In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
Recovery plan for nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island South Australia (Taylor, D.A., 2012) [Recovery Plan] as Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum.
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum |
|Reference||Black, J.M. (1926), Flora of South Australia 3: 369 [tax. nov.]|
|Other names||Spyridium eriocephalum glabrisepalum |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum
Common name: MacGillivray Spyridium
Conventionally accepted as Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum (Walsh & Entwistle 1996).
The MacGillivray Spyridium is a low, slender shrub (Jessup & Toelken 1986) growing up to one metre in height (SA DEH 2003b). Flowers are white or cream, with glabrous, thick sepals and are in groups (measuring 5–7 mm in width) at the end of stems. The leaves taper at each end and have strong revolute margins. Leaves are 3–10 mm long and less than 1 mm wide and are 'rigid' on the plant (Harden 1992; Walsh & Entwistle 1996).
The MacGillivray Spyridium is endemic to Kangaroo Island in South Australia (SA DEH 2003b). The extent of occurrence of the species is 229 km², with an area of occupancy of approximately 45.6 km² (SA DEH 2003b).
The MacGillivray Spyridium is known from five subpopulations, on the eastern side of Kangaroo Island. Estimated numbers and areas of occupancy for these subpopulations are as follows (SA DEH 2003b):
|Subpopulation||Location||Estimated number of plants||Estimated area of occupancy (km2)|
|A||Hog Bay Road (Rd), Hundred Line Rd, Wilsons Rd, Red Banks Rd, Wallers Rd, Min Oil Rd||1457||35.3|
|E||Gum Creek Rd||8||0.8|
MacGillivray Spyridium occurs in four broad vegetation types on Kangaroo Island: E. diversifolia (code 2M); E. cneorifolia (code 11A); E. cneorifolia (code 11D); and E. cneorifolia (code 11F). Each of these vegetation types may share common species assemblages including: the Kangaroo Island Narrow-leaf Mallee (Eucalyptus cneorifolia), Coast Gum (E. diversifolia), Cup Gum (E. cosmophylla), Pink Gum (E. fasciculosa), Purple-flowered Mallee (E. lansdowneana ssp. albopurpurea), E. conglobata, Kingscote Mallee (E. rugosa), Tate's Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea semiplana ssp. tateana), Native Fuchsia (Correa reflexa), Holly Grevillea (Grevillea ilicifolia var. ilicifolia), Grevillea (G. rogersii), Centenary Starburst (Thryptomene ericaea), Slender Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca gibbosa), Broombush (M. uncinata), Kangaroo Island Oak-bush (Allocasuarina muelleriana ssp. notocolpica), Stalked Oak-bush (A. striata), Gland Flower (Adenanthos terminalis), Hedge Wattle (Acacia paradoxa), Callistemon rugulosus var. rugulosus, Notched Bush-everlasting (Ozothamnus retusus), Seaberry Saltbush (Rhagodia candolleana ssp. candolleana), Myrtle Wattle (Acacia myrtifolia var. myrtifolia) and Beaked Hakea (Hakea rostrata) (SA DEH 2003b).
Mean annual rainfall in areas where MacGillivray Spyridium occurs range from 485–529 mm per annum, with annual temperature maximums and minimums of 19 °C and 11.5 °C respectively (SA DEH 2003ab).
The impact of fire and disturbance on MacGillivray Spyridium has not been studied, however the species has shown tolerance to frequent levels of disturbance in a roadside setting and a subpopulation has recovered post-fire activities in Beyeria Conservation Park and at the Heritage Agreement 235 site (SA DEH 2003a).
Flowers on MacGillivray Spyridium have been recorded from August to November (Jessup & Toelken 1986).
Weeds, including Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica) and Perennial Veldt Grass (Ehrharta calycina), are a known threat at subpopulations A, B, D & E. Impacts, through competition for resources such as space, light, nutrients and moisture, affect the growth of individuals and recruitment of MacGillivray Spyridium.
