In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Eucalyptus raveretiana|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus raveretiana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afz) [Conservation Advice].
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Eucalyptus raveretiana (Black Ironbox) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012au) [Listing Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Eucalyptus raveretiana.
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus raveretiana |
|Reference||Mueller, F.J.H. von (1876), Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 10(83): 99 [tax. nov.]|
|Other names||Eucalyptus raveretiana var. raveretiana |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Eucalyptus raveretiana
Common name: Black Ironbox
This species is conventionally accepted as Eucalyptus raveretiana (CHAH 2010).
Black Ironbox is a medium sized tree to 25 m high. The bark is rough on the trunk and the largest branches; slightly furrowed, hard and dark grey. Most branches are smooth, white, grey or pale blue. Branchlets are reported to have glandular pith, unlike any other Queensland eucalypt species. Adult leaves are stalked, lance-shaped, 8–15 cm long, 1–3.5 cm wide, dark green on upper surface and much paler below. Flowers are formed in terminal clusters, with seven buds per umbel. Flower buds are diamond-shaped, 3–4 mm long when mature, on stalks 2–4 mm long. Fruit is hemispherical, approximately 2 mm long and wide, with three or four fruit valves prominently exerted (Brooker & Kleinig 1994). Black Ironbox has the smallest fruit of any eucalypt (Brooker & Kleinig 2004; Hall et al. 1970).
The species has a wide distribution in coastal and sub-coastal areas of Queensland, from south of Townsville to Nebo, around Rockhampton and areas 100 km west of the city (Queensland Herbarium 2009 cited in TSSC 2010ba). It has been recorded from about 23 sites throughout its range, in two main areas: Nebo to Ayr and Aps Creek to Rockhampton (Halford 1997c; Queensland Herbarium 2008).
The majority of sites are on roadsides, freehold land and leasehold land. It is, however, present in State Forest 652, State Forest 658, Dipperu National Park (NP), Eungella NP, Homevale NP and Goodedulla NP (Halford 1997c; Queensland Herbarium 2008). Records have been made from the tributaries of the Fitzroy River (Mackenzie, Isaac and Connors Rivers, and the Funnel, Boothill, Nebo and Denison Creeks), the Suttor River (and its upper tributaries) and the Bowen, Burdekin, Don, Bogie, Broughton, Haughton, O'Connell and Andromache Rivers (BAAM 2011).
The extent of occurrence is about 124 000 km2 (Queensland Herbarium 2009 cited in TSSC 2010ba).
Population data for Black Ironbox is limited, although it is locally common on some permanent streams, but absent from many others (Bean 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010ba). Twenty-three sites are known (Halford 1997c) and there are likely to be many subpopulations, probably at least 100 (Bean 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010ba). Due the size of trees and its permanence in the landscape, it is unlikely that additional stands will be found (Bean 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010ba).
Black Ironbox is known to occur in Dipperu NP, Eungella NP, Homevale NP and Goodedulla NP (Halford 1997c; Queensland Herbarium 2009 cited in TSSC 2010ba).
Black Ironbox usually grows along watercourses, and sometimes on river flats or open woodland (Chippendale 1988; Halford 1997c). Soil varies from sand through to heavy clay (Halford 1997c). Altitudinal range is 0–300 m and the climate of the area is sub-tropical with an annual rainfall of 650–1100 m (Boland et al. 2006). The species is said to be highly salt tolerant (Dunn et al. 1994).
Black Ironbox does not occur in pure stands, but is co-dominant with species such as Broad-leaved Teatree (Melaleuca leucadendra), M. fluviatilis, Forest Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Carbeen (Corymbia tessellaris) (Regional Ecosystem 11.3.25a) and occasionally in semi evergreen vine thicket (e.g. Broad-leaved Bottle Tree (Brachychiton australis), Narrow-leaved Bottle Tree (Brachychiton rupestris), Scrub Wilga (Geijera salicifolia) and Lysiphyllum spp.) (Regional Ecosystem 11.3.11) (Bean 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010ba; Queensland Herbarium 2009 cited in TSSC 2010ba). Other species it grows in association with include River Red Gum (E. camaldulensis), Moreton Bay Ash (Corymbia tessellaris), River Oak (Casuarina cuninghamiana) and Weeping Paperbark (Melaleuca fluviatilis) (BAAM 2011) and other Regional Ecosystems that include 9.3.1 and 8.3.3 (BAAM 2011).
