In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Endangered as Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Hairy Mat Conostylis (Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009i) [Recovery Plan] as Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla.
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla |
|Reference||Hopper, S.D., Purdie, R.W., George, A.S. & Patrick, S.J. in George, A.S. (Ed) (1987), Flora of Australia 45: 462 (86, Fig. 38, Map 87) [tax. nov.]|
Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichopylla 
Conostylis seorsiflora trichophylla 
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific Name: Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla
Common Name: Hairy Mat Conostylis
The subspecies is conventionally accepted as Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla (Hopper et al. 1987).
The Hairy Mat Conostylis is a rhizomatous (Paczkowska & Chapman 2000) prostrate, tufted, 34 cm in diameter mat-forming, or cushion-forming, perennial herb, very low-growing to only 8 cm high, with solitary, tubular, yellow flowers (1215 mm long) and flat, silvery-grey, densely hairy leaves up to 8 cm long. The plant branches and spreads by connected underground and aerial stems in a network up to 40 cm across (Brown et al. 1998; Durell & Buehrig 2001; WA DEC 2009i).
The Hairy Mat Conostylis has a restricted geographic range of approximately 68 km². It is known from three populations (one consisting of two subpopulations) in the Shires of Wickepin and Dumbleyung in the southern Wheatbelt of Western Australia (WA DEC 2009i). The two subpopulations are both located south-east of Tincurrin, one population is south-east of Lake Grace and the third is situated north-west of Kukerin (WA DEC 2009i). The subspecies is entirely located within the Avon Natural Resource Management Region of Western Australia (Western Australia Herbarium 2005).
Hairy Mat Conostylis population distribution, land vesting purpose and land tenure (WA DEC 2009i).
|1a. South-east of Tincurrin||Wickepin||Unvested Reserve||Road Reserve||Shire of Wickepin|
|1b. South-east of Tincurrin||Wickepin||Freehold||Private Property||Landholders|
|2. South-west of Lake Grace||Dumbleyung||Water and Rivers Commission||Water and Conservation of Flora||WA DEC|
|3. North-west of Kukerin||Dumbleyung||Freehold||Private Property||Landholders|
The Hairy Mat Conostylis is in cultivation at Kings Park and Botanic Gardens, Perth, Western Australia (CHAH 2009).
The subspecies was surveyed between 1982 and 1999 (Durrel & Buehrig 2001; Graham & Mitchell 2000; WA DEC 2009i).
Population and survey information for the Hairy Mat Conostylis (WA DEC 2009i):
|Population||Year surveyed and number of plants found||Condition of population|
|1a. South-east of Tincurrin||1982 9
|1b. South-east of Tincurrin||1982 1000
|2. South-west of Lake Grace||1990 6
|3. North-east of Kurkein||1997 2||Moderate|
*= total for both subpopulations (WA DEC 2009i).
The total population of the Hairy Mat Conostylis is not known, but the three populations are thought to total approximately 1016 mature plants (WA DEC 2009i).
One population of the subspecies is located on a Water and Rivers Commission Reserve, south-west of Lake Grace (WA DEC 2009i).
The subspecies is found in seasonally wet, sandy loams in open mallee woodland, in areas of open scrub and also in more open areas amongst other herbaceous species. Associated species include White Gum (Eucalyptus wandoo), York Gum (E. loxophleba), Schauer Roadside Teatree (Leptospermum erubescens), Eremaea pauciflora, Red Tooth Brushes (Grevillea hookeriana), Manna Wattle (Acacia microbotrya), Melaleuca pentagona, M. urceolaris and Rock Sheoak (Allocasuarina huegeliana (WA DEH 2009i).
The age of sexual reproduction for the Hairy Mat Conostylis is unknown, however, other species of Conostylis, such as Prickly Conostylis (C. aculeata), C. serrulata, Bristly Cottonhead (C. setigera) and White Cottonhead (C. setosa), have ages of maturity (for plants in cultivation) of 34 years (Fairall 1970).
The Hairy Mat Conostylis flowers between OctoberNovember (Hopper et al. 1987; Paczkowska & Chapman 2000) and immature fruit has been recorded in November (WA DEC 2009i). The genus Conostylis, contains a mixture of insect and bird pollinated species (Holland et al. 1997b) however, the method of pollination of the Hairy Mat Conostylis is unknown.
The application of diluted and full strength smoke water has been found to substantially improve the germination of seed of four species of Conostylis (Tieu & Dixon 1990). It is likely that seed of the Hairy Mat Conostylis germinates following fire. Conostylis seeds germinate easily in cultivation if mature seed is used. The Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority have also grown the Hairy Mat Conostylis successfully from cutting material, but strike rates were variable between 1060% (WA DEC 2009i).
The proliferous (producing new individuals by budding) habit and solitary flowers distinguish the species (Conostylis seorsiflora), while the subspecies is distinguished by its hairy leaves, giving the Hairy Mat Conostylis a silvery-grey appearance (Durrell & Beuhrig 2001).
The main threats to the Hairy Mat Conostylis are (WA DEC 2009i):
- Firebreak maintenance is a threat to population number 2 as plants are located within 2 m of the maintenance track.
- Weed invasion is a threat to all Hairy Mat Conostylis populations.
- Grazing by the European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and/or kangaroos, threaten populations 1 and 2.
- Inappropriate fire regimes may adversely affect populations. Although its response to fire has not been documented, the subspecies is likely to require fire to stimulate the germination of soil stored seed. The current lack of recruitment is possibly due to the absence of fire.