Weeds also have the potential to cause secondary impacts such as altered hydrological cycles, fire regimes and micro-climate (Taylor 2003 cited in Vidler 2004). Trampling, erosion and infestation of the root-rot fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi threaten a large proportion of subpopulation A (SA DEH 2003b).
A Draft National recovery plan for this species is in development, by the South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage.
MacGillivray Spyridium is included in the Recovery Plan for 15 Nationally Threatened Plant Species, Kangaroo Island, South Australia 2003-2008 (SA DEH 2003b). Recovery actions that are of benefit to the species include:
Land and Threat Management
- Establish, develop and support an effective Kangaroo Island Threatened Plant Recovery Team.
- Support stakeholders across Kangaroo Island to actively develop skills and experience in managing nationally threatened plant species.
- Encourage the restoration of critical threatened plant habitat.
- Improve connectivity between subpopulations and critical habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Support programs to protect, rehabilitate and restore potential habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Undertake strategic surveys of potential habitat for nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Monitor nationally threatened species subpopulations and critical habitat to determine the impact of erosion.
- Encourage land managers to rehabilitate areas of critical and potential threatened plant habitat affected by erosion.
- Undertake actions to rehabilitate specific sites identified as facing a significant threat from erosion.
- Undertake targeted research and monitoring to determine the current and potential impact of threatening processes on nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Encourage adaptive threat management by feeding research and monitoring findings directly into recovery actions.
- Manage the risk of losing genetic diversity within nationally threatened plant populations by collecting seed material and establishing a safe seed store.
- Encourage research into the ecological genetics of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Increase the size and area of occupancy of existing subpopulations of nationally threatened plant species through self-regeneration of plant populations.
- Increase the population size and area of occupancy of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island through re-stocking of existing subpopulations or re-establishment of subpopulations.
- Undertake research to determine appropriate fire regimes for nationally threatened plant species and associated critical habitat on Kangaroo Island.
- Implement management actions which promote fire regimes appropriate for the effective reproduction, recruitment and recovery of nationally listed species and associated critical habitat on Kangaroo Island.
- Undertake and encourage research into the ecology and biology of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
Weed and Fungus Management
- Support the development of a Kangaroo Island Phytophthora Management Strategy including research into the efficacy of fungicides in mitigating the impact of Phytophthora spp. on nationally threatened plant species.
- Support the establishment of a Kangaroo Island environmental weed management committee.
- Strategically control infestations of Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil, Phalaris and Perennial Veldt Grass within critical habitat of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Implement environmental weed buffer zones around subpopulations of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Support trials to determine the most resource efficient and effective weed management techniques.
- Implement actions to promote native herbivore grazing regimes which have a minimal impact on the growth, reproduction and recruitment of nationally threatened plant species on Kangaroo Island.
- Undertake a general public education program to raise community awareness of the importance of roadside vegetation as habitat for nationally threatened plant species.
- Implement appropriate signage within nationally threatened subpopulations considered to be susceptible to ongoing or high impact trampling from human activities.
- Implement actions to restrict access to sites where the impact of trampling is leading to, or is highly likely to lead to, a decline in the abundance of nationally threatened species subpopulations.
Management documents for the MacGillivray Spyridium can be found at the start of this profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Uncategorised:Uncategorised:threats not specified||Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalumin Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006xm) [Internet].|
Harden, G.J. (Ed.) (1992). Flora of New South Wales Volume 3. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.
Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.
Vidler, S.J. (2004). Using your cute and furries: the role of threatened species in weed awareness. Page(s) 652-658. Proceedings of the 14th Australian Weeds Conference. Weeds Society of New South Wales, Sydney.
Walsh, N.G. & T.J. Entwistle, eds. (1996). Flora of Victoria- Volume 3. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Victoria.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Spyridium eriocephalum var. glabrisepalum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:48:13 +1000.