Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Darwinia biflora (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014ch) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (29/04/2014).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Flora Schedules: Recommendations to the Scientific Committee: Final Summary Report December 2002 (Hogbin, P., 2002) [Report].
NSW:Darwinia biflora - profile (NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC), 2005k) [Internet].
NSW:Darwinia biflora Recovery Plan (NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC), 2004a) [Internet].
NSW:Threatened Species Information: Darwinia biflora (NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service, 1999b) [Internet].
NSW:Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines - Darwinia biflora (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 2003h) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
Scientific name Darwinia biflora [14619]
Family Myrtaceae:Myrtales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Cheel) B.Briggs
Infraspecies author  
Reference Contributions from the New South Wales National Herbarium 3 (17 Sep. 1962) 144, fig. 5c.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Darwinia biflora

Darwinia biflora is an erect, sometimes spreading, shrub around 20–80 cm tall (Benson & McDougall 1998; Briggs 1962; Harden 1991). The leaves are successive pairs at right angles to each other (Briggs 1962). The leaves are 6–10 mm long, without hairs or scales, laterally compressed and frequently pressed closely against the branch (Briggs 1962; Harden 1991). The fruit is a nut 1.2–1.7 mm in diameter (Benson & McDougall 1998; Briggs 1962; Carolin & Tindale 1993). The flowers, when open, are white turning to pink in the upper parts with a green floral tube (Briggs 1962; Benson & McDougall 1998). The flower shape is tubular with the stamens and perianth parts inserted in the rim (Harden 1991). This floral tube is 5–8 mm long, becoming constricted towards the apex, and has broad rounded longitudinal ridges (Briggs 1962). The flowers are usually in pairs with a stalk < 1 mm long (Benson & McDougall 1998; Briggs 1962; Harden 1991). Bracts (modified leaves associated with, but not on, the flower) are shaped like the leaves or are triangular, 1–8 mm in length and membrane-like (scarious) (Briggs 1962; Harden 1991). The bracteoles (bract-like structure on the flower) are purple-red and fall off after the flower has opened (Briggs 1962). The style is 10–14 mm long, straight or slightly curved and yellow-green, occasionally becoming red, with a ring of hairs (Briggs 1962; Harden 1991).

Darwinia biflora is found across the Hornsby plateau area, north-western Sydney, along the edges of weathered shale, capped ridges and Hawkesbury Sandstone (Carolin & Tindale 1993; NSW DEC 2004a). Maroota is the northern extreme of the range, North Ryde in the south, Cowan in the east and Kellyville in the west (NSW DEC 2004a). Known sites of Darwinia biflora are found in the Local Government Areas of Ryde, Baulkham Hills, Hornsby, Ku-ring-gai and the Central Coast Botanical Subdivision. Previously recorded sites in Hunters Hill, Linden (Blue Mountains) and Royal National Park are no longer present (NSW DEC 2004a).

The extent of occurrence for Darwinia Biflora is 583.7 km². This value was calculated from site data in the Darwinia biflora Recovery Plan (NSW DEC 2004a). This data was generated through an inventory of all sites where Darwinia biflora had previously been recorded as well as from data from surveys carried out in 1997–98, and from surveys in the Berowra Valley Regional Park by Hornsby Shire Council and various environmental consultants (NSW DEC 2004a).

Area of occupancy is estimated at 115 km² (NSW DEC 2004a).

The Recovery Plan for Darwinia biflora (NSW DEC 2004a) identified 241 sites where the species currently occurs. The definition of a population was determined by 500 m dispersal ranges that did, at times, contain more then one site (NSW DEC 2004a).

Meredith and Richardson (1986) do not identify any known propagated populations. According to the Recovery Plan, translocation of Darwinia biflora populations is not recommended (NSW DEC 2004a). The basis of this recommendation is on the long-term failures associated with such projects, where initial survival of individuals is achieved but survival rates after one year are low (R. Doig APS, pers comm. as cited in NSW DEC 2004a).

The seeds of Darwinia species do not generally disperse far from the parent plants (NSW DEC 2004a). Many populations of Darwinia biflora have been reduced in size due to urban development, particularly in the north and west of the range (Benson & McDougall 1998; NSW DEC 2004a). In the north and west of the distribution range, around Maroota and Glenorie, sites are generally isolated, further than the predicted seed dispersal range of 500 m (NSW DEC 2004a). Sites managed for conservation occur in the south and the east of the range, however, these sites are not likely to adequately conserve genetic diversity (NSW DEC 2004a).

