Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Commersonia prostrata
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan] as Rulingia prostrata.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Rulingia prostrata.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178, 181 and 183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) (160) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014h) [Legislative Instrument] as Commersonia prostrata.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Dwarf Kerrawang - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005li) [Internet].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 144 - Dwarf Kerrawang Rulingia prostrata (James, M., 2003) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013 list) as Rulingia prostrata
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014 list) as Rulingia prostrata
Scientific name Commersonia prostrata [87152]
Family Malvaceae:Malvales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (Maiden & Betche) C.F.Wilkins & Whitlock
Infraspecies author  
Reference Wilkins, C.F. & Whitlock, B.A., (2011) A revision of Commersonia including Rulingia (Malvaceae s.l. or Byttneriaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 24(5): 274-276, Figs 22b (map), 26 [comb. nov.]
Other names Rulingia prostrata [13534]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The Dwarf Kerrawang is a prostrate, mat-forming shrub with trailing branches to 2 m long and ovate to cordate leaves 10–35 mm long and 5–25 mm wide, with serrate to crenate margins, the upper leaf surface is sparsely sprinkled with stellate hairs, more densely below, and the petiole is 3–20 mm long. The inflorescence consists of 3–12 pink, hairy, star-shaped flowers that appear in October and November. Petals are about 1.5 mm long, and the calyx about 3 mm long. A dry, hairy, spherical capsule develops from the centre of the flower and reaches 9 mm diameter at maturity (Carter & Walsh 2010a; Short 1996).

The Dwarf Kerrawang occurs disjunctly in south-east Australia, from the Gippsland Lakes hinterland in Victoria to the Tomago sandbeds north-east of Newcastle in New South Wales (Wilkins & Whitlock 2011).

In Victoria, Dwarf Kerrawang is found in the Rosedale-Stradbroke-Providence Ponds area of central Gippsland (Carter & Walsh 2010a; James 2000). In NSW, the majority of known sites occur near Tallong, Penrose and Goulburn on the Southern Tablelands; and also near Newcastle (Carter & Walsh 2010a).

Dwarf Kerrawang is known from 31 sites; 24 in Victoria and seven in NSW (Carter & Walsh 2010a).

There are 40 recorded Dwarf Kerrawang populations with a total of over 100 000 recorded plants, though almost all of these grow in one population. The majority of populations are small, containing less than 50 plants (Carter & Walsh 2010a).

Known populations, land tenure, and maximum number of individuals in last survey (with year of survey) include (Carter & Walsh 2010a):

