Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Floydia praealta
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Floydia praealta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008pn) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Floydia praealta.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Ball Nut - Profile (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2012c) [Internet].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Biodiversity Recovery Plan for Gatton and Laidley Shires, South-East Queensland 2003-2008 (Boyes, B., 2004).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Floydia praealta
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Floydia praealta
Scientific name Floydia praealta [15762]
Family Proteaceae:Proteales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (F.Muell.) L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs
Infraspecies author  
Reference Johnson, L.A.S. & Briggs, B.G. (1975) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 70: 176 [comb. nov.]
Other names Helicia praealta [27224]
Macadamia praealta [47467]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Floydia praealta

Common name: Ball Nut

Other names: Possum Nut, Big Nut, Beefwood

This species is conventionally accepted as Floydia praealta (CHAH 2010).

The Ball Nut is a tall tree, growing 30—35 m in height (Floyd 1989; Foreman 1995a; Quinn et al. 1995), with rough, brown, slightly wrinkled bark (NSW OEH 2012c). The shiny, smooth, leathery leaves are usually at least 6 times longer than they are broad (NSW OEH 2012c; Plantnet 2012), averaging 7—30 cm long by 2—4.5 cm wide, tapering at the bases and rounded at the apex (Foreman 1995a). The secondary and finer veins on leaves are distinct on both upper and lower surfaces, and leaf margins are slightly wavy. Leaf stems are 6—12 mm long (NSW OEH 2012c; PlantNET 2012).

The small, cream-coloured flowers are carried on stems 3—5 mm long (PlantNET 2012) and amassed into inflorescences (flowerheads) 7—20 cm long. When open, flowers are spidery in appearance and have a musky odour (NSW OEH 2012c). The fruit is woody, globular and up to 5 cm in diameter, containing one or two seeds (Foreman 1995a; Sheringham & Westaway 1995).

The Ball Nut occurs in small, scattered populations from Gympie, Queensland, south to the Clarence River, near Dorrigo in north-east NSW (Floyd 1989; Foreman 1995a; Harden 2000; Quinn et al. 1995).

Whilst the scattered occurrence of this species makes population studies difficult (Barry & Thomas 1994), it is found in low numbers at all sites and therefore appears to be naturally rare (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997). Within the Queensland comprehensive regional assessment region, approximately 250 mature individuals are known from 20 populations, in an area of about 9000 km2 (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

In Queensland the Ball Nut is found at (Barry & Thomas 1994; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997):

  • Triuna National Park at Dulong
  • Nicoll Scrub National Park
  • Mt Pinbarren National Park
  • Springbrook Conservation Reserve
  • Rosins Lookout Conservation Park at Beechmont
  • State Forest 435 (Amamoor Forest Reserve).

In NSW, it is recorded from (Floyd 1989; NSW OEH 2011; Sheringham & Westaway 1995):

  • Booyong Recreation Reserve
  • Victoria Park Nature Reserve
  • Boatharbour Nature Reserve
  • Whian Whian State Conservation Area
  • Broken Head Nature Reserve
  • Limpinwood Nature Reserve
  • Nightcap National Park
  • Mt Warning National Park
  • Wollumbin National Park
  • Wilsons Park Nature Reserve
  • Rotary Park Nature Reserve.

The Ball Nut inhabits floristically-rich, tall, closed riverine to subtropical rainforest (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989; Harden 1991, 2000; Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995) or coastal scrub (Foreman 1995a).

The species is recorded on gently sloping alluvial levees to moderately sloped footslopes and hillslopes, as well as steeply sloping screeslopes at altitudes from 50—350 m (Barry & Thomas 1994). This species generally occurs in red loam soil on basalt (Harden 2000; Quinn et al. 1995; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997), with slightly acidic to neutral pH (range 5.0—7.0) (Barry & Thomas 1994).

Individuals may live for more than 100 years, with a juvenile period of 10 years (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

Flowering of the Ball Nut has been recorded from January to February (Floyd 1989; Foreman 1995a; Harden 1991; Quinn et al. 1995) and January to July (Forster et al. 1991). Fruits have been recorded as present between January and June (Floyd 1989), though Harden (1991), Foreman (1995a) and Quinn and colleagues (1995) suggest fruit is present closer to June only.