As part of the Recovery Plan development, inventories were carried out on all known Darwinia biflora populations (NSW DEC 2004a). The plan also pooled together survey work carried out by S. Burke in 1997–98, survey work from Berowra Valley Regional Park by Hornsby Shire Council and various environmental consultants (NSW DEC 2004a).

Darwinia biflora is most common in the southern and eastern extremes of its range (NSW DEC 2004a). Population numbers are highest after fire and decrease in relation to time since fire (NSW DEC 2004a).

The Darwinia biflora Recovery Plan (NSW DEC 2004a) gives seven sites where populations have been recorded at over 5000 individuals, however, it is stressed that these are preceded records and that these numbers may not be accurate due to recent fire histories (NSW DEC 2004a).

Sites that have been recorded as containing > 5000 individuals (NSW DEC 2004a).

Site Tenure
Bobbin Head track DEC (National Park)
Murrua track DEC (National Park)
Gibberagong track DEC (National Park)
Berowra Valley Regional Park, Dural Berowra Valley Regional Park
Beaumont track DEC (National Park)
Berowra Valley Regional Park, Galston Berowra Valley Regional Park
Mt Colah DEC (National Park)

The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2007b) indicates a declining overall population trend for Darwinia biflora.

The time since last fire has a dramatic effect on Darwinia biflora resulting in extreme natural fluctuation in population numbers (NSW DEC 2004a). Numbers are high after fire and decrease with time since fire (NSW DEC 2004a). Therefore, population numbers should not be used as the only measure for the importance of a population (NSW DEC 2004a).

It is believed that plants germinate post-fire and live for 15–20 years with a juvenile period of one and a half to two years (NSW DEC 2004a). Benson and McDougall (1998) suggested an even shorter life expectancy of five to ten years.

The NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (2004a) highlighted that 37% of Darwinia biflora sites are already in areas managed for conservation. These areas are located in the south and east of the distribution range and unlikely to adequately represent all genetic diversity.

In addition, the NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (2004a) identified 20 populations believed to be important and suitable to be targeted for protection (i.e. significant sites not already covered by the reserve system).

Sites of high conservation significance that provide opportunities for protection - based on current knowledge, not limited to these listed (NSW DEC 2004a).

Site Landowner
Annangrove; Annangrove Park Baulkham Hill Shire Council
Annangrove; Annangrove Park Baulkham Hill Shire Council
Annangrove; north side of Annangrove Road Baulkham Hill Shire Council
Kenhurst; north of Annangrove Road Baulkham Hill Shire Council
Maroota; ridge near Jackson's Swamp NSW Department of Lands
Glenorie; at the end of Schwebel Lane NSW Department of Lands
Kellyville; Crown Land at Heath Road NSW Department of Lands
Kenhurts; Holland Reserve NSW Department of Lands
Kenhurts; Holland Reserve, Pony Club site NSW Department of Lands
Maroota; end of Haerses Road NSW Department of Lands
Kellyville; near Cattai Creek Private
Kellyville; Roseberry Road, around Cattai Creek Private
Kenhurst; Robson Road Private
Kenhurst; end of Emperor Place under powerlines Private
South Maroota; Pauls Road Private
Berowra Heights; residential A Private
Berowra; about 500 m along fire trail north of Turner Road NSW Department of Lands
Fox Valley; along fire trail SW of Leuna Avenue Ku-ring-gai council
West Pymble; south of Combe Place Ku-ring-gai council
West Pymble; fire trail off Wallalong Crescent Ku-ring-gai council
Darwinia biflora often self-pollinates prior to the flower opening therefore hybridisation and outcrossing are considered rare (Briggs 1962; Benson & McDougall 1998; NSW DEC 2004a).

The Recovery Plan for Darwinia biflora (NSW DEC 2004a) mentions two types of land tenure that are managed primarily for conservation; the National Park land covering 51 sites (21% of total known sites); and the Berowra Valley Regional Park with 30 sites (16% of total known sites). The NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (2004a) also note that much of the reserved areas are in the south and the east of the distribution range while much of the northern and western sites are in high development, non-reserved areas.

Populations of Darwinia biflora occur in Berowra Valley Regional Park (NSW NPWS 2005), Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park (NSW NPWS 2002c), Lane Cove National Park (NSW NPWS 2006h), Marramarra National Park (NSW NPWS 1998c, 2006i) and in Berry Park and Oxley Reserve (Hornsby Shire Council 2006).

