Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Pterostylis cucullata
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan] as Pterostylis cucullata.
 
Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan] as Pterostylis cucullata.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat abatement advice for predation, habitat degradation,competition and disease transmission by feral pigs (2013) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014p) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat Abatement Plan for competition and land degradation by unmanaged goats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008ada) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Pterostylis cucullata.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Leafy Greenhood - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005kq) [Internet].
SA:Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2009) [Internet].
SA:Threatened Flora of South Australia Fact Sheet - Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata. Vulnerable (South Australian Department for Environment and Heritage (SA DEH), 2010h) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Threatened Species Listing Statement-Leafy greenhood Pterostylis cucullata R. Br. 1810 (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2000k) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Flowering Times of Tasmanian Orchids: A Practical Guide for Field Botanists (Wapstra, M., N. Roberts, H. Wapstra & A. Wapstra, 2008) [Information Sheet].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 54-Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Bramwells, H., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list) as Pterostylis cucullata
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Pterostylis cucullata
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): May 2014 list) as Pterostylis cucullata
Scientific name Pterostylis cucullata [15459]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Br.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (27 Mar. 1810) 327.
Other names Pterostylis mackibbinii [36179]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.anbg.gov.au/gallery/pterostylis-cucullata.html
http://www.nccnsw.org.au/member/tsn/context/profiles/134.html

Tasmania: At the subspecies level, Pterostylis cucullata subsp. cucullata is listed as Endangered under the Threatened Species Protection Act 1995.

Scientific name: Pterostylis cucullata

Common name: Leafy Greenhood

The taxonomy of the Leafy Greenhood has been the subject of recent debate. It is now recognised that there are three distinct taxa amongst the earlier taxonomic grouping of this species. All three were once considered to be the one species. Currently, two form (coastal and montane) are recognised as comprising the Leafy Greenhood, and the third form is considered likely to eb a separate species. These distinct taxa are:

  • Coastal form: Pterostylis cucullata (coastal) originally described from Tasmania. This form is now extremely rare in Victoria and thought to be extinct in South Australia (Dell & Bester 2006).
  • Montane form: Pterostylis cucullata (montane) is a tall subspecies from forests in inland Victoria and South Australia (TSU 2001).
  • Barrington Tops: A closely related taxon, Pterostylis sp. aff. cucullata (Barrington Tops), also known as Pterostylis sp. (Harden 1993), grows in some NSW sub-alpine vegetation and is yet to be formally described. All P. cucullata plants within NSW are most probably referable to P. sp. aff. cucullata (Barrington Tops) (Dell & Bester 2006).

The Enigmatic Greenhood, P. aenigma, which is listed as Endangered under the EPBC Act, is related to the montane form of the Leafy Greenhood, P. cucullata, and is now considered to be a different species (Dell & Bester 2006).

Historically some confusion has occurred due to some Leafy Greenhoods being misidentified as the related species Pterostylis mackibbinii and some plants identified as the Leafy Greenhood which were actually P. dubia (Dell & Bester 2006).

The Leafy Greenhood belongs to a group of orchids whose flower forms a distinctive, green, hood-like structure, known as a galea; hence their collective name of 'Greenhoods'. Greenhood orchids share other characteristics such as; they grow in the ground; have fleshy tubers which are replaced each year; have a rosette of leaves which they shed each year; and are pollinated by male fungus gnats and mosquitoes (insects of the families Mycetophilidae and Culicidae respectively) (Bishop 1996).

The Leafy Greenhood is distinctive amongst the Greenhood orchids because of its large fleshy leaves that are typically in a loose rosette surrounding the stem and large flowers (30–40 mm long) with bright reddish-brown colourations in the sinus and hood (Jones et al. 1999).

Floral Structures
Leafy Greenhoods produce a single, semi-nodding greenhood up to 40 mm long and 12–15 mm wide (Bramwells 1993). This hood is translucent white with green stripes on top (the dorsal sepal), whilst the sides of the hoods (petals) are a reddish-chocolate brown. The lower part of the flower resembles a fork-like structure due to a deep notch between the chocolate brown lateral sepals (Jones 1998d).

Distinctive features of this species' flower include that the hood is erect for ¾ of its length and then curves forward (downward) in a semicircle and ends in a blunt point (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Jones et al. 1999) and that the modified petal (labellum) appears as a short brown tongue within the hood (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995). In the related species P. sp. aff. cucullata (Barrington Tops) the top of the hood is horizontal and does not curve downward like the Leafy Greenhood, and has a broader, more strongly curved labellum (Bishop 1996).

Vegetative Characters
The Leafy Greenhood has a thick, basal rosette of three to seven fleshy dark green leaves that can appear cabbage-like (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Jones et al. 1999). In Tasmania, the leaves have also been recorded growing up the stem (Jones et al. 1999). Plants are deciduous and become dormant during summer (Dell & Bester 2006).

Tubers of Leafy Greenhoods from Mornington Peninsula populations can grow up to 19 mm and produce replacement tubers each year, irrespective of whether the plant has produced leaves during that season (Mawson pers comm., as cited in Dell & Bester 2006). Leafy Greenhoods from Mornington Peninsula have shown that there is a relationship between tuber size and re-shooting/flowering time, with larger tubers shooting earlier (Dell & Bester 2006).

Leafy Greenhoods have been recorded in three States: Tasmania, South Australia, and Victoria. The populations thought to have come from NSW all belong to the related species P. spp. aff. cucullata (Barrington Tops) (Harden 1993).

South Australia
The Leafy Greenhood is known from four locations in the Mount Lofty Ranges, east of Adelaide, and potentially a fifth location in the south-east of the State (Mercer & Bond 2004).

Tasmania
In Tasmania the Leafy Greenhood is found on three islands off the north west coast of Tasmania: King Island, Hunter Island and Three Hummock Island (TSU 2001) and has recently been rediscovered on the mainland at Gardiner Point (Arthur River) and the northern Possum Banks area, both in near coastal areas in the north-west of the State (Schahinger 2002).