The distribution of Black Ironbox overlaps with the following EPBC Act-listed threatened ecological communities:
- Brigalow (Acacia harpophylla dominant and co-dominant)
- Bluegrass (Dichanthium spp.) dominant grasslands of the Brigalow Belt Bioregions (North and South)
- Semi-evergreen vine thickets of the Brigalow Belt (North and South) and Nandewar Bioregions.
Black Ironbox matures at five years, flowers are borne from December–March and fruits may be found from March–September (Halford 1997c). The fruits mature in late summer and the seeds are expelled within a few weeks (Bean 2001a pers. comm.). Insects are presumed the primary pollinator and the species is not capable of vegetative reproduction, although it resprouts after fire. The seed germinates after fire (Bean 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010ba).
Black Ironbox is similar in appearance to Howitt's Box (E. howittiana), but is distinguished by the valves of the fruit, which are prominently projecting (Hall et al. 1970). Black Ironbox has the smallest fruit of any eucalypt (Brooker & Kleinig 2004). Surveys should target semi-permanent or permanent creeks and rivers. Genetically similar eucalypts are geographically disjunct from the Black Ironbox (Brooker & Kleinig 1994) and the species is not known to hybridise (Queensland Herbarium 2008).
Black Ironbox is threatened by Rubber Vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora), which occupies the same habitat. Rubber Vine can smother mature eucalypt trees (Calvert et al. 2005; Halford 1997c; McDonald 2001 pers. comm.). Deliberate fires used to control Rubber Vine have a detrimental effect on Black Ironbox seedlings and mature trees. The introduction of a biological control agent (Rubber Vine Rust, Maravalia cryptostegiae) has been effective in some instances controlling Rubber Vine (Bean 2010 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010ba).
Black Ironbox is also threatened by large exotic grasses which inhabit creekbanks (e.g. Panicum maximum), as these inhibit regeneration. Exotic grasses can increase fire frequency as they increase fuel loads to levels that make fire detrimental to the health of trees (Bean 2001a pers. comm.; Calvert et al. 2005). Other recorded weeds include Lantana (Lantana camara), Bellyache Bush (Agonosoma trilineatum) and Chinee Apple (Ziziphus mauritiana) (BAAM 2011).
Water resource developments
Black Ironbox has in the past been affected by habitat loss or degradation from water resource developments. Environmental flow determinations need to be incorporated into assessments of any further water projects that may impact on habitat where the species occurs (Werren 2002). A stream diversion operation to improve mining safety at Coral Creek near Collinsville, Queensland, proposed to destroy 142 Black Ironbox trees (over 13 ha) (GHD 2011).
In the past, Black Ironbox's millable log was used for railway sleepers, light and heavy construction, and fenceposts (Hall et al. 1970). Presently, the species could potentially be damaged by forest operations through accidental targeting for milling during timber harvesting of other species (Halford 1997c).
Commonwealth Conservation Advice
Refer to the Commonwealth Conservation Advice (TSSC 2008afz) for information on research priorities and recovery priority actions to mitigate threats including habitat loss, disturbance and modification, weeds and fire. Raising awareness of the species and enabling recovery of additional populations are also encouraged in the Advice.
Species management plan
The species' draft management plan outlines the following protective measures for forest operations conducted under the Forestry Act 1959 (Queensland) State Forests and Timber Reserves:
- Where practical, control Rubber Vine on sites where Black Ironbox occurs.
- Where Black Ironbox occurs, establish a protective buffer that excludes timber harvesting and clearing. Minimum buffers to be 3000 m2 (0.3 ha) with all Black Ironbox at least 30 m within the buffer boundary.
Queensland Government initiatives
A number of populations occur in areas of remnant vegetation (Qld EPA 2008a), as defined under the Vegetation Management Act 1999 (Queensland), and are therefore protected from broad-scale vegetation clearing. Also, the Queensland Government has placed a moratorium on the clearing of regrowth 50 m either side of streams in catchments affecting the Great Barrier Reef (including the Burdekin and Mackay coast) (Queensland Herbarium 2009 cited in TSSC 2010ba).