Darwinia biflora occurs in Sandstone Ridge top woodlands where the weathered shale-capped ridges intergrade with Hawkesbury Sandstone (NSW DEC 2004a). A canopy cover ranging from 0–30% appears to be beneficial for Darwinia biflora success (G. Limbury Hornsby, pers. comm., cited in NSW DEC 2004a).

Darwinia biflora is found on gentle slopes near the crests of ridges or on sheet rock with moss beds (NSW DEC 2004a). It exists on Lucas Heights Soil Landscapes that intergrade with Gymea or Hawkesbury Soil Landscapes; these are described as residual soil landscapes meeting colluvial or erosional soil landscapes (NSW DEC 2004a).

Associated species will change depending on biological habitat and disturbance regimes. Associated species include (NSW DEC 2004a):

  • Lesser Flannel-flower (Actinotus minor)
  • Dwarf Apple (Angophora hispida)
  • Golden Banksia (Banksia ericifolia)
  • Silver Banksia (Banksia marginata)
  • Dwarf Banksia (Banksia oblongifolia)
  • Hairpin Banksia (Banksia spinulosa)
  • Red Bloodwood (Corymbia gummifera)
  • Wallum Heath (Epacris pulchella)
  • Brown Stringybark (Eucalyptus capitellata)
  • Scribbly Gum (Eucalyptus haemastoma)
  • Hard-leaved Scribbly Gum (Eucalyptus sclerophylla)
  • Large Wedge-pea (Gompholobium grandiflorum)
  • Grey Spider Flower (Grevillea buxifolia)
  • Dagger Hakea (Hakea teretifolia)
  • Narrowleaf Drumsticks (Isopogon anethifolius)
  • White Kunzea (Kunzea ambigua)
  • Tickbush (Kunzea capitata)
  • Woolly Tea-tree (Leptospermum trinervium)
  • Mitrasacme polymorpha
  • Pine-leaved Geebung (Persoonia pinifolia).

Most rainfall occurs in the summer and varies from an average of 977 mm in the north to 1143 mm in the south (NSW DEC 2004a). The average daily temperature in summer is 19–26 °C while in winter temperature ranges from 8–17 °C (NSW DEC 2004a).
The distribution of Darwinia biflora overlaps with the Endangered Shale/Sandstone Transition Forest ecological community (DEWHA 2008d; James 1997). It is associated with the Vulnerable Tetratheca glandulosa, which also inhabits this ecological community (James 1997).

It is believed that plants germinate post fire and live for 15 to 20 years (NSW DEC 2004a). Benson and McDougall (1998) suggest an even shorter life expectancy of five to ten years. The juvenile period is one and a half to two years (NSW DEC 2004a).

Published flowering times for Darwinia biflora have been described as winter to spring and even into November (Benson & McDougall 1998; Carolin & Tindale 1993; Fairley & Moore 2000; Harden 1991). However, the Recovery Plan for Darwinia biflora (NSW DEC 2004a) states that flowering is concentrated in autumn with fruits being produced from May to August. It is important to note that Auld and colleagues (1993) indicate that flowering may occur throughout the year.

Darwinia biflora often self pollinates due to development of the flowers (Benson & McDougall 1998; NSW DEC 2004a). The flowers are bisexual with the pollen-laden stylar hairs and stigma close together (Briggs 1962; NSW DEC 2004a). The result is a pollen mass that can cover both the stylar hairs and the stigma, causing self pollination before the flower has even opened (Briggs 1962; NSW DEC 2004a). The flowers are rarely visited by insects, however, bees have been reported to take pollen from the base of the flower without touching the stigma (Benson & McDougall 1998; Briggs 1962; NSW DEC 2004a). Vegetative reproduction is not known in Darwinia biflora (Benson & McDougall 1998).

Fruit production is variable for Darwinia species but often very low in plants less then five years old (Auld et al. 1993). While Darwinia biflora plants have been seen with fruit at just 18 months of age, few of these fruits mature (Auld et al. 1993). Fruit production is expected to increase with time since the last fire but will reduce as the canopy becomes dense (Auld et al. 1993; G. Limburg pers. comm., cited in NSW DEC 2004a).