Victoria
In Victoria both the coastal and montane forms of the Leafy Greenhood still occur and these are separated according to geographic area and locality (Bramwells 2003).

A table of the known Australian distribution (extant and extinct) of the Leafy Greenhood in 2006 is provided below (after Bramwells 2003; Schahinger 2002; TSU 2001).
* = population in reserves


State Geographic Area Locality
Tasmania
Island off Tasmania
King Island Two sites
Island off Tasmania Three Hummock Island Nature Reserve* One site
Island off Tasmania Hunter Island* One site
Tasmanian mainland
Arthur Pieman Conservation Area Two sites
Tasmanian mainland Northern Possum Banks One site
Tasmanian mainland Presumed extinct George Town, Circular Head, Marrawah
South Australia
South Australia Adelaide Hills Belair National Park*
South Australia Adelaide Hills Scott Creek Conservation Park*
South Australia Adelaide Hills Lobethal and Lobethal Bushland Park Heritage Agreement area
South Australia Presumed extinct Macclesfield, Myponga, Mulor, Cherry Gardens, Upper Sturt.
Victoria
Coastal Victoria
Wilson's Promontory Yanakie Isthmus, Wilsons Promontory NP*
Coastal Victoria Mornington Peninsula Cape Schanck, Rye, Tootgarook
Mornington Peninsula NP*
Coastal Victoria Cape Otway Cape Otway, Otway NP*
Coastal Victoria South West Bridgewater Lakes, Cape Bridgewater, Nelson
Coastal Victoria Presumed extinct Frankston, Hampton, Nelson, Queenscliff, Sorrento
Inland Victoria
Strathbogie Ranges Strathbogie Ranges
Inland Victoria Central Highlands Lake Eildon, Licola
Lake Eildon NP*
Inland Victoria East Gippsland Benambra, Buchan, Moormurng, Serpentine Ck
Victoria reserves   Alpine NP* (Wonnangatta-Moroka Unit);
Bay of Islands Coastal Park*,
Discovery Bay Coastal Park*,
Kooyoora NP*,
Nooramunga Marine and Coastal Park*,
Yarra Ranges NP*,
Yarra Valley Parklands*
New South Wales
New South Wales Taxon now believed to be
Pterostylis sp. aff. cucullata (Barrington Tops)
Not relevant to Pterostylis cucullata (coastal) or
Pterostylis cucullata (montane)
Area of Occupancy

The area of occupancy of Leafy Greenhoods has typically not been recorded; however, the following provides a guideline for current locations where its area of occupancy has been calculated and locations where it was historically known to occur.

Currently:
The area of occupancy of Leafy Greenhoods in Tasmania's Bass Strait islands (King Island, Hunter Island and Three Hummock Island) is approximately 16 hectares (TSU 2001). On Mornington Peninsula, the total area of occupancy of 14 surveyed populations was 167 m²; the largest population had an area of 50 m², although most are less than 5 m² and these areas are expected to fluctuate over seasons (Dell & Bester 2006).

Formerly:
The total area of land occupied by the Leafy Greenhood across all States is substantially reduced from its historical distribution. Below are some locations it was formerly known to occur at:

South Australia
More than half the populations in South Australia's Mount Lofty Ranges are now extinct (Davies 1986). Sites where the tall forest form was known to occur included: Forest Range, Lenswood, Mylor, Cherry Garden, Upper Sturt, Macclesfield, Myponga and Hindmarsh Valley (Bates 1989). Coastal populations from coastal sandhills in South Australia's south-east, near Robe and at Fairview Park and McLaren Vale near Adelaide are also believed to be extinct (Bates & Weber 1990); however there appears some discrepancy about the former population, with Mercer and Bond (2004) reporting there is still a population in the south-east.

Tasmania
Historically this species was known from more sites on mainland Tasmania at: Port Dalrymple, George Town, Circular Head and Marrawah (TSU 2001).

Victoria
Leafy Greenhoods in Victoria were once known from: Wannon, Otway Plain, Otway Range, Eastern Highlands, Gippsland Plain, and East Gippsland Natural Regions (Conn 1992) and Frys Hut on the Howqua River (Bramwells 2003).

Leafy Greenhoods ex situ

In Cultivation
Leafy Greenhood tubers are readily available from specialist growers (Bates 1989). The forest form grows well in cultivation in cool, shaded conditions and is responsive to fertiliser use (Bates & Weber 1990).

In Collections
There are living collections of Leafy Greenhoods in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens and in the Australian National Botanic Gardens in Canberra (Davies 1992). Additionally, herbarium specimens are held at the National Herbarium, Melbourne, from populations at: Belair, Launceston, King Island, Macalister River, Benambra, Wilsons Promontory, Broadmeadows, Dargo, Licola, Wellington River and Barkly River (MEL collection records).

In Conservation
Leafy Greenhood plants were removed from the Tootgarook population prior to clearing for a house site. These orchids are maintained ex situ (Bramwells 2003).

Leafy Greenhood populations tend to overlap with suitable land for agriculture and urban development; consequently, many populations have become extinct (Dell & Bester 2006; Mercer & Bond 2004; Schahinger 2002). In South Australia, the Leafy Greenhood occurs over less than 5% of its former range (Bates & Weber 1990) and the remaining populations are highly fragmented (Mercer & Bond 2004).

