In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus camfieldii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008nx) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus camfieldii |
|Reference||Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 54 (15 Nov. 1920) 66.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
Scientific name: Eucalyptus camfieldii
Common name: Camfield's Stringybark
Other names: Heart-leaved Stringybark
Camfield's Stringybark varies between a mallee-like shrub of 4 m or less in height to a straggly tree up to 9 m high (Leigh et al. 1984). The greyish-brown bark is rough, fibrous, stringy, irregularly and coarsely fissured (Brooker & Kleinig 1999). The flowers are white (Benson & McDougall 1998), and the juvenile leaves are round to heart shaped and roughly hairy. Adult leaves are broadly lance-shaped, 10 cm long by 3 cm wide and glossy green. The stalkless buds are egg-shaped and 8 mm long in clusters of eleven or more with a conical cap. The fruit is flattened and globe-shaped, 9 mm across, with valves enclosed or tips protruding (DEC 2005).
Camfield's Stringybark was originally known from as far south as Bulli Pass (near Wollongong) (Hall & Brooker 1973b) and as far north as Gosford (Brooker & Kleinig 1999). In NSW, this species is now known only from a very few small stands confined mainly to the national parks north and south of Sydney. Two or three populations also remain within the metropolitan area on a rifle range, on Crown land and on private land (Leigh et al. 1984).
Populations are known at Norah Head (Tuggerah Lakes), Peats Ridge, Mt Colah, Elvina Bay Trail (West Head), Terrey Hills, Killara, North Head, Menai, Wattamolla and a few other sites in Royal National Park (Fairley 2004).
Camfield's Stringybark is known to occur in the following reserves (Briggs & Leigh 1996; Robinson 1991; Threatened Species Scientific Committee 2008nx):
- Sydney Harbour National Park
- Heathcote National Park
- Brisbane Waters National Park
- Ku-ring-gai National Park
- Munmorah State Conservation Area
- Garawarra State Conservation Area
- Lion Island, Long Island and Spectacle Island Nature Reserves
- Royal National Park.
Camfield's Stringybark occurs mostly in small scattered stands in exposed situations on sandstone plateaus, ridges and slopes near the coast, often on the boundary of tall coastal heaths or low open woodland (Chippendale 1988; Leigh et al. 1984; Maiden 1920). It grows in shallow sandy soils overlying Hawkesbury sandstone. Most sites are subject to great seasonal variations in soil moisture (Leigh et al. 1984). Associated species frequently include stunted specimens of Narrow-leaved Stringbark (Eucalyptus oblonga), Brown Stringybark (E. capitellata), Scribbly Gum (E. haemastoma), Angophora costata, Corymbia gummifera, A. hispida, E. sieberi, Allocasuarina distyla, Leptospermum trinervium and Banksia oblongifolia (Benson & McDougall 1998; Leigh et al. 1984).
Flowering occurs from August to December, although flowering in May and June has also been recorded (Brooker & Kleinig 1999; Leigh et al. 1984). This species has an extensive lignotuber, up to 25 m across, so what appears to be a large number of plants may be only one, or few individuals. This lignotuber resprouts after fire, along with epicormic buds (Benson & McDougall 1998).
The ability of Camfield's Stringybark to recover following a succession of frequent wildfires is likely to decline as trees fail to bear mature capsules and regeneration becomes entirely from coppice regrowth (Leigh et al. 1984).
Lack of fire over extended periods also affects the ability of trees to survive or reproduce. Trees at a North Heads, NSW, were noted in the 1980's to be dying. This was considered due to the long absence of fire (30 years) and resultant competition from taller vegetation (Benson & McDougall 1998).
Habitat clearing and weed invasion are also identified as threats to the species (DEC 2005).
The NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (DECCW, formerly DEC) have identified the following priority actions to assist in protection of this species (DEC 2005):
- Reduce the impact of arson eg. buffer zones around arson-prone areas to prevent spread of fire, as well as buffers around populations.
- Where fuel reduction is required to protect human life and property, mechanical means that leave populations intact should be pursued in preference to burning.
- Protect areas of known and potential habitat from clearing and disturbance.
- Prevent further loss and fragmentation of habitat.
- Investigate appropriate fire intervals and management practices.
- Undertake surveys within potential habitat.
The NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC 2006) has prepared a Threat Abatement Plan for invasion of native plant communities by Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush and Boneseed), a weed species that may impact on Camfield's Stringybark.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus camfieldii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008nx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Eucalyptus camfieldii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006io) [Internet].|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development||Eucalyptus camfieldii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006io) [Internet].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus camfieldii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008nx) [Conservation Advice].|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals||Eucalyptus camfieldii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006io) [Internet].|
Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1998). Ecology of Sydney plant species: Part 6 Dicotyledon family Myrtaceae. Cunninghamia. 5(4):809-987. Sydney: NSW Royal Botanic Gardens.
Briggs, J.D. & J.H. Leigh (1996). Rare or Threatened Australian Plants - Revised Edition. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.
Brooker, M.I.H. & D.A. Kleinig (1999). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Volume 1, South-eastern Australia. Hawthorn, Victoria: Bloomings Books.
Chippendale, G.M. (1988). Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora. In: Flora of Australia. 19:1-540. Canberra: AGPS.
Fairley, A (2004). Seldom seen: rare plants of greater Sydney. Sydney: Reed New Holland.
Hall, N. & Brooker, I. (1973b). Camfield's Stringybark; Eucalyptus camfieldii. Forest Tree Series. 94. Canberra, Australian Govt. Publishing Service.
Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.
Maiden, J.H. (1920). Descriptions of three new species of Eucalyptus. Journal and proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales. 54:66.
NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2006). NSW Threat Abatement Plan - Invasion of native plant communities by Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush and Boneseed). Hurstville, NSW: NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change.
NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) (2005). Camfield's Stringybark- Threatened Species Profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10287. [Accessed: 08-May-2010].
Robinson, L. (1991). Field Guide to the Native Plants of Sydney, 2nd Edition. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.
Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008nx). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus camfieldii. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/15460-conservation-advice.pdf.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus camfieldii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 10 Mar 2014 03:51:42 +1100.