Seeds are not stored on the shrub and, once released, are deposited in the soil seed bank (NSW DEC 2004a). Seed dispersal and incorporation into the soil seed bank has been linked with ants attracted to old petal components (NSW DEC 2004a). Most seeds are released in a dormant state and seed viability is high (Auld et al. 1993; NSW DEC 2004a). Fire is the general mechanism that breaks dormancy although seeds may break dormancy with time (NSW DEC 2004a). It is believed that 20% of seeds still remain dormant in the soil seed bank post fire (NSW DEC 2004a). Auld and colleagues (1993) suggest that there may be two different types of seed produced.

Persistence of the seed bank is critical for the survival of Darwinia biflora (NSW DEC 2004a). The seed bank is believed to build rapidly post fire, reaching a peak at approximately ten years since fire and then slowing down as adults in the population die (Auld et al. 1993; NSW DEC 2004a). The volume of seeds in the seed bank is dependant on continual recruitment from mature plants (NSW DEC 2004a). Fires that are too frequent to allow adequate replenishment of the soil seed bank will result in eventual site extinction (NSW DEC 2004a). Factors such as dense canopy cover can also limit seed production, having dramatic effects on the post fire recovery if the seed bank is not replenished (Auld et al. 1993).

Other forms of disturbance can also create an environment for Darwinia biflora to germinate (NSW DEC 2004a). High numbers of Darwinia biflora have been found in areas cleared under power lines or along tracks in areas subject to dense canopy cover (NSW DEC 2004a). Natural regeneration events have also been associated with the use of herbicide on weed infested areas (NSW DEC 2004a).

Darwinia biflora can be distinguished by the two flowers that are arranged in cluster's giving the species its name (Blake 1981). Many other Darwinia species have two or more flowers per cluster (NSW DEC 2004a). When not in flower the shape of the leaves, which are laterally compressed and not terete, can be used to distinguish between Darwinia biflora and other Darwinia species in the northern Sydney area (NSW DEC 2004a).

As Darwinia biflora can be distinguished from other Darwinia species by the leaves, surveys can be conducted year round.

Time since fire or disturbance can have a dramatic impact on the population size of Darwinia biflora with large amounts of seeds lying dormant in the soil seed bank (NSW DEC 2004a). Surveys of plants above ground can underestimate populations by not taking into account the potential in the soil seed bank (Given 1994).

Threats to Darwinia biflora include habitat loss, increased fragmentation, inappropriate fire regimes, bushrock removal, clearing for maintenance, track creation, weed invasion and impacts from surrounding developed areas (DEWHA 2007c; NSW DEC 2004a; NSW DECC 2005k).

Inappropriate fire regimes
High frequency fire, resulting in the disruption of life cycle processes in plants and animals and loss of vegetation structure and composition, is listed as one of the key threatening processes under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. Fire management is vital for the survival of Darwinia biflora and it is listed as one of the plant species affected by this key threatening process (NSW DEC 2004a; NSW DECC 2008a). Numerous populations do not have appropriate fire management practices or suitable fire regimes (NSW DEC 2004a). Intervals between fires need to be long enough to allow plants to mature and contribute to the soil seed bank (NSW DEC 2004a).

An example of inappropriate fire management occurred at Mount Colah golf course. Surveys of this site in 1984 and 1989 reported around 6000–7000 plants, however, survey work in 1997 found no plants present (NSW DEC 2004a). This was attributed to the lack of fire with many of the other sandstone woodland species senescing and then being replaced by Sweet Pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum), a wet forest species that is weedy in the Sydney region (AWC n.d.; NSW DEC 2004a)

Another example occurred at Stokes Avenue, Asquith. A 1989 survey reported around 1500 plants at this location, but in 1997 only five plants were seen (NSW DEC 2004a). A fire prior to the survey work was believed to be a cool fire, with previous management by cool fires or no burn at all (NSW DEC 2004a). The required temperature to affect seed dormancy is variable ranging from 80–90 °C to 40–110 °C, however, temperatures over 120 °C are believed to be fatal (NSW DEC 2004a).

Bushrock removal
Bushrock removal is listed as one of the key threatening processes under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. Darwinia biflora is listed as one of the threatened species that is affected by bushrock removal (NSW DECC 2008b). Bushrock removal is the removal of surface rocks from outcrops and native vegetation areas excluding authorised activities such as mining and quarrying activities (NSW DECC 2008b). Bushrock removal disturbs native vegetation and is associated with further degradation from fire, machinery and vehicles (NSW DECC 2008b).