Surveys for the Leafy Greenhood and monitoring of its populations are regularly conducted by volunteers and professionals at a number of sites. These include:

South Australia

  • Belair National Park - In Long Gully, a site within Belair National Park, one population of about 50 plants has been monitored since 1980. Initially this group of plants approximated an oval in its distribution and had a long diameter of 15 m, which extended another 2 m in 1988. However, the distribution of the plants has also changed; they are now around the periphery of the oval, rather than in the centre. This change in distribution was considered a consequence of trampling of those plants in the centre, and possible poaching of plants as the population was well known (Bates 1989). In 1992 permanent monitoring quadrats for the Leafy Greenhood were established in this Park at two priority sites separated by 1.5 km. Management activities, in particular weed management, have been conducted annually at these sites by the Threatened Plant Action Group (TPAG), the Native Orchid Society of South Australia, the Friends of Belair National Park and other volunteers. Since these surveys, the two sites have been linked by a corridor of restored habitat, three new subpopulations have been found and one subpopulation has become extinct. Of the three subpopulations where weed management activities were conducted, two subpopulations increased in size, one decreased and there have been additional benefits to other non-target threatened species (Mercer & Bond 2004).
  • Lofty Block Region of South Australia - The Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project has been operating since 1998; this project surveys and monitors threatened orchid populations including Leafy Greenhoods. Activities conducted by this group include the characterization of the life history stages of the different species, habitat restoration (e.g. erecting physical protection from herbivory by caging and/or fencing off plants), hand pollination, and collecting seed and mycorrhizal fungi for ex situ seed germination and cultivation (Quarmby 2006).

Tasmania

  • North-western Tasmania - Near-coastal native grasslands were surveyed from 1999–2001 and two Leafy Greenhood populations were subsequently discovered at Arthur River and Possum Banks (Schahinger 2002). Until this survey all recent records indicated the Leafy Greenhood was extinct on mainland Tasmania.

Victoria

  • Howqua River - Project Mansfield undertook a survey in the area in 1993. Although known from this area no Leafy Greenhoods were found; however, more surveys were planned (Bramwells 1993).
  • Lake Eildon - The Upper Goulburn Field Naturalists assisted Victoria's environment department (currently the Department of Sustainability and Environment, DSE) with a survey in 1993. A site reported to DSE was visited and a habitat description made (Bramwells 1993). A monitoring program to monitor key communities including the Leafy Greenhood was proposed in the Lake Eildon National Parks Management Plan (Parks Victoria 1997).
  • Licola - A two-week survey for Leafy Greenhoods was undertaken during November 1992 to ascertain the status and distribution of the Leafy Greenhood along the Wellington River and its environs, for future management decisions. Local field naturalists and other members of the community assisted DSE with the survey and it was anticipated that given more time, more plants would have been found (Bramwells 1993).
  • Strathbogie Ranges - The Upper Goulburn Field Naturalists originally found the population in 1982, and assisted DSE staff in 1993 with recording its details (Bramwells 1993).
  • Mornington Peninsula - Some populations have been monitored by DSE since 1998. Since 2002, this monitoring has constituted counts for the number of plants with and without flowers. Fourteen populations were then surveyed in December 2005 to determine a number of habitat characteristics to be used with describing and monitoring habitat on the Peninsula (Dell & Bester 2006).
  • Tootgarook - DSE surveyed this coastal population on the Mornington Peninsula in 1992 and 1993 and ten 1 m² sub-plots were set up for permanent population monitoring (Bramwells 1993) and a general description of the flora of the site was recorded.

The total population of both montane and coastal forms of the Leafy Greenhood is predicted to be in excess of 42 000 individual plants (Bramwells 2003; Dell & Bester 2006; Mercer & Bond 2004; Schahinger 2002; TSU 2001).

South Australia
More than 11 000 plants are thought to occur in the Mount Lofty Ranges (Mercer & Bond 2004):
Belair National Park: The largest number of plants in the Mount Lofty Ranges occurs in this Park in three populations, one with more than 2000 plants (Mercer & Bond 2004).
Scott Creek Conservation Park: There is one known population (SA DEH 2004).
Lobethal: Two populations are known from two quadrats near Lobethal (D. Bickerton pers comm 2002).

Tasmania
King Island: There are two populations on King Island, both are on private land. One is at Yellow Rock River, where two individual Leafy Greenhoods are known to occur; and the other is at Cape Wickham, where 2000 plants occur (TSU 2001).
Three Hummock Island: There are tens of individuals (TSU 2001).
Hunter Island: There are hundreds of plants in this population (Harris & Lazarus 2002; TSU 2001).
Gardiner Point: There are 15–20 plants at this site (Schahinger 2002).
Possum Banks: Approximately 300 plants were found at this site (Schahinger 2002).

Victoria
Mornington Peninsula:There are more than 13 000 plants known from 35 populations on the Peninsula, and it is anticipated that there are more, as yet unsurveyed, populations (Dell & Bester 2006).
Wilsons Promontory National Park: 1000 plants when last recorded (TSN 1999).
Licola: More than 15 000 flowering plants were counted along the Wellington River and its environs in November 1992 and future surveys were expected to uncover other populations (Bramwells 2003).

Population Trend

Leafy Greenhood populations tend to overlap with suitable habitat for agriculture and urban development and consequently many populations have become extinct and those that remain exist in out of the way or protected remnants (Bramwells 1993; Dell & Bester 2006; Mercer & Bond 2004; Schahinger 2002). In South Australia, Leafy Greenhood occurs over less than 5% of its former range (Bates & Weber 1990) and the remaining populations are highly fragmented (Mercer & Bond 2004). However, where active habitat restoration has occurred there appears to be a generally positive increase in the Leafy Greenhood population (Mercer & Bond 2004).

Important Populations

Locations that have been identified as containing important Leafy Greenhood populations include: Licola (because of its size), Moormung, Nelson, Serpentine (because of their geographic isolation) ; Mornington Peninsula (because of the large number of coastal Leafy Greenhoods) (Bramwells 2003); all three of the Tasmanian islands where the Leafy Greenhood occurs (TSU 2001); and Belair National Park (because of its size) (Davies 1995). The recently rediscovered populations on the mainland of Tasmania are also likely to be important populations for the species.

