In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus steedmanii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008pe) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Eucalyptus steedmanii |
|Reference||Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 19 (26 Jul. 1933) 87.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
Scientific name: Eucalyptus steedmanii
Common name: Steedman's Gum
Other names: Steedman's Mallet
Conventionally accepted as Eucalyptus steedmanii (CHAH 2010).
Steedman's Gum is a small, erect, smooth barked tree (or mallet) growing up to 8 m in height. It is distinctive in that it produces numerous ascending branches from low on its trunk, forming a dense crown. The smooth bark ranges from grey, to red-brown to bright coppery in colour. The plant often has strips of older bark adhering to the short trunk (Brooker & Kleinig 1990; Brown et al. 1998; Durell & Buehrig 2001; Nicolle 2006; Rye & Hopper 1981; WA DEC 2008).
Adult leaves grow up to 8 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, are olive-green and glossy in appearance, and are crowded with oil veins. Juvenile leaves are stalked and grow up to 9 cm long and 3 cm wide. Each inflorescence (group of flowers contained on a stem) contains three flowers which are usually cream or yellow, but occasionally pink or red. The yellowish-brown, pendulous (hanging loosely) buds are held on long stalks in the leaf axils (where the leaf joins the branch). The buds are shaped in an elongated diamond and are 3.3 cm long and 1.3 cm wide with a pyramidal cap. Fruits grow to 2.2 cm long and 1.7 cm in diameter, and are longitudinally winged (Brooker & Kleinig 1990; Brown et al. 1998; Durell & Buehrig 2001; Nicolle 2006; Rye & Hopper 1981; WA DEC 2008).
Endemic to Western Australia, Steedman's Gum is confined to an area of approximately 80 km east of Hyden in the Forrestania - North Ironcap regions of the State (Durell & Buehrig 2001).
The extent of occurrence for Steedman's Gum is 83.6 km² (WA DEC 2008).
Surveys conducted in 2002, recorded an area of occupancy of 0.167 km² for three of the six known populations of Steedman's Gum (WA DEC 2008). The area of occupancy for other populations of the species is not known.
No populations of Steedman's Gum occur on a reserve site. Five populations occur on unallocated Crown Land, and the population which is split occurs on both unallocated Crown Land and a road verge (WA DEC 2008).
The species is found on gravelly clay and loam soils on gentle slopes and ridges of ironstone and greenstone (Kelly et al. 1995; Pryor 1981). Steedman's Gum grows in dense, extensive stands, forming low woodland over Melaleuca scrub and heath. At sites recovering from fire, it is the dominant species and forms dense pole stands (Brown et al. 1998; Kelly et al. 1995).
Associated species include the Sand Mallee (E. eremophila), Gimlet Gum (E. salubris), Salmon Gum (E. salmonophloia) and E. densa (Brown et al. 1998; Kelly et al. 1995).
Flowering has been recorded from November to March, being most prolific from January to March (Kelly et al. 1995; Rye & Hopper 1981).
Steedman's Gum is an 'obligate seeder', so it will only regenerate from seeds released after fire or other disturbance event (Durell & Buehrig 2001; Pryor 1981). The seeds of obligate seeders often have only a short viability under natural conditions and, as such, the soil-stored seed bank is generally negligible (Boland et al. 1980 cited in Nicolle 2006).
The main threat to Steedman's Gum is inappropriate fire regimes. While fire kills the adult plants, regeneration via obligate seeding is the usual means of recovery in the species (Durell & Buehrig 2001; Nicolle 2006). However, fire frequency will impact on the species if it occurs before new plants have reached maturity.
In 1994, wildfires in the Narrogin region burnt all known populations of Steedman's Gum. Regeneration of known populations occurred, under favourable environmental conditions, after several months, with new trees fruiting in 2003. Fire frequency of less than eight years interval is likely to adversely affect populations (Nicolle 2006).
The main potential threats to Steedman's Gum are firebreak maintenance, mining operations (including mining exploration) and recreational activities at the site of populations. The latter due to the associated increases in disturbance and weed invasion (Durell & Buehrig 2001; WA DEC 2008).
Management documents for Steedman's Gum include:
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence)||Eucalyptus steedmanii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ji) [Internet].|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Eucalyptus steedmanii in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006ji) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus steedmanii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008pe) [Conservation Advice].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Eucalyptus steedmanii (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008pe) [Conservation Advice].|
Brooker, M.I.H. & Kleinig, D.A. (1990). Field Guide to Eucalypts. Volume 1, South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Durell, G.S. & R.M. Buehrig (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Narrogin District. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Kelly, A.E., A.C. Napier, & S.D. Hopper (1995). Survey of rare and poorly known eucalypts of Western Australia. CALM Science. Suppl. 2. Waneroo Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA CALM).
Nicolle, D. (2006). A classification and census of regenerative strategies in the eucalypts (Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus-Myrtaceae), with special reference to the obligate seeders. Australian Journal of Botany. 54(4):391-407.
Pryor, L.D. (1981). Australian Endangered Species: Eucalypts. In: Special Publication. 5. Canberra, Commonwealth of Australia.
Rye, B.L. & S.D.Hopper (1981). A Guide to the Gazetted Rare Flora of Western Australia. Report No. 42. Page(s) 1-211. Perth: Department of Fisheries & Wildlife WA.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2008). Records held in DEC's Declared Flora Database and rare flora files. Perth, Western Australia: WA DEC.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Eucalyptus steedmanii in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 1 Sep 2014 17:43:24 +1000.