Land clearing, habitat loss and increased fragmentation
Clearing of native vegetation is listed as one of the key threatening processes under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. Land clearing is also listed as a key threatening process under the EPBC Act. Large areas of suitable habitat for Darwinia biflora has been cleared for urbanisation resulting in a reduced occurrence and distribution (NSW DEC 2004a). Ten sites are known to have been lost to urban development, including four sites, with an estimated 25 000 plants, cleared for the construction of the F3 Freeway (NSW DEC 2004a). The other six were cleared for residential or industrial developments (NSW DEC 2004a). Sites in the Berowra area and Baulkham Hills Shire are in potential residential development areas (NSW DEC 2004a). While there may be the opportunity to conserve sites the added risk is that inappropriately planned development could subject the populations to degradation through impacts from the surrounding areas (NSW DEC 2004a).

The Recovery Plan for Darwinia biflora (NSW DEC 2004a) indicates that the distribution of this species is fragmented. There is the potential risk that current fragmentation or increases in fragmentation may lead to isolation of subpopulations, removing them from ecological processes, genetic flow and reducing the likelihood of re-colonisation after local extinction (NSW DEC 2004a; NSW DECC 2008c).

Impacts from surrounding development
Not only does development result in habitat loss but flow on effects may result in habitat degradation (NSW DEC 2004a). Impacts from surrounding development include the runoff from sewage/stormwater, the dumping of garden waste, maintenance of service lines and the high frequency of fires for hazard reduction (NSW DEC 2004a). There is also likely to be the potential for weed invasion and physical damage (NSW DEC 2004a).

Clearing for maintenance
The Recovery plan for Darwinia biflora (NSW DEC 2004a) mentions that populations found in Ku-ring-gai National Park, North Turramurra, the Lady Davidson Hospital site and the Emperor Place site in Kenthurst occur under power lines. These easements are cleared of vegetation for maintenance purposes (NSW DEC 2004a). This clearing can result in the opportunity for a flush of Darwinia biflora regeneration, however, if clearing takes place before individuals can reach maturity and deposit seeds in the soil seed bank, it could cause local extinction in much the same way as frequent fires (NSW DEC 2004a).

Track creation
At Lane Cove National Park there is the potential threat from illegal track creation (NSW DEC 2004a). This may result in a flush of regeneration of Darwinia biflora along the track edges but it may also open up the potential mechanical damage to plants, soil compaction, introduced weeds, increased edge effects, dumping of waste, arson and access for horses which also increases compaction and weed invasion (NSW DEC 2004a).

Weed invasion
Areas used for active recreation such as Lane Cove National Park and Woods Street Oval, or near residential development such as Berowra, commonly show evidence of weed invasion (NSW DEC 2004a). While less common in other conservation areas there is the potential threat of weed invasion (NSW DEC 2004a). Weed invasion changes the balance and diversity in ecological communities competing with native species for space, nutrients and light (DEWHA 2007d).

The Darwinia biflora Recovery Plan (NSW DEC 2004a) and Darwinia biflora - Priority actions (NSW DECC 2005l) provide a brief overview and management recommendations for the species. In addition, the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service provide Plans of Management which broadly include Darwinia biflora.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Gathering natural materials:Removal of bush rocks Darwinia biflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gu) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities Darwinia biflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gu) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Darwinia biflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gu) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Darwinia biflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gu) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Darwinia biflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gu) [Internet].
Residential and Commercial Development:Residential and Commercial Development:Habitat modification (clearance and degradation) due to urban development Darwinia biflora in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006gu) [Internet].

Auld, T.D., R. Bradstock & D. Keith (1993). Fire as a threat to populations of rare plants. Report for endangered species project no. 31. Australian NPWS Endangered Species Program. Hurstville, NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Australian Weeds Committee (AWC) (n.d.). Weed identification; Sweet Pittosporum, Pittosporum undulatum. [Online]. Available from: http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&ibra=all&card=E45. [Accessed: 22-Apr-2008].

Benson, D. & L. McDougall (1998). Ecology of Sydney plant species: Part 6 Dicotyledon family Myrtaceae. Cunninghamia. 5(4):809-987. Sydney: NSW Royal Botanic Gardens.

Blake, T.L. (1981). A guide to Darwinia and Homoranthus. Ringwood, Society for Growing Australian Plants, Maroondah Group.