Cross-breeding
The Leafy Greenhood is known to hybridise with the Nodding Greenhood (Pterostylis nutans) in the Adelaide Hills (Weber & Bates 1986) and also the Alpine Greenhood (P. alpina) and the Slender Greenhood (P. foliata) where they co-occur in Victoria (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995).

Bishop (1996) suggests that the Enigmatic Greenhood ( P. aenigma) may be the product of hybridization between the Leafy Greenhood and the Sickle Greenhood (P. furcata). He has successfully produced seed by making this cross ex situ, but the seed has not been viable.

Populations occur in the following Reserves:

South Australia

  • Belair National Park (Mercer & Bond 2004)
  • Scott Creek Conservation Park (SA DEH 2004)

    Tasmania (TSU 2001)

  • Hunter Island Conservation Area
  • Three Hummock Island Nature Reserve

    Victoria (Parks Victoria 2000)

  • Alpine National Park (Wonnangatta-Moroka Unit)
  • Bay of Islands Coastal Park
  • Discovery Bay Coastal Park
  • Kooyoora National Park
  • Lake Eildon National Park
  • Mornington Peninsula National Park*
  • Nooramunga Marine and Coastal Park
  • Otway National Park
  • Wilsons Promontory National Park*
  • Yarra Ranges National Park (one local record)
  • Yarra Valley Parklands

    Populations marked with an asterix (*) are being monitored.

  • The Leafy Greenhood occurs in two distinct habitat types that correspond with the two distinct forms (sub-species) of Leafy Greenhood; one that occurs in coastal environments and the other in montane/inland environments.

    Coastal Habitat
    The coastal form of the Leafy Greenhood is usually found in protected areas of stabilized coastal sand dunes under open to closed scrub dominated by Coast Tea-tree (Leptospermum laevigatum), and/or Moonah (Melaleuca lanceolata), with an open ground stratum. These sites are typically sheltered, facing south-easterly to westerly, with seasonally damp but well-drained humus-rich sandy loams, often with moss and deep leaf litter. Some coastal populations occur in Coastal Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis subsp. pryoriana) woodland with a sparse shrub layer (Bramwells 1993).

    In Tasmania this form is known from tussock grassland (Bramwells 1993) and amongst tea-tree and paper-bark scrub on well-drained sites close to the sea (Jones et al. 1999). In South Australia the short coastal form (now thought to be extinct) grew in damp sandy soils under the shelter of dense shrubbery, whilst the tall inland form prefers moist environments on fertile loam soils, especially on damp south facing slopes amongst Maiden-hair Fern (Adiantum aethiopicum) (Bates & Weber 1990).

    Montane Habitat
    Inland populations occur on river banks or alluvial flood plains in protected positions with a southerly or easterly aspect, and can be found amongst the sub-alpine vegetation in the Victorian Highlands. These populations have been recorded in Forest Red-gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis) vegetation near Bairnsdale and forest with a canopy dominated by Apple Box (E. bridgesiana), Yellow Box (E. melliodora), Red Stringybark (E. macrorhyncha), Manna Gum (E. viminalis subsp. viminalis) or Gippsland Blue Gum (E. globulus subsp. pseudoglobulus). The understorey consists of a few tall shrubs over a diverse herbfield (Bramwells 1993).

    In South Australia, populations have been recorded in Brown Stringybark/Messmate Stringybark (Eucalyptus baxteri/Eucalyptus obliqua) forest and Blue Gum/Manna Gum (E. leucoxylon/E. viminalis) woodland in the Mount Lofty Ranges (Bramwells 1993).

    Critical Habitat Features
    Research into the Mornington Peninsula populations revealed that what was most critical about Leafy Greenhood habitat was that the soils and hence the tubers were protected from high solar radiation. Leafy Greenhood populations on Mornington Peninsula are invariably protected from afternoon sun by the upper canopy, lower branches or smaller plants in the understorey and canopy cover is often high (mode 70%), although if there is adequate protection, colonies may grow in open situations (Dell & Bester 2006).
    Threatened Species and Ecological Communities
    Many threatened species and ecological communities occur within or surrounding Leafy Greenhood habitat (Dell & Bester 2006; Mercer & Bond 2004; Reese 2000).

    On Mornington Peninsula Leafy Greenhoods are known only from coastal alkaline soils on which Coastal Alkaline Scrub is typically found. Coastal Moonah Woodland is a plant community of Coastal Alkaline Scrub and is listed under Victoria's FFG Act (Dell & Bester 2006). Additionally, one plant commonly found near Leafy Greenhood populations in this location is Coastal Wirilda (Acacia retinodes var. uncifolia); this shrub is listed as rare in Victoria (Dell & Bester 2006).

    In Belair National Park, Leafy Greenhoods are associated with Manna Gum/Blue Gum grassy woodland, a habitat that supports a number of threatened species such as Purple Clover (Glycine latrobeana) and the Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus obesulus) (Mercer & Bond 2004).

    Reproduction in this species is primarily vegetative through the production of 'daughter' tubers and under ideal conditions this species will form large colonies (Bishop 1996). However, typically only 5–25% of plants in a population will produce flowers in any given season, and even fewer will produce seed capsules (Bramwells 1993; Dell & Bester 2006).

    Vegetative Reproduction
    Observations of Leafy Greenhoods in cultivation suggest that, compared to other Greenhoods, the rate of vegetative reproduction is much slower. Although this species is capable of producing four daughter tubers each year (Bates 1989), as found in other Greenhoods, it typically produces fewer than this (Bramwells 1993). Nevertheless, Leafy Greenhoods multiply prolifically by vegetative means, sometimes producing colonies containing thousands of plants (Bramwells 1993).

    Flowering
    Part of the reason why there is such a poor rate of flowering in this species may be because of the time it takes for a plant to reach maturity; in the wild it is expected to take plants three to four years to flower (Bates 1989). In cultivation this species can flower in two to three years and some commercially available Leafy Greenhoods from South Australia flower more freely than wild plants (Bramwells 1993).

