Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Caladenia rigida
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan] as Caladenia rigida.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits (Environment Australia (EA), 1999c) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Caladenia rigida.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011) as Caladenia rigida
Scientific name Caladenia rigida [13419]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.S.Rogers
Infraspecies author  
Reference Rogers, R.S. (1930) Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 54: 45
Other names Caladenia huegelii var. rigida [43637]
Arachnorchis rigida [76229]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Caladenia rigida

Common name: White Spider-orchid

The White Spider-orchid is conventionally accepted as Caladenia rigida (CHAH 2005). The species has previously been referred to as Arachnorchis rigida, Caladenia huegelii var. rigida, Calonema rigida and Calonemorchis rigida. Sometimes genus Caladenia is referred to as Arachnorchis.

The White Spider-orchid is a terrestrial orchid with a hairy flowering stem growing to 30 cm in height (Bates 2011; Bates & Weber 1990). The orchid produces a single, also hairy, and narrow-lanceolate shaped leaf which grows to 20 cm in length. The Winter Spider-orchid has one to two white flowers with red marks on the calli and labellum (lip) fringe, are not fragrant and grow to 5 cm in width. The labellum of the species is ovate, grows to approximately 1 cm in length, is white with red-brown subulate marginal teeth and has four rows of calli that are mostly basally club-shaped and red with white tips. The dorsal sepal is erect and incurved over the column and terminates in a dark red, glandular club. Lateral sepals are rigidly spreading, and have similar clubs to the dorsal sepal (Bates 2011; Quarmby 2010).

The White Spider-orchid is endemic to the southern Mt. Lofty Ranges in South Australia (SA). Its distribution was known to extend from Macclesfield, south-east of Adelaide, north to Williamstown, north-east of Adelaide in the early 1990s (Bates & Weber 1990). The orchid was also thought to be in its largest numbers at a site in the Mt Gawler, Kersbrook, Millbrook area. Here the population estimate for the species was approximately 10 000 plants in the early 2000s (Bates 2001 pers. comm.). There were 500 plants recorded at Scott Creek Conservation Park in 1988, but by the early 2000s, less than 50 plants were known to occur there (Bates 2001 pers. comm.). Currently, the species is known from three disjunct areas in the southern Mt Lofty region extending to Mr Beevor, and the population is made up of 24 subpopulations (Bates 2011; Quarmby 2010).

Over the last 50–100 years, at least 18 subpopulations of the White Spider-orchid have become extinct and the extent of occurrence has reduced by at least 60%. The orchid is now thought to have an extent of occurrence of 458 km² and an area of occupancy of 7.8 hectares (Quarmby 2010).

In 2006, the total population size of the White Spider-orchid was estimated at 5500 mature individuals. This is thought to be an underestimate, caused by limited survey data. The population size has been suggested to be closer to 10 000 plants (Quarmby 2010).

The following table summarises the known subpopulation details for the White Spider-orchid (Quarmby 2010):

Subpopulation Number Location Land Holder and Reservation Status Number of Flowering Plants in Most Recent Census (Year) Subpopulation Trend
1 Belair National Park (NP) Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (reserved)

 

 2 (2006) Unknown 
2 Hale Conservation Park (CP) DENR (reserved)   1 (1995) Possibly Extinct 
3 Ironbank Private (unreserved)   87 (2005)  Unknown 
4 Ironbank Private (unreserved)  45 (2005)  Unknown 
5 Kersbrook Private (unreserved)   18 (2004) Stable 
6 Kersbrook Native Forest Reserve (NFR) Forestry South Australia (FSA) (reserved)  555 (2004) Unknown 
7 Kersbrook NFR  FSA (reserved)  700 (2004) Unknown 
8 Kersbrook NFR  FSA (reserved)  100 (2004) Unknown 
9 Kuitpo Forest  FSA (mostly reserved, partly unreserved)   341 (2006) Unknown 
10 Millbrook Reservoir Private (reserved)/ South Australia Water (SAW) (unreserved)  351 (2006) Unknown 
11 Millbrook Reservoir  SAW (unreserved)  100 (2006) Unknown 
12 Mt Gawler NFR  FSA (reserved)   1600 (2005) Unknown 
13 Mt Gawler NFR  FSA (reserved)   55 (2004) Unknown 
14 Mt Gawler NFR  FSA (reserved)   208 (2004) Unknown 
15 Mt Gawler NFR  FSA (reserved)   239 (2005) Unknown 
16 Mt Gawler NFR  FSA (reserved)   208 (2004) Unknown 
17 Para Wirra Recreation Park (RP)  DENR (reserved)   3 (2006)  Unknown 
18 Roachdale  National Trust of South Australia (NTSA) (reserved)   1 (2004) Unknown 
19 Scott Creek CP  DENR (reserved)   0 (2006) Fluctuating
20 Scott Creek CP  DENR (reserved)   0 (2006) Decline 
21 Scott Creek CP  DENR (reserved)   1 (1992) Unknown 
22 South Para Reservoir  SAW (unreserved)   976 (2006)  Unknown 
23 Warren CP  DENR (reserved)   10 (1993) Possible decline 
24 Warren CP  DENR (reserved)   1 (2004) Decline 

