Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dichanthium setosum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agn) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Dichanthium setosums (bluegrass) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2012as) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Bluegrass - profile (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2013a) [Internet].
Non-government
    Documents and Websites
Biodiversity Recovery Plan for Gatton and Laidley Shires, South-East Queensland 2003-2008 (Boyes, B., 2004).
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
Scientific name Dichanthium setosum [14159]
Family Poaceae:Cyperales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author S.T.Blake
Infraspecies author  
Reference University of Queensland Papers, Department of Biology 2(3) (20 Mar. 1944) 50.
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Dichanthium setosum is an erect perennial which grows to 1 m in height (Harden 1993). It has mostly hairless leaves about 2–3 mm wide. The flowers are densely hairy and clustered together along a stalk in a cylinder shape. The flower clusters grow in pairs at the end of an 8 cm-long stem and appear mostly during summer (Harden 1993; NSW OEH 2013a). The species forms almost pure swards (Ayers et al. 1996) or occurs as scattered clumps (NSW OEH 2013a).

Dichanthium setosum has been reported from inland NSW and Queensland (ALA 2013). There are also reports from Western Australia (NSW OEH 2013a) and Tasmania (Henderson 1997) although other sources do not support similar claims (CHAH 2012).

NSW

Dichanthium setosum occurs on the New England Tablelands, North West Slopes and Plains and the Central Western Slopes of NSW (NSW OEH 2013a), extending west to Narrabri (Ayers et al. 1996). It occurs widely on private property, including areas in Inverell, Guyra, Armidale and Glen Innes. There are large populations in the Saumarez area, west of Armidale, east of Guyra and Somerton Road Travelling Stock Route (RNEDB 2001; Vickery 1961).

Queensland

In Queensland the species has been reported from the Leichhardt, Morton, North Kennedy and Port Curtis regions (Henderson 1997). This species occurs in the Mistake Range, in Main Range National Park, and possibly on Glen Rock Regional Park, adjacent to the national park (QDNR 2001a).

Dichanthium setosum is associated with heavy basaltic black soils and red-brown loams with clay subsoil (NSW OEH 2013a). Associated species include White Box (Eucalyptus albens), Silver-leaved Ironbark (Eucalyptus melanophloia), Yellow Box (Eucalyptus melliodora), Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis), Amulla (Myoporum debile), Purple Wire-grass (Aristida ramosa), Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra), Fine-leaved Tussock-grass (Poa sieberiana), Red-leg Grass (Bothriochloa ambigua), Pitted Blue-grass (Bothriochloa decipiens), Macrozamia stenomera, Small Woolly Burr-medic (Medicago minima), Scaly Buttons (Leptorhynchos squamatus), Lomandra aff. longifolia, Australian Bugle (Ajuga australis), Bogan-flea (Calotis hispidula) and Austrodanthonia spp., Dichopogon spp., Brachyscome spp., Vittadinia spp., Wahlenbergia spp. and Psoralea spp. (Ayers et al. 1996; NSW OEH 2013a).

Dichanthium setosum is often found in moderately disturbed areas such as cleared woodland, grassy roadside remnants and highly disturbed pasture. It is often collected from disturbed open grassy woodlands on the northern tablelands, where the habitat has been variously grazed, nutrient-enriched and water-enriched. The species may tolerate or benefit from disturbance, otherwise, disturbance is indicative of threatening processes in its habitat (NSW OEH 2013a).

A warm season perennial, the species commences growing in spring, flowers in summers and becomes dormant in late autumn (Yu et al. 2000). A fire frequency of greater than five years has been recommended for the species (NSW OEH 2013a).

Threats to Dichanthium setosum include (NSW OEH 2013a):

  • heavy grazing by domestic stock
  • clearing of habitat for pasture improvement and cropping
  • frequent fires, especially regular burning for agricultural purposes
  • invasion by introduced grasses such as Coolatai Grass (Hyparrhenia hirta), Lippia (Phyla canescens) and African Lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula)
  • road widening.

A number of recovery priority actions have been recommended for Dichanthium setosum (NSW OEH 2013a; TSSC 2008agn). Key actions for landholders include (NSW OEH 2013a):

  • support local Landcare groups
  • assist with the control of the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
  • protect areas of known and potential habitat from frequent fire (< 5 year intervals)
  • practice sustainable grazing to maintain native grass ground cover in areas of known and potential habitat
  • control invasive exotic grasses in areas of habitat
  • protect known populations and areas of potential habitat from pasture improvement and cropping
  • rehabilitate and protect degraded areas of potential habitat
  • report any new records of Bluegrass to the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage.

Management documents relevant to Dichanthium setosum are at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Dichanthium setosum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hb) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Dichanthium setosum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hb) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Dichanthium setosum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hb) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass) Dichanthium setosum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hb) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Hyparrhenia hirta (Coolatai Grass, Tambookie Grass, Thatching Grass) Dichanthium setosum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hb) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Phyla canescens (Lippia, Carpet Weed, Fogfruit, No-man Grass, Phyla, Red Flower, Condamine Couch) Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dichanthium setosum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agn) [Conservation Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Dichanthium setosum in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006hb) [Internet].
Northern Rivers Regional Biodiversity Management Plan (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010p) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dichanthium setosum (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008agn) [Conservation Advice].

Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) (2013). Atlas of Living Australia. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ala.org.au/.

Ayers, D., S. Nash & K. Baggett (Eds) (1996). Threatened Species of Western New South Wales. Hurstville: NSW NPWS.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2012). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apclist.

Curtis, W M & D.I. Morris (1994). The Student's Flora of Tasmania Angiospermae: Alismataceae to Burmanniaceae. Hobart, Tasmania: St David's Park Publishing.

Harden, G.J. (ed) (1993). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Four. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Henderson, R.J.F. (1997). Queensland Plants Names and Distribution. Queensland Herbarium: Indooroopilly.

NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2013a). Bluegrass - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10221.

Queensland Department of Natural Resources (QDNR) (2001a). Glen Rock Nature Conservation Assessment.

Register of the National Estate Database (RNEDB) (2001). Register of the National Estate Database.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2008agn). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Dichanthium setosum. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/14159-conservation-advice.pdf.

Vickery, J.W. (1961). Gramineae. Contribution from the New South Wales National Herbarium, Flora Series. 19(1). National Herbarium of New South Wales.

Yu, P., N. Prakash & R.D.B. Whalley (2000). Comparative reproductive biology of the vulnerable and common grasses in Bothriochloa and Dicanthium. In: Jacobs, S.W.L. & J. Everett, eds. Grasses: systematics and evolution. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dichanthium setosum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 18 Apr 2014 10:42:53 +1000.