    Flowering amongst Leafy Greenhoods typically occurs from late winter to early summer, with some temporal variation according to location:

    • Tasmania: October to November (Jones et al. 1999)
    • Victoria: July to December, but primarily in September and October (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995)
    • South Australia: August to October (Weber & Bates 1986).

    Pollination
    Leafy Greenhoods are capable of both cross- and self-pollination (Bates 1989; Bramwells 1993). The best known pollinators of this species are fungus gnats (Mycetophilids), which are small, mosquito-like flies that are slender, have long legs and a single pair of wings. After pollen is transferred to the flower of the Leafy Greenhood it closes within hours; without pollination the plant retains its flower for up to three weeks (Bates 1989).

    It is unknown how the Leafy Greenhood attracts the fungus gnats as they emit no odour obvious to humans, they are not striking in appearance, offer no nectar reward, and the hypothesis that the translucent hood of the flower acts like a miniature greenhouse, although attractive for other greenhoods, may not be applicable for this species as it is commonly found in dark and shady spots (Bates 1989).

    Recruitment
    Ideal conditions for seedling recruitment are not known. However, the survival and recruitment of daughter tubers, which are only a few centimetres below the soil surface, appear to be strongly affected by seasonal rainfall. Wetter seasons produce a higher rate of recruitment than drier seasons. Soil disturbance may also enhance seedling establishment, but this is not a prerequisite for seedling establishment (Bramwells 1993).

    The seeds of orchid plants need a highly specialised fungal partner in order to germinate. This is a type of mycorrhizal relationship and can be highly specific, with some orchid species only able to associate with one or a few fungi. After germination, it can be possible to find these specific fungi retained in the roots and tubers of adult plants. These orchid mycorrhizal fungi are never dispersed with the seed but need to be where the seed lands in order for an orchid plant to establish (Rasmussen 1995; Weston et al. 2005). Terrestrial orchid species are unlikely to survive in the long term in the absence of associated fungi (Schade et al. 2006).

    This species is deciduous and summer dormant. Any surveying should not be undertaken during summer, when the plants have lost their leaves and are present only as underground tubers (Bates 1989). Plants emerge from summer dormancy after the first autumn rains, and a single flower is produced in early spring (TSN 1999). There are no other similar species that the Leafy Greenhood would be confused with (Quarmby 2006a).

    Based on the flowering of the Leafy Greenhood, the timing of Leafy Greenhood surveys in the three States should be:

    Victoria - July to December, but primarily September to October (Backhouse & Jeans 1995)
    South Australia - August to October (Weber & Bates 1986)
    Tasmania - October to November (Jones et al. 1999).

    Leafy Greenhood surveys conducted outside the growing period (mid summer to late autumn, about December to May) would not provide an acceptible indication of the presence or absence of this species.

    Additionally, from the detailed surveys of Mornington Peninsula populations, sites containing the Leafy Greenhood are likely to be very similar floristically when analysed against vegetation at broader scales. This similarity means an initial assessment of possible Leafy Greenhood habitat can be made by noting other, more obvious, species that are characteristic of the habitat such as Coastal Wirilda. The presence of all or any of these characteristic species indicates the presence of some ecological conditions that could be associated with Leafy Greenhood habitat. However, the exact causes determining the distribution of Leafy Greenhoods are poorly understood, as this species has been absent from vegetation containing all recognised character species, or those with similar environmental influence (Dell & Bester 2006).

    The Leafy Greenhood occurs in naturally limited and specific habitats that have been further reduced by clearing and urbanisation. Threats to remaining colonies are listed below (Bramwells 1993; Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Dell & Bester 2006; TSU 2001).

    Habitat Loss
    Habitat loss due to urban and rural development is a persistent threat throughout much of its range and has substantially reduced the available habitat for this species (Bates & Weber 1990; Bramwells 1993; Dell & Bester 2006; TSU 2001). Urban development has a number of detrimental consequences besides physical habitat destruction including increasing the proximity of weeds, snails and domesticated animals, all of which are detrimental to Leafy Greenhood populations (Bramwells 1993; Dell & Bester 2006).

    Development
    Urban and rural development is attributed as the major cause of the habitat loss and fragmentation that has occurred in South Australia (Mercer & Bond 2004). The removal of native vegetation (canopy plants or ground cover plants) and leaf litter, all of which provide shelter for the Leafy Greenhood, has occurred in response to new housing (Tootgarook) and coastal developments on the Mornington Peninsula. This includes associated construction activities, vehicular access, subsequent landscape plantings and small-scale ancilliary development. In other States the development of coastal areas are posing serious threats to this species (Bramwells 1993; Dell & Bester 2006; TSU 2001).

    Coastal development threatens Tasmania's island populations and is considered a major contributor to the decline of this species in this State (TSU 2001). At Yellow Rock River on King Island, there was no immediate threat to the Leafy Greenhood, but the Threatened Species Unit (2001) noted that the whole of the Yellow Rock Beach dune system ending at Cape Wickham was subdivided for private habitation.

    In Victoria, urban development is thought to have brought coastal populations to extinction at Frankston, Hampton, Nelson, Queenscliff and Sorrento (Bramwells 1993). Small scale development threatens populations at Blairgowrie, Cape Schanck, Rye, Sorrento and Tootgarook. Residential development, and subsequent removal of native vegetation, also threatens populations at Tootgarook, along with landscaping and recreational development. Furthermore, future development threatens the Leafy Greenhood at Boneo (Dell & Bester 2006). Inland populations in this State are relatively more secure (Bramwells 1993).

    Road Construction
    Road maintenance and development threaten many populations. In particular, road construction at Rye threatens the population along Belinda Street (Dell & Bester 2006) and earlier research into this species indicated that roadside populations were under threat at Wilsons Promontory and Strathbogie Ranges (Bramwells 1993).