The plant germinates readily from fresh seed and this is the main reproduction mechanism. Seed has a viability of approximately three months, and is most likely dispersed by birds (Floyd 1989; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997). Vegetative suckering from the roots can occur (Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997).

This species is considered to be readily identifiable in the field, especially during the flowering and fruiting seasons, between January and June.

As the species often has a patchy occurrence, randomly sited quadrats may fail to detect the species if survey effort is not high. In order to minimise the risk of a false absence, surveys for this species should be targeted to microhabitats where it is most likely to occur.

The main threats that have been identified for the Ball Nut include (Harden 2000; NSW OEH 2012c; Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee 1997; Quinn et al. 1995; Sheringham & Westaway 1995):

  • clearing and fragmentation of habitat for coastal development, agriculture, roadworks and powerlines
  • habitat infestation by weeds
  • grazing and trampling of seedlings by stock
  • fire.

These threats are exacerbated by the occurrence of the species in small populations of sparsely distributed individuals (NSW OEH 2012).

The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH 2012c) identify the following actions to assist in protection of the species:

  • Protect areas of habitat from clearing or development.
  • Expand and connect remaining habitat remnants.
  • Identify populations along roadsides and powerline easements and protect them during works.
  • Fence rainforest remnants and isolated paddock trees to exclude grazing stock.
  • Support local Landcare groups and bush regeneration teams.
  • Remove weeds where they threaten adult plants or regeneration.

Documents relevant for the management of the Ball Nut can be found at the start of the profile. Other documents which may be useful for the management of this species include:

  • Tweed Vegetation Management Strategy (Kingston et al. 2004a).
  • Border Ranges Biodiversity Management Plan: defining plant functional groups for use in resource-limited multi-species recovery implementation scenarios (Kooyman & Rosetto 2007).
  • Springbrook Region Conservation Reserves Management Plan (GCCC 2009).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Floydia praealta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006jq) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Floydia praealta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006jq) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Floydia praealta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006jq) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Floydia praealta in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006jq) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Floydia praealta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008pn) [Conservation Advice].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Floydia praealta (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008pn) [Conservation Advice].

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Floyd, A.G. (1989). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Foreman, D.B. (1995a). Floydia. In: Orchard, A.E. & P.M. McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 16:417-419. ABRS, Canberra/CSIRO, Melbourne.

Forster, P.I., P.D. Bostock, L.H. Bird & A.R. Bean (1991). Vineforest Plant Atlas for South-East Queensland with Assessment of Conservation Status. Indooroopilly: Queensland Herbarium.

Gold Coast City Council (GCCC) (2006a). Springbrook Conservation Areas: Conservation Values and Management Recommendations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.goldcoast.qld.gov.au/attachment/environment/springbrook_conservation_report.pdf.

Harden, G.J. (2000). Floydia. In: Harden, G.J., D.W.Hardin & D.C.Godden, eds. Proteaceae of New South Wales. Page(s) 164. University of NSW Press, Sydney.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Kingston, M.B., J.W. Turnbull & P.W. Hall (2004a). Tweed Vegetation Management Strategy - Technical Reports August 2004 for Tweed Shire Council. [Online]. Available from: http://www.tweed.nsw.gov.au/stpuweb/VMS2004/TweedVMS_04_Vol2_Technical%20reports.pdf.

Kooyman, R. & M. Rosetto (2007). Border Ranges Biodiversity Management Plan: defining plant functional groups for use in resource-limited multi-species recovery implementation scenarios. [Online]. Flora Report prepared for NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/border-ranges/pubs/brrb-management-plan-app6.pdf.

Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2011). Wollumbin National Park. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/NationalParks/parkVegetation.aspx?id=N0183.

NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2012c). Ball Nut - Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10332.

PlantNET (2012). The Plant Information Network System. [Online]. Sydney, Australia: The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. Available from: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au.

Queensland CRA/RFA Steering Committee (1997). Forest taxa at risk, threats, conservation needs and recovery planning in south-east Queensland. Queensland Government & Commonwealth of Australia.

Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.

Sheringham, P. & J. Westaway (1995). Significant Vascular Plants of Upper North East NSW: A report by the NSW NPWS for the Natural Resources Audit Council. NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Floydia praealta in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 29 Jul 2014 08:37:03 +1000.