Victoria  
Location Site Tenure Population size (year of survey) Threats 
Billabong Reserve   State reserve 251–500 (2004) Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) grazing, soil disturbance and weed invasion (including Burgan (Kunzea ericoides))
Providence Ponds Flora and Fauna Reserve (FFR) North State reserve 100 000 (2005) Grazing and changed fire regime
South-west State reserve 3 (1992) Unknown
Property adjacent south-east Private 0 (2004) Earthworks
Moormurng FFR   State reserve 21 (2004) Small population size and Burgan invasion
Blond Bay Wildlife Reserve  Phiddian's Swamp State reserve 3000 (2005) Drought, grazing and Wombat (Vombatus ursinus) disturbance
Tussock Swamp State reserve 250–500 (2004) Drought
Ben Winch Swamp Populations A, B and C State reserve 12 (2005) Heavily grazed, small population size, soil erosion, inappropriate flooding regime and Burgan invasion
Monkey Creek, Clements Road, Stradbroke   Private 63 (2003) Earthworks
Deep Water Morass  Population 1 Private 29 (2003) Grazing (Goat (Capra hircus) and Horse (Equus caballus)), soil disturbance and weed invasion (Blackberry (Rubus spp.), Kikuyu (Cenchrus clandestinus), Cape Wattle (Paraserianthes lophantha))
Population 2 Private 10 (2003)
Australian Paper Plantations Fernbank   Private 106 (2004) Earthworks, small population size, timber harvesting and utilities construction/maintenance 
Brunyee Swamp, Fernbank   Private 14 (2003) Small population size, Rabbit grazing and soil disturbance
Meerlieu   Private 25 (2003) Grazing (native herbivores & stock), drought and changing hydrology
Bush Family Reserve (BFR) 1 Trust for Nature (TFN) 200 (2005) Grazing (Kangaroo (Macropus spp.), Rabbit, introduced herbivores), soil disturbance including Wombat digging, drought, weed invasion (Burgan, Hypochaeris spp., Kikuyu and other introduced grasses), small population sizes and inappropriate fire regime
BFR 2 TFN 40 (2005)
BFR 3 TFN 15 (2005)
BFR 4 TFN 10 (2005)
BFR 5 TFN 50 (2005)
BFR 6 TFN 15 (2005)
BFR 7 TFN 0 (2005)
BFR wetland 1 TFN 12 (2000) Unknown 
BFR wetland 2 TFN 2 (2000)
Bushland Reserve State reserve 2 (2005) Grazing (domestic stock and the reserve under grazing licence)
  Private 6 (2006) Inappropriate fire regime, drought, blocked water flow and Burgan invasion
Property adjacent to Bush Family Reserve Private 4 (2006) Grazing and small population size
Billabong West Reserve   TFN 23 fenced; 7 unfenced (2004) Small population size
Frair's Reserve   TFN 60 (2004) Burgan invasion and grazing (native herbivores)
Holey Plains State Park Clearwater Lake West State reserve 1000 (2004) Vehicle movement (motorbikes)
Clearwater Lake East State reserve 18 (2004) Grazing (Kangaroo) and vehicle movement (motorbikes)
Forester Block State reserve 100 (2004) No discernible threats
Long View Block State forest 12 (2005) No discernible threats
Monkey Duck Swamp, Loch Sport   State reserve 0 (2000) Drought and possibly increasing salinity
Property at Fernbank   Private 250 (2006) Unknown
NSW  
Tomago Sandbeds, Newcastle   State reserve/local council land >1000 plant 'clumps' (2005) Plants regenerating in areas disturbed by sand mining and bushfires however may be potentially threatened by further sand mining, or inappropriate fire regimes.
Penrose Hanging Rock Swamp State forest 'Small nunber of plants' (1999) Road/firebreak works and activities associated with pine forest management
Penrose State Forest State forest 1 (2005) Roadworks
Rose Lagoon, Goulburn   Crown land 1 (2005) Grazing and trampling by stock, and trampling by users of adjacent roadside rest area
Tallong   Private 1 (2004) Rural subdivision development
Roadside, Braidwood-Nerriga Road, Braidwood     7 (2006) Small population size and vulnerable location-road edge in dense grass
Wingello State Forest, Wingello   State Forest 100 (2006) Vulnerable location along roadside and timber harvesting as within pine plantation
Picton Lakes     (1911) Unknown
Barbers Creek, Wingello   Private (1898) Unknown

In Victoria, the Dwarf Kerrawang grows on swampy, sometimes ephemeral, wetlands and lake margins, often dominated by Lepidosperma spp. (Carter & Walsh 2010a; Short 1996; James 2003). Other associated native species include Blady Grass (Imperata cylindrica) and Empodisma minus growing on peaty soils (Carter & Walsh 2010a; James 2000).

In NSW, the Dwarf Kerrawang occurs on sandy, sometimes peaty soils, in a wide variety of habitats including (Carter & Walsh 2010a; NSW DECCW 2005li):

  • Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora) Woodland at Rose Lagoon
  • Blue leaved Stringybark (E. agglomerata) Open Forest at Tallong
  • Brittle Gum (E. mannifera) Low Open Woodland at Penrose
  • Scribbly Gum (E. haemostoma)/ Swamp Mahogany (E. robusta)/ Broad-leaved Paperbark (Melaleuca quinquenervia) Ecotonal Forest at Tomago
  • the ecotone between Sedge Swamp and Swamp Forest, a groundwater dependant ecosystem that represents a substantial vegetation community of the Tomago sandbeds.

Dwarf Kerrawang is part of the Gippsland Red Gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis subsp. mediana) Grassy Woodland and Associated Native Grassland ecological community, listed under the EPBC Act as critically endangered. The species also occurs in habitat of the Victorian listed communities Coastal Manna Gum (Eucalyptus viminalis subsp. pryoriana) woodland and Lowland Forest dominated by White Stringybark (Eucalyptus globoidea) (James 2003).

The Dwarf Kerrawang flowers between September to November (Wilkins & Whitlock 2011). The seed of the species may be long-lived based on germination research conducted at the Melbourne Royal Botanic Gardens (Vic. DSE 2009q). The species seems to be a disturbance-based seed germinator with increases in seedlings observed following disturbance (fire, flooding, roadworks and after cessation of sand mining) (Fox 2006 cited in Carter & Walsh 2010a), though there are conflicting reports regarding the species actual response to fire (NSW DECCW 2005li). Numbers of Dwarf Kerrawang plants fluctuate greatly between years.