    Land Clearing
    Clearing on private land is considered a persistent threat, especially where a population may not be known to local council (Dell & Bester 2006).

    Weed Invasion
    The greatest apparent threat to many populations of Leafy Greenhoods is weed invasion (Bramwells 1993; Davies 1995b, Quarmby 2006a). Weeds can outcompete Leafy Greenhoods through expression of potentially allelopathic chemicals suppressing growth of other species and by producing a dense canopy, blocking the light from reaching the understorey. No Leafy Greenhoods have been found surviving under the dense canopy of weed species invading their population (Davies 1995b). Weed invasion is promoted by habitat disturbance (e.g. road development or removal of trees for firewood) (Bramwells 1993); spreading of seed through animal (e.g. horse) faeces and the subsequent increase in soil fertility created by these animals (Davies 1995b).

    In Victoria, competition from weeds threatens Leafy Greenhoods in a number of locations, including Benambra, Bridgewater Lakes, Cape Otway, Cape Schanck, Lake Eildon, Licola, Spring Creek (Buchan), Serpentine Creek, Strathbogie Ranges, Tootgarook and Wilsons Promontory (Bramwells 1993).

    Victorian populations north of Licola have been invaded by Rubus spp. (e.g. Blackberry) and Rosa spp. (e.g. Briar, Rosehip) (Bramwells 1993) and populations near Benambra could be threatened by the invasion of the Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius) (J. Jeanes 2001, pers comm.). The Mornington Peninsula populations are being threatened by Cape Ivy (Delairea odorata); Panic Veldt-grass (Ehrharta erecta); Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides); Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) at Cape Schanck; and Myrtle-leaf Milkwort (Polygala myrtifolia) at Rye. The Myrtle-leaf Milkwort dominates at least two sites of the Leafy Greenhood, one at Cape Schanck National Park and the other on private land. Other species competing with the Leafy Greenhood on Mornington Peninsula include Cocksfoot Grass (Dactylis glomerata), Sweet Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), and Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica) (Dell & Bester 2006).

    Several populations in South Australia are threatened by invasive species such as the native Sweet Pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum); Montpellier, or Canary Broom (Genista monspessulana); Elm-leaf blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius); English Ivy (Hedera helix); Sparaxis bulbifera (an introduced Iris); Olive (Olea europaea); Gorse (Ulex europaeus); Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera); Arum Lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica) and Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae) (Quarmby 2006a).

    Trampling
    The fleshy, small and inconspicuous nature of the Leafy Greenhood makes it vulnerable to trampling (by humans, pigs, cattle and horses) (Davies 1995b; Dell & Bester 2006). Populations at Lake Eildon, Licola, Tootgarook and Cape Bridgewater are all threatened as a consequence of 4WDs, trail bikes, horse riding, and ad hoc camping (Bramwells 1993). Dogs are known to have disturbed Leafy Greenhoods at Tootgarook (Dell & Bester 2006). Mountain bike riders in Moringinton Peninsula National Park and walkers at Cape Schanck threaten Leafy Greenhood populations in these locations. Urban development on the Mornington Peninsula has increased the threat of trampling and disturbance of Leafy Greenhoods by domesticated animals (Dell & Bester 2006).

    Cattle trampling has been an integral component in the decline in coastal habitat of this species in Tasmania and was particularly detrimental to the Hunter Island and Cape Wickham populations. Cattle were a problem at Three Hummock Island, but have now been largely removed and the vegetation is thickening - which is subsequently causing a decline in Leafy Greenhoods due to competition. Some grazing or burning has been proposed to prevent the habitat becoming overgrown (TSU 2001).

    Grazing
    A number of snails have been reported grazing on Leafy Greenhoods, exposing these plants to risk from secondary viral and/or fungal infection, and impaired reproductive potential due to grazing of the flowers. Encroaching urbanisation onto or near Leafy Greenhood habitat increases the threat as urban environments provide shelter access for the snails (Bramwells 1993).

    A number of introduced snails have been identified as threats to the Leafy Greenhood, and these include:

  • the Mediterranean Snail (Microxeromagna vestita) - a particular threat in coastal locations (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995)
  • the Brown Garden Snail (Helix aspersa) - a major threat in Tasmania (Jones et al. 1999), in particular on Hunter Island (TSU 2001) and in Victoria at Nelson and Cape Otway (Bramwells 1993)
  • the White Italian Snail (Theba pisana) - a threat to populations at Nelson and Cape Otway (Bramwells 1993).

    Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are known to graze on the Leafy Greenhood at a number of sites in Victoria including Cape Otway, Wilsons Promontory (Bramwells 1993), Mornington Peninsula, Cape Schanck and Boneo (Dell & Bester 2006). Rabbits, hares and kangaroos have been recorded grazing on the Leafy Greenhood in South Australia (Reese 2000; Quarmby 2006a).

    Fire
    There is not enough known about the consequence of wildfire on Leafy Greenhoods to adequately assess the impact of fire; however, high fire frequency is considered to be detrimental (Dell & Bester 2006). It is considered a potential contributing factor to this species' decline in Tasmania, where post fire re-establishment is expected to take several years (TSU 2001). Those sites where wildfire is considered a significant threat are in coastal populations in Mornington Peninsula National Park, Cape Schanck, Tootgarook, Boneo and Rye. Additionally, a Leafy Greenhood population at Rye is under threat due to the clearing of native vegetation as a preventative measure against fire (Dell & Bester 2006).

    Illegal Collecting
    Orchids are highly desired by hobbyists and collectors, and a major threat to the Leafy Greenhood is illegal collection from the wild (Bramwells 1993; Davies 1995; Dell & Bester 2006). Illegal collection is known to have occurred at Wilsons Promontory and from the Tootgarook population, despite this species being commercially available (Bramwells 1993).