Sonoma Coal Mine
The proposed clearing of Black Ironbox individuals for the diversion of Coral Creek included the following mitigation measures to reduce the impact on the species (GHD 2011):
- the protection of 550 mature trees
- the protection of 40 ha upstream and downstream of the diversion
- replanting of 2.43 ha and rehabilitation of habitat upstream and downstream of the diversion
- a monitoring program to assess the success of the rehabilitation
- weed, feral animal and erosion management strategies
- appropriate fire and grazing regimes (if necessary).
Studies relevant to the Black Ironbox include Dunn and colleagues (1994) and Whittock and colleagues (2003).
Management documents for the Black Ironbox include:
- Weeds of National Significance - Rubber Vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) Strategic Plan (ARMCANZ 2000)
- Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus raveretiana (TSSC 2008afz).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus raveretiana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afz) [Conservation Advice].|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Habitat deterioration due to soil degradation and erosion||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus raveretiana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afz) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Cryptostegia grandiflora (Rubber Vine, Rubbervine, India Rubber Vine, India Rubbervine, Palay Rubbervine, Purple Allamanda)||Eucalyptus raveretiana in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006je) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Panicum maximum (Guinea Grass, Green Panic, Hamil Grass)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus raveretiana (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008afz) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand (ARMCANZ) (2000). Weeds of National Significance - Rubber Vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) Strategic Plan. [Online]. Available from: http://www.weeds.org.au/docs/rvstrat.pdf. [Accessed: 30-Jun-2008].
Bean, A.R. (2001a). Personal Communication.
Biodiversity Assessment and Management Pty Ltd (BAAM) (2011). CopperString Project SEIS - Terrestrial Ecology Assessment Report. Report prepared for CopperString Pty Ltd.
Boland, D.J., M.I.H. Brooker, G.M. Chippendale, N. Hall, B.P.M. Hyland, R.D. Johnston, D.A. Klenig, M.W. McDonald & J.D. Turner (2006). Forest Trees of Australia, Fifth edition. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.
Brooker, M.I.H. & Kleinig, D.A. (1994). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Volume 3, Northern Australia. Chatswood: Inkata Press.
Calvert, G.A., C. Lokkers & R. Cumming (2005). Rare Plants of Townsville Thuringowa. Townsville: Coastal Dry Tropics Landcare Inc.
Chippendale, G.M. (1988). Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora. In: Flora of Australia. 19:1-540. Canberra: AGPS.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Dunn, G.M., D.W. Taylor, M.R. Nester & T.B. Beetson (1994). Performance of twelve selected Australian tree species on a saline site in southeast Queensland. Forest Ecology and Management. 70:255-264.
GHD (2011). Report for Coral Creek Diversion. Response to Information Request EPBC 2011/5800. Prepared for Sonoma Mine Management Pty Ltd.
Halford, D. (1997c). Eucalyptus raveretiana. Species Management Profile. Flora and Fauna Information System. Brisbane: Queensland Department of Natural Resources.
Hall, N., R.D. Johnston & G.M. Chippendale (1970). Forest Trees of Australia, 3rd edition. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
McDonald, W.J.F. (2001). Personal Communication.
Queensland Environmental Protection Agency (Qld EPA) (2008a). Copy of the certified Regional Ecosystem map for the purpose of the Vegetation Management Act 1999 Online RE maps. [Online]. Brisbane: Environmental Protection Agency. Available from: http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/REMAP.
Queensland Herbarium (2008). Specimen label information. Viewed 26 June 2008.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008afz). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus raveretiana. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/16344-conservation-advice.pdf.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010ba). Draft Eucalyptus raveretiana Listing Advice. Unpublished. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts.
Werren, G.L. (2002). Burdekin Basin WRP Phase 1 Riparian and Aquatic Vegetation - Assessment of Nature and Condition. Queensland: James Cook University. Australia: Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research.
Whittock, S.P., D.A. Steane, R.E. Vaillancourt & B.M. Potts (2003). Molecular evidence shows that the tropical boxes (Eucalyptus subgenus minutifructus) are over-ranked. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia. 1217(1):27-32.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus raveretiana in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 13 Mar 2014 23:32:39 +1100.