Briggs, B.G. (1962). The New South Wales Species of Darwinia. Contributions from the New South Wales Herbarium. 3(3):129-150.

Carolin, R.C. & M.D. Tindale (1993). Flora of the Sydney region; from the Hunter to the Shoalhaven Rivers & Inland to the Great Divide. Fourth Edition. Chatswood, NSW, Reed Books.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2007b). Biodiversity Assessment - Sydney Basin Species at risk (Australian Natural Resource Atlas). [Online]. Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/nsw/ibra-sb-species.html. [Accessed: 10-Apr-2008].

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2007c). Biodiversity Assessment - Sydney Basin Species at risk and the Threatening Process (Australian Natural Resource Atlas). [Online]. Available from: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/vegetation/assessment/nsw/ibra-sb-species-threats.html. [Accessed: 10-Apr-2008].

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2007d). Weeds in Australia; why are weeds a problem. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/weeds/why/index.html. [Accessed: 22-Apr-2008].

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA) (2008d). EPBC Act List of Threatened Ecological Communities. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publiclookupcommunities.pl. [Accessed: 11-May-2008].

Fairley, A. & P. Moore (2000). Native Plants of the Sydney District, An Identification Guide. Roseville, NSW; Kangaroo Press.

Given, D.R. (1994). Principles and practice of plant conservation. London: Capman & Hall.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Hornsby Shire Council (2006). District 4 - Community Lands and Crown Reserves Generic Plan of Management. [Online]. Available from: http://www.hornsby.nsw.gov.au/uploads/documents/AdoptedPOMDISTRICT4-Part3e-MtColah-HuntReserve.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Apr-2008].

James, T. (1997). Urban Bushland Biodiversity Survey. Stage 1: Western Sydney: Native Flora. Hurstville: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.

Meredith, L.D & M.M. Richardson (1986). Rare or threatened Australian plant species in cultivation in Australia, report series no. 15. Canberra, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005k). Darwinia biflora - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10202. [Accessed: 10-Apr-2008].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2005l). Darwinia biflora - Priority actions. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/pas_profile.aspx?id=10202. [Accessed: 10-Apr-2008].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2008a). Ecological consequences of high frequency fires - key threatening process listing - final determination. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/EcologicalConsequencesFiresKTPListing.htm. [Accessed: 22-Apr-2008].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2008b). Bushrock removal -key threatening process listing; NSW Scientific Committee - final determination. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/determinations/BushrockRemoveKTPListing.htm. [Accessed: 22-Apr-2008].

NSW Department of Environment and Climate Change (NSW DECC) (2008c). Clearing of native vegetation - key threatening process listing NSW Scientific Committee - final determination. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/determinations/ClearingNativeVegKTPListing.htm. [Accessed: 22-Apr-2008].

NSW Department of Environment and Conservation (NSW DEC) (2004a). Darwinia biflora Recovery Plan. [Online]. Hurstville: NSW Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/nature/recoveryplanDarwiniaBiflora.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Apr-2008].

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1998b). Lane Cove National Park Plan of Management. [Online]. North Metropolitan District & Planning Unit of the National Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/pomfinallanecove.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Oct-2008].

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (1998c). Marramarra National Park, Muogamarra Nature Reserve, Maroota Historic Site Plan of Management. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/PoMMarramarraNPMuogamarraNRMarootaHS.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Oct-2008].

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2002c). Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park and Lion Island, Long Island and Spectacles Island Nature Reserves Plan of Management. [Online]. NSW: Landscape Conservation Division & Sydney North Region of the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/parks/pomfinalkuringgaiislands.pdf.

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2005). Berowra Valley Regional Park Plan of Management. [Online]. Available from: http://www.hornsby.nsw.gov.au/uploads/documents/bvrpplanofmanagement.pdf. [Accessed: 07-Oct-2008].

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006h). Lane Cove National Park, Wallumatta Nature Reserve and Dalrymple Hay Nature Reserve Fire Management Strategy 2006-2010. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/firemanagement/FireManagementPlansByDoctype.htm. [Accessed: 07-Oct-2008].

NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2006i). Marramarra National Park, Muogamarra Nature Reserve, Maroota Historic Site, Wisemans Ferry Historic Site fire management strategy. [Online]. Department of Environment and Conservation, Parks and Wildlife Division, Sydney North Region. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/firemanagement/MNPFms.htm. [Accessed: 07-Oct-2008].

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Darwinia biflora in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 23 Sep 2014 20:43:57 +1000.