    Altered Water Flow
    The Leafy Greenhood may be susceptible to changes in hydrology, which include increases or decreases in moisture levels and changes to water chemistry. One consequence of logging is altered hydrology, with reports of streamflow declines in ash-type forests of up to 50%. In 1993, logging activities upstream of the population at Serpentine Creek, north of Orbost, was considered a potential threat (Bramwells 1993).


    Populations along the edges of rivers and creeks are susceptible to flooding and a large flood in 1989 is known to have deposited sand over a large area of Wellington River's Last Bridge campsite and a Licola population, destroying a large number of orchids (Bramwells 1993).


    Inherent Threats
    Leafy Greenhoods have the ability to multiply prolifically vegetatively and are capable of self-pollination, which means that apparently large populations may have very low genetic diversity. Therefore, even when a flower is pollinated with pollen from a different flower in a population, it may in fact be receiving pollen from a genetically identical individual (Bates 1989). This means that lack of genetic diversity may be a significant threat to this species, and the number of populations and area occupied may be a better indicator of risk than the actual number of plants in a population (TSU 2001).

    Another concern for this species, and in particular for translocated populations, may be the distribution of its fungal associates. All orchids need a mycorrhizal fungus for germination and the nature of this relationship can be highly specific. It is yet to be determined if this species is specific in its fungal association (Rasmussen 1995).

  • The implementation of threat abatement strategies and their success requires site specific information regarding the presence of other threats and threatened species. For example, in Melville Gully in Belair National Park, there is a large population of Leafy Greenhoods and a large population of the nationally endangered Southern Brown Bandicoot. In order to protect the Bandicoot, fox control programs have been implemented, which has created an increase in the rabbit population, and in turn has increased the grazing pressure on the Leafy Greenhood. An additional complication to the mangement of these species is the presence of weeds such as blackberries. The Leafy Greenhood population would benefit from removal of these weeds; however, blackberries are a source of food and shelter for Bandicoots and their removal could be detrimental (Reese 2000). Clearly the conservation of these threatened species requires very careful management strategies.

    Habitat Restoration
    Many of the threats to the Leafy Greenhood revolve around habitat degradation due to weed invasion or physical destruction of the habitat. To combat these threats, some community groups are actively trying to restore and maintain the grassy woodland habitat of Leafy Greenhoods (such as in Belair National Park and in the Lofty Block Region), and there are a number of other threatened plant and animal species that also benefit from this work (Mercer & Bond 2004; Quarmby 2006). Much of the work of these community groups has been centered around weed management.

    Combatting Weeds
    It is recommended that weeding activities be prioritised (a method for doing this, and recommended removal methods for each weed species, is provided by Davies (1995b)). Residents adjoining Leafy Greenhood populations can be educated regarding environmental weeds and roaming pets (Dell & Bester 2006). Weeding should only be conducted by a suitably qualified person able to distinguish native from exotic species and only when Leafy Greenhoods are dormant (late summer to autumn), before the shoots emerge in winter (Davies 1986, 1995b).

    Weeding methods that have been employed in Leafy Greenhood habitat include hand-pulling, sawing and slashing, and painting or spraying with herbicide (Davies 1986, 1995b; Dell & Bester 2006). A test to detect the effect of the herbicide Roundup on a Leafy Greenhood population covered with blackberries and wild roses was conducted in 1991 at Licola. Spraying took place in summer, when the orchids were dormant and only half of the population was exposed to Roundup. Although this was not a controlled experiment, the subjective results indicated no deleterious effects of the poison on the orchids (Bramwells 1993).

    In combination with the removal or destruction of these weeds, options can be investigated for their gradual replacement with native, local, shrub species such as Leucopogon parviflorus and Coast Tea-Tree (Dell & Bester 2006).

    Preventing Trampling
    Fences have been successfully used in preventing trampling by cattle for some Tasmanian populations (TSU 2001). Another method to minimise trampling is to direct the construction of paths and tracks away from Leafy Greenhood populations, thereby preventing their destruction by outdoor recreationists (Bramwells 1993).

    Propagation and Translocation
    Translocation of Leafy Greenhoods has been successful. The ability for this species to colonise new, suitable sites provides some flexibility in ensuring the long-term survival of the Leafy Greenhood; however, translocation should never be undertaken unless all other avenues for protection have been attempted (Backhouse & Jeanes 1995; Dell & Bester 2006).

    Enhancing Recruitment
    Propagation of Leafy Greenhood tubers ex situ and hand pollinations have been proposed as methods for restocking populations (Bramwells 1993).

    Fire Management
    On the Mornington Peninsula, where there is much residential development occurring, it is proposed that supplying wildfire management advice to adjoining residents and developing property specific fire prevention plans is the best way to combat the potentially devastating effects of wildfire on the Leafy Greenhood populations in the region (Dell & Bester 2006).

    A number of translocation activities have taken place on Mornington Peninsula.

    Around 1400 tubers from a residential site proposed for development at Tootgarook (a 2.7 x 1.9 m population of Leafy Greenhood) to Mornington Peninsula National Park (ex situ site of 14 plots of 1 x 1 m each, with 100 tubers in each area) was made in 2005 (Mawson 2007). The original assessment estimate of 200 plants at the Tootgarook site led to the conclusion that it represented an important population and in 2005, Natural Heritage Trust (NHT) funding was provided to translocate the orchids to a site within Port Nepean National Park at Cape Schanck. During the collection of tubers, 1875 tubers greater than 4 mm were obtained from the site. The translocation process identified a number of issues that need further consideration, including the ability of some orchids to tolerate weeds, the visibility of the orchid at ground level for only 12 weeks (Spetember-October-November), the association of Leafy Greenhood with other orchids and mosses, and the association with a coastal teatree canopy.

    In October 2008, under Referral 2008/4504, the Department declared the construction of a dwelling at 7 Booran Parade Tootgarook not to be a controlled action providing that the owner undertook a translocation and ongoing management program for Leafy Greenhoods present on the site. There are currently four areas where the orchid is present; one group of orchids at a site affected by the construction (in the south-east) will be translocated to an area near the other remaining orchids in the south-west of the site. Around 36 flowers in total were recorded in the 2008 season. The site for translocation is referred to as the orchid habitat zone These areas are protected by an established coast tea-tree and coast beard-heath which are being retained during the proposed works.