- Senescence of mature plants potentially threatens all populations as seed longevity and recruitment success is unknown.
- Fragmentation of natural habitat has occurred due to clearing for agriculture. The subspecies is confined to relatively small areas of remnant natural vegetation subject to edge effects that include herbicide overspray, fertilisers and weed encroachment.
- Siltation is a minor threat to population 2 because it is located near a drain that periodically floods.
The Hairy Mat Conostylis (Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla) Recovery Plan (WA DEC 2009i) recommends the following recovery actions for the subspecies:
- Coordinate the implementation of recovery actions.
- Liaise with relevant land managers.
- Monitor populations.
- Collect seed and other material to preserve genetic diversity.
- Extend and maintain fencing.
- Undertake weed control and follow-up with additional control if required.
- Obtain biological and ecological information.
- Seek security of tenure for subpopulation 1b.
- Develop and implement fire and disturbance trials.
- Develop and implement a fire management strategy.
- Promote awareness.
- Develop and implement a European Rabbit control strategy.
- Conduct further surveys.
- Map habitat critical to the survival of the subspecies.
- Develop and implement a translocation proposal.
- Review the need for further recovery actions.
The Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 25 (Graham & Mitchell 2000) suggests the following management and research actions for the Katanning District population of the Hairy Mat Conostylis:
- Liaison with landowners and managers to ensure continuted survival of the Hairy Mat Conostylis as a priority subspecies.
- All populations within the District should be inspected annually to observe fluctuation in population numbers and to record any changes which may threaten survival.
- A network of permanent monitoring quadrants is to be established.
- Germplasm and seed collection, for ex situ storage, of Hairy Mat Conostylis.
- Intensive field survey of suitable habitas in the wild.
- Fire access track, or firebreaks, should be thoroughly searched for the subspecies, prior to construction.
- Investigate the taxonomy, genetic systems, population biology and ecology to determine the best means of protecting and managing populations of the Hairy Mat Conostylis.
- Investigate the subspecies' response to fire regimes.
- Investigate the subspecies' susceptibility to Phytophthora sp. and other introduced pathogens.
- Investigate the subspecies' reaction to increasing soil salinity.
The Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in The Narrogin District. Western Australian Wildlife Management Program No. 30 (Durrell & Buehrig 2001) suggests the following management and research requirements for the Tincurrin population of the Hairy Mat Conostylis:
- Survey the Tincurrin population during the flowering period annually to monitor the population.
- Regularly check the condition of the fence surrounding the population.
- Relocate the existing fence on the northern side to protect additional plants presently outside the fenced area.
- Monitor European Rabbit numbers and control as necessary.
- Control Veldt Grass (Ehrharta longiflora) incursion using herbicide.
The following documents may inform on protection and management of the Hairy Mat Conostylis:
- The Biodiversity of the Avon NRM Region: Towards Prioritisation for Conservation (Richardson et al. 2007)
- Fire and Biodiversity Guidelines for the Avon Basin (Shedley 2007)
- Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District (Graham & Mitchell 2000)
- Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Narrogin District (Durrell & Buehrig 2001)
- Hairy Mat Conostylis (Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla) Recovery Plan (WA DEC 2009i).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations||Hairy Mat Conostylis (Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009i) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||Hairy Mat Conostylis (Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009i) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Hairy Mat Conostylis (Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla) Recovery Plan (Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC), 2009i) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Pollution:Pollution:Changes to water and sediment flows leading to erosion, siltation and pollution|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers|
|Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified||Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophyllain Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006fy) [Internet].|
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2009). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.
Durell, G.S. & R.M. Buehrig (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Narrogin District. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Fairall, A.R. (1970). West Australian native plants in cultivation. Rushcutters Bay, NSW: Pergamon Press.
Graham, M. & M. Mitchell (2000). Declared Rare Flora in the Katanning District. [Online]. Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
Holland, E., K. Kershaw & A. Brown (1997b). Small-flowered Conostylis (Conostylis micrantha) Interim Recovery Plan 1996-1999. Wanneroo, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Hopper, S.D., R.W. Purdie, A.S. George & S.J. Patrick (1987). Conostylis. In: Flora of Australia. 45:57-110. Canberra, ACT: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Paczkowska, G. & A.R. Chapman (2000). The Western Australian Flora, A Descriptive Catalogue. The Wildflower Society of Western Australia (Inc.), the Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority.
Richardson, J., T. Gamblin, B. Glossop & J. Hogben (2007). The Biodiversity of the Avon NRM Region: Towards Prioritisation for Conservation. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Environment and Conservation. Available from: http://www.dec.wa.gov.au/component/option.
Shedley, E. (2007). Fire and Biodiversity Guidelines for the Avon Basin. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Avon Catchment Council and the Department of Environment and Conservation. www.avonnrm.org.au/reports_publications/Biodiversity/firebioreport/file/at_download.
Tieu, A., K.A. Dixon, K. Sivasithamparam, J.A. Plummer & I.M. Sieler (1999). Germination of Four Species of Native Western Australian Plants using Plant-derived Smoke. Australian Journal of Botany. 47:207-219.
Western Australia Department of Environment and Conservation (WA DEC) (2009i). Hairy Mat Conostylis (Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla) Recovery Plan. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/conostylis-seorsiflora-subsp-trichophylla.html.
Western Australian Herbarium (2005). FloraBase - The Western Australian Flora. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Conostylis seorsiflora subsp. trichophylla in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Fri, 22 Aug 2014 16:41:29 +1000.