The White Spider-orchid can be found under DENR reservation in Belair NP, Hale CP, Para Wirra RP, Scott Creek CP and Warren CP. The orchid is also found under FSA reservation at Kersbrook NFR, Mt Gawler NFR and is partly reserved at Kuitpo Forest. The White Spider-orchid is also found under NTSA reservation at Roachdale (Quarmby 2010).

The White Spider-orchid is found on ridge tops and hillslopes in grey-brown loam often associated with coarse quartzite gravel or sandstone pebbles. Vegetation is usually an open-forest dominated by Messmate Stringbark (Eucalyptus obliqua), Long-leaved Box (E. goniocalyx), South Australian Blue Gum (E. leucoxylon), Pink Gum (E. fasciculosa) and Grey Box (E. microcarpa). Sites have a relatively open understorey of low shrubs and sedges dominated by Grass Tree (Xanthorrhoea semiplana), Golden Wattle (Acacia pycnantha), Spiky Guinea-flower (Hibbertia exutiacies), Pultenaea largiflorens, Large-leaf Bush-pea (P. daphnoides), Dusty Miller (Spyridium parvifolium), Beaked Hakea (Hakea rostrata) and Erect Hakea (H. carinata) (Leigh & Briggs 1992; Quarmby 2010).

Populations occur on ridges and steep slopes (probably due to valleys and flats being more severely disturbed) in grey-brown loams often associated with course quartzite gravel or sandstone pebbles (Bates 1996; Quarmby 2010). This habitat has been significantly cleared, fragmented and degraded (Quarmby 2010).

The White Spider-orchid may not produce a leaf or flowers every year, and may remain dormant for several years. When it does, the species produces a leaf in June or July, buds form in early to late August and flowering occurs in late August to October. Seed capsules are formed in October, and by late October the capsules dry and dehisce. Tubers are annually replaced (during winter to spring) and are dormant over the summer, December to March (Quarmby 2010).

This species seems to depend on appropriate fire regimes to keep its habitat open and is known to flower profusely after fire, but does not require fire to flower (Quarmby 2010).

The White Spider-orchid is thought to be pollinated by small native bees (Exoneura sp. and Homalictus sp.) and thynnid wasps (Phymatothynnus sp.), using both sexual attraction and general floral mimicry to attract pollinators (Bates 1996; Quarmby 2010).

The orchid may form hybrids with the Pink-lipped Spider-orchid (Caladenia behrii) and the Veined Spider-orchid (C. reticulata), but there are no clear records (Bates 2011).

The White Spider-orchid is similar to the Ghost Spider-orchid (Caladenia intuta), but is distinguishable by its rigid, very white flowers with clubbed sepals. Also, the Ghost Spider-orchid is found in a different geographical location (Bates 2011).

The major threats to the White Spider-orchid are grazing by kangaroos (Macropodidae sp.), Hares (from the genus Lepus), the Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), deer (from the family Cervidae), snails (from the class Gastropoda), caterpillars (larvae of insects from the order Lepidoptera) and other invertebrates; weed invasion including Gorse (Ulex sp.), Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera), Radiata Pine (Pinus radiata), South African Daisy (Senecio pterophorus) and Tree Heath (Erica arborea); lack of recruitment; track management and recreational activities; and incorrect fire management (Quarmby 2010). Historically, the major threat to the orchid was habitat clearance for agriculture (Bates & Weber 1990).

Inbreeding (due to population sizes of less than 30 individuals) and Phytophthora sp. (water mould) invasion are possible threats to the species (Quarmby 2010).

