan (1977). Environments of South Australia, Province 3 Mount Lofty Block. Canberra, Division of Land Use Research CSIRO.

    Long, M. (1999). A Biological Inventory of the Mount Lofty Ranges South Australia. Department for Environment, Heritage and Aboriginal Affairs, South Australia.

    Macklin, E.D. (1927). A revision of the "Distyla Complex" of the genus Casuarina. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 51:271. Adelaide, Royal Society of South Australia.

    Neagle, N. (1995). An update of the conservation status of the major plant associations of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Native Vegetation Conservation Section, Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

    State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide (ADHERB) (2005). ADHERB Database.

    Stubbs, W. (2005). Personal Communication 20 July 2005. Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia.

    Threatened Plant Action Group (TPAG) (2004). Site Action Plan: Recovery actions for threatened species population Correa calycina. Adelaide.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2006ej). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Allocasuarina robusta. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/allocasuarina-robusta.html.

    Van Weenen, J. (2005). Personal Communication. 29 July 2005. Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia.

    Wilson, A. & Bignall, J (2008). Draft Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Sepcies and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Adelaide, Department for Environment and Heritage, South Australia.

    Wilson, K.L. & L.A.S. Johnson (1989). Casuarinacaeae. In: Flora of Australia. 3:65. Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Group.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Allocasuarina robusta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 29 Jul 2014 05:18:13 +1000.