Species Profile and Threats Database

For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Acacia pycnostachya
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Acacia pycnostachya (Bolivia Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014ce) [Conservation Advice].
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (29/04/2014).
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan for competition and land degradation by unmanaged goats (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008ada) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Acacia pycnostachya.
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Review of the Threatened Species Conservation Act Flora Schedules: Recommendations to the Scientific Committee: Final Summary Report December 2002 (Hogbin, P., 2002) [Report].
NSW:Bolivia Wattle - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005l) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list) as Acacia pycnostachya
Scientific name Acacia pycnostachya [13415]
Family Fabaceae:Fabales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author F.Muell.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Plants Indigenous to the Colony of Victoria 2: 33 (Mar.-Sep. 1863).
Other names Racosperma pycnostachyum [31693]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

The Bolivia Wattle is an erect