In 2010, a Recovery Plan for 12 Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block of South Australia was developed and released (Quarmby 2010). This Recovery Plan aims to guide the protection of nationally threatened orchids in the area and improve the conservation status of the species within a specified timeframe. A review of the status of each species was conducted as part of the plan.

Past Recovery Actions

This 2010 Multi-species plan followed from multiple single species Recovery Plans including one released in 1995 for the White Spider-orchid. As part of the latter plan, the following objectives were achieved:

  • Collection of seed from subpopulation 4 and re-dispersal around parent plants (1993–96).
  • Hand pollination of flowers in subpopulation 2 (1993–95) and subpopulations 10, 12, 19, 20 and 21 (1994).
  • Collection of seed from subpopulations 10, 12, 19, 20, 21 (1994) - portion of this seed was germinated at two nurseries (1994).
  • Searches of historic habitat in Kuitpo and Macclesfield areas (1995).

The following is a summary of other recovery actions undertaken for the White Spider-orchid prior to 2007 (Quarmby 2010):

  • The Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Project (LBTORP) was established in 1998 to plan and implement the recovery of nationally threatened orchids in the Lofty Block region, and is managed by the South Australian Department for Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in partnership with the Threatened Plant Action Group (TPAG) with funding primarily provided by the Australian Government. The White Spider-orchid was included in the LBTORP in 2004.
  • The Cherry Gardens Conservation Group (SA) received $3500 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2000–01 for a botanical survey and development of an action plan for the site to protect and conserve remnant vegetation and the White Spider-orchid.
  • Biannual South Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Recovery Team (SLBTORT) meetings held (since 2004).
  • Surveys of all known subpopulations (excluding subpopulations 2, 8, 21, 23 and 24) were undertaken from 2004–06.
  • Plants in subpopulations 3 and 19 were monitored in 2005.
  • Collection of seed from subpopulation 3, 10, 12, 19 and 22 in 2005 - mycorrhizal fungi collected from subpopulation 19 in 2005 (now stored in Botanical Gardens of Adelaide).
  • Research into pollination ecology and population genetics initiated by Adelaide University in 2005.
  • Surveys of subpopulations 1, 9, 10, 11, 17 and 22 were undertaken in 2006.

Success of Past Recovery Actions

The past recovery actions succeeded in increasing knowledge about the species' distribution, population size, biology and ecology. However, hand pollination, seed re-dispersal and translocation work has been unsuccessful. In addition, some subpopulations have declined in the last 20 years (Quarmby 2010).

Management documents for the White Spider-orchid can be found at the start of this profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Caladenia rigida in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006dj) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Inappropriate and illegal collection of plants Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat degradation associated with recreational activities such as horse riding Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Habitat disturbance from recreational vehicle use Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Recovery Plan for Caladenia rigida the White spider orchid Endemic to the Adelaide Hills (Bates, R.J., 1996) [Cwlth Action Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Ulex europaeus (Gorse, Furze) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Erica arborea (Tree Heath) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Chrysanthemoides monilifera (Bitou Bush, Boneseed) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Senecio pterophorus (African Daisy, Rough Senecio, Winged Groundsel) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Pinus radiata (Radiata Pine Monterey Pine, Insignis Pine, Wilding Pine) Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation by deer Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009w) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia (Quarmby, J.P., 2010) [Recovery Plan].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].

Bates, R. (2001). Personal Communication.

Bates, R.J (2011). South Australia's Native Orchids. Compact disc. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Bates, R.J. (1996). Recovery Plan for Caladenia rigida the White spider orchid Endemic to the Adelaide Hills. Adelaide: SA DELM.

Bates, R.J. & J.Z. Weber (1990). Orchids of South Australia. Adelaide: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbooks Committee.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2005). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Environment Australia (EA) (1999c). Threat Abatement Plan for Competition and Land Degradation by Feral Rabbits. [Online]. Biodiversity Group, Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/rabbits08.html.

Leigh, J.H. & J.D. Briggs (Eds) (1992). Threatened Australian Plants. Overview and Case Studies. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Quarmby, J.P. (2010). Recovery Plan for Twelve Threatened Orchids in the Lofty Block Region of South Australia. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/lofty-block-orchids.html.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Caladenia rigida in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 17 Apr 2014 14:02:32 +1000.