    Management by the owner of the orchid habitat zone is specified in the Salvage, Relocation and Management Plan prepared by Burke (2008) and will include:

    • Preparation of an effective and suitable salvage and relocation plan for Leafy Greenhood that are located within close proximity to the proposed dwelling at 7 Booran Parade Tootgarook.

  • Implementation of an approved salvage and relocation plan under the guidance and supervision of Mr Russell Mawson, member of the Australasian Native Orchid Society and in consultation with the Department of Sustainability and the Environment (DSE).
  • Implement on-going schedule of works for management of Leafy Greenhood including annual monitoring and reporting.
    Ongoing management is specified, including; the nature of weeding; management of invasive species; monitoring of grazing species such as snails and rabbits; and pedestrian access control. The number of Leafy Greenhood Orchids, including number of flowers and seed capsules, will be documented and recorded on a site map from mid September to the end of October (or the end of the flowering period). Monitoring records will be kept in a data base and made available to relevant government authorities (DSE and Mornington Peninsula Shire) and the Australasian Native Orchid Society and a section 173 agreement will be entered into between the Mornington Peninsula Shire Council and the owner of the property and registered on the Title to ensure long term protection of the orchid habitat zone (EPBC 2008/4504).
    The Threatened Plant Action Group (VIC/SA) received $23 200 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2002–03 for the development of an action plan for the threatened Leafy Greenhood Orchid, to prioritise management strategies and protect sites through conservation agreements, survey of known sites, on-ground work, collation of existing information, determination of threats, land use, critical habitat, key populations and recovery actions.

  • Key management documentation have been prepared, or are in preparation, for the Leafy Greenhood in each State:

    South Australia
    Management guidelines for the Leafy Greenhood in the Mount Lofty Ranges have been provided (Davies 1986, 1995b). Management strategies for the Leafy Greenhood in this area can also be found in the Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia 2007–2012 (Quarmby 2006a).

    Tasmania
    A threatened species listing statement was prepared for the Leafy Greenhood (TSU 2001) detailing recovery plan objectives and noting that a management plan for Tasmania's Three Hummock Island is being prepared, which should address the conservation requirements for this species. A regional multi-species recovery plan for King Island, including the Leafy Greenhood, is also in preparation.

    Victoria
    A Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement has been prepared (Bramwells 1993). Additional Natural Heritage Trust funding was provided to review and map the known and likely presence of the species within Mornington Peninsula Shire. The results of this report are in Dell & Bester (2006) Management and status of Leafy Greenhood (Pterostylus cucullata) populations within Mornington Peninsula Shire - 2006.

    Action Statement Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 No 141 - Coastal Moonah Woodland (Turner & Tonkinson 2003) may also be relevant because the Leafy Greenhood is associated with this community on the Mornington Peninsula. The statement lists management actions by the State and Local Government to map, assess and plan the conservation of Coastal Moonah Woodland. It does not name specific sites of Leafy Greenhood.

    The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Recreational harvest Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Biological Resource Use:Logging and Wood Harvesting:Habitat loss, modification and degradation due to timber harvesting Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Pterostylis cucullata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tf) [Internet].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat degradation associated with recreational activities such as horse riding Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Soil disturbance and/or trampling due to bushwalking National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:camping National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Stenotaphrum secundatum (Buffalo Grass) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hedera helix (English Ivy) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Galium aparine (Cleavers, Goosegrass, Bedstraw, Clivers, Barweed, Burrweed, Catchweed, Catchweed Bedstraw, Robin-run-over-the-hedge, Stickywilly, Sweethearts, Velcro Plant) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Plantago lanceolata (Ribwort, Ribgrass, Lamb's Tongue) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Cirsium vulgare (Spear Thistle, Black Thistle, Scotch Thistle) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Polygala myrtifolia (Myrtle-leaf Milkwort, Butterfly Bush, Parrot Bush, Bellarine Pea, Sweet-pea Shrub (NZ), September Bush (South Africa)) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Sparaxis bulbifera (Harlequin Flower) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ehrharta erecta (Panic Veldtgrass) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Vinca major (Blue Periwinkle, Periwinkle, Vinca, Sorcerer's Violet, Big Leaf Periwinkle, Greater Periwinkle, Blue Buttons) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Erica arborea (Tree Heath) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oxalis pes-caprae (Soursob, Bermuda Buttercup, Buttercup Oxalis, Cape Cowslip, Geelsuring, Oxalis, Sorrel, Sourgrass, Yellow-Flowered Oxalis, Yellow Sorrel) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Allium triquetrum (Three-corned Garlic, Three-corner Garlic, Angled Onion, Three-Cornered Leek, Triquetrous Garlic, Triquetrous Leek) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Genista monspessulana (Montpellier Broom, Cape Broom, Canary Broom, Common Broom, French Broom, Soft Broom) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Olive, African Olive, Wild Olive) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Briza spp. National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation caused by Freesia sp. National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pittosporum undulatum (Sweet Pittosporum, Snowdrop Tree, Engraver Wood, Mock Orange, Native Laurel, Wave Leaved Pittosporum, White Holly, Native Daphne, Victorian Box, Australian Cheesewood, New Zealand Daphne, Victorian Laurel, Wild Coffee) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Negative impact from animals National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    Flora Recovery Plan: Tasmanian Threatened Orchids 2006-2010 (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2006a) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate fire regimes including natural wildfires Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    Pterostylis cucullata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006tf) [Internet].
    National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads National Recovery Plan for the Leafy Greenhood Pterostylis cucullata (Duncan, M., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
    Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
    Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].

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    EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Pterostylis cucullata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 14:04:29 +1000.