The Dwarf Kerrawang differs from all species in the Commersonia genus in being a low mat-like plant, rather than prostrate and sprawling or erect (Wilkins & Whitlock 2011).

The Dwarf Kerrawang differs from Commersonia salvifolia in being a prostrate mat with mid to dark green, ovate or scarcely trilobed leaves, < 4 cm long, rather than an erect shrub with narrowly ovate, greyish green, velvety leaves, mainly > 4 cm long. It is also similar to C. hermanniifolia, but differs in having ovate, alost smooth leaves that are pliable, rather than being elliptic, strongly rugose and chartaceous (Wilkins & Whitlock 2011).

Weed invasion

Both introduced weeds and native flora species threaten many of the Victorian populations. The native plant Burgan (Kunzea ericoides) quickly colonises disturbed sites, with exotic plants such as Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), Paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum), Pine (Pinus radiata) and Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) negatively affecting many populations. These species out-compete and shade out the Dwarf Kerrawang and can eventually lead to reduced population sizes. Populations in NSW appear to be less at risk from weed invasion (Carter & Walsh 2010a).

Inappropriate fire regimes

Whilst the species has been suggested to be a recruitment specialist after events such as fire, the actual response of Dwarf Kerrawang to fire is not known. Many sites with low population sizes have not been burnt for greater than ten years; however there is little direct evidence that lack of fire is the cause. Knowledge of appropriate fire regimes is required for the management of the species (Carter & Walsh 2010a).

Changes to hydrology

Given the species' habitat, reduced flooding, climate change, alteration of drainage flows and lowering of the water table, via natural or anthropogenic actions, will alter habitats and impact on the Dwarf Kerrawang. Examples of anthropogenic actions include dam construction, channeling, and irrigation  (Carter & Walsh 2010a).

Grazing

Grazing by macropods, the Wombat, Rabbit and Sambar Deer (Rusa unicolor) appears to be threatening the Dwarf Kerrawang at some sites on public land in Victoria, and populations on private land are likely to be damaged by domestic stock. Grazing appears to be less of a threat for most NSW populations (Carter & Walsh 2010a).

Site disturbance and habitat fragmentation

Earthworks, road and track work and maintenance, firebreaks, subdivision developments, timber harvesting, peat extraction and vehicle movement on and near some populations may damage or destroy plants, affect natural drainage patterns and degrade habitat via soil erosion and the spread of weeds. Access to sites by bushwalkers may also damage plants and Sambar Deer may result in degradation of wetland habitats if not controlled (Carter & Walsh 2010a). The Dwarf Kerrawang is also potentially threatened by accidental damage from herbicide drift (James 2000).

Recovery action

The Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (James 2003) outlines the following actions to assist in the species' recovery:

  • Contact land owners and managers and inform them of the presence and significance of the Dwarf Kerrawang, seeking their co-operation.
  • Promote research into the recruitment strategy, biology and ecology of Dwarf Kerrawang that will provide managers with advice on appropriate, on-ground management prescriptions for the species.
  • Assess the need and feasibility of establishing new populations. If necessary and feasible, assess the suitability of other wetlands on the Gippsland Plains as potential habitat for Dwarf Kerrawang.
  • Provide information on the distribution and management requirements of Dwarf Kerrawang to West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority and relevant local government authorities for inclusion in the Regional Catchment Strategy and local planning schemes.
  • Incorporate actions to protect, enhance and restore Dwarf Kerrawang habitat into the West Gippsland Regional Catchment Strategy or its subordinate strategies via biodiversity action plans. Implement these actions, according to priority and as resources become available, in conjunction with other agencies, community groups and landholders.
  • Incorporate locations of Dwarf Kerrawang populations and their core habitat into relevant local planning schemes and environmental significance overlays and apply planning provisions to ensure their protection.
  • Incorporate Dwarf Kerrawang locations and management requirements into plans for relevant parks and reserves.
  • Protect habitat including fencing from stock and replanting where appropriate. Priority sites include Australian Paper Plantations; Ben Winch Swamp; Fews Road, Meerlieu; Lindenow South; Monkey Creek; Providence Ponds South.
  • Manage weed infestations at sites as appropriate. Priorities include Kikuyu and Blackberry at Billabong Flora Reserve and Lindenow South, and Burgan at Australian Paper Plantations, Ben Winch Swamp, Billabong Flora Reserve, Blond Bay State Game Reserve and Providence Ponds Flora and Fauna Reserve.
  • Plan and implement ecological burns and monitor impacts/response of Dwarf Kerrawang and associated species. Priority sites are Blond Bay State Game Reserve and Providence Ponds Flora and Fauna Reserve.
  • Monitor populations periodically, using Victorian Rare or Threatened Population system.
  • Collect seed and provide to suitable organisations for storage and propagation.

The NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005li) outline the following priority actions:

  • Protect known populations from changes to land use and adverse disturbances.
  • Encourage the use of translocation trials to establish new populations in safe sites (e.g. in adjacent or nearby national parks and nature reserves).
  • Undertake research and trials into the species' response to disturbance.
  • Mark sites and potential habitat onto maps used for planning (e.g. road works, residential and infrastructure developments, remnant protection, rehabilitation).
  • Search for new populations in potential habitat.

Undertaken actions

The Trust for Nature (TFN) organisation has purchased the Bush Family Reserve and Billabong West Reserve and covenanted both properties for conservation in perpetuity. TFN has undertaken Rabbit control at the Bush Family Reserve and constructed exclosures at the Bush Family Reserve and Billabong West Reserve to protect Dwarf Kerrawang populations from the Kangaroo and Wallaby (Vic DSE 2009). African Love Grass (Eragrostis curvula), Burgan and Blackberries are controlled annually via spraying at the Bush Family Reserve.

Parks Victoria has undertaken control works of Burgan at Moormurng Flora & Fauna Reserve, and the Pine has been removed from Ben Winch Swamp. At Meerlieu, the landholder has been provided assistance funding through the Bush Tender program to control Fog Grass (Holcus lanatus) around the Dwarf Kerrawang population on his land and fence the population against grazing impacts. Parks Victoria also has exclosure plots at Billabong Flora Reserve and Holey Plains State Park (Vic DSE 2009).

The Meerlieu Reserves Committee of Management & Trust for Nature (Victoria) also received $17 600 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2004–05 to increase the population of this species and the threatened Gippsland Plains Grassy Woodland through direct seeding and planting; and undertake ongoing management and monitoring.

As part of a trial to obtain data on the response of Dwarf Kerrawang to fire and grazing, the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment burnt experimental plots at Blond Bay in 2008. Smoked water was applied separately to other plots. Monitoring is continuing (Vic. DSE 2009q).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Habitat alteration (vegetation, soil, hydrology) due to trampling and grazing by livestock Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pennisetum clandestinum (Kikuyu) National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Paspalum dilatatum (Paspalum) Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pinus radiata (Radiata Pine Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine, Wilding Pine) Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Rubus fruticosus aggregate (Blackberry, European Blackberry) National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Cervus unicolor (Sambar) National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation by deer Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Kunzea ericoides (Burgan) National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, grazing, predation and/or habitat degradation by mammals Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Activities that lead to swamp degradation National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes in hydrology including habitat drainage National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) (Carter, O. & N. Walsh, 2010a) [Recovery Plan].
Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].
Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift Rulingia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006wy) [Internet].

Carter, O. & N. Walsh (2010a). National recovery plan for the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata). [Online]. East Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/rulingia-prostrata.html.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

James, M. (2000). A Survey of the Known Populations of the Dwarf Kerrawang (Rulingia prostrata) in Victoria. Unpublished report to the Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Victoria.

James, M. (2003). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 144 - Dwarf Kerrawang Rulingia prostrata. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment. Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/flora-and-fauna-guarantee-act-action-statements-index-of-approved-action-statements.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2005li). Dwarf Kerrawang - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/tsprofile/profile.aspx?id=10736.

Short, P.S. (1996). Sterculiaceae. In: Walsh, N.G. & T.J. Entwisle, eds. Flora of Victoria. 3:324-331. Inkata Press, Melbourne.

Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE) (2009q). Draft Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 144 - Dwarf Kerrawang.

Wilkins, C.F. & B.A. Whitlock (2011). A revision of Commersonia including Rulingia (Malvaceae s.l. or Bytteriaceae). Australian Systematic Botany. 24:226-283.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Commersonia prostrata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 12 Jul 2014 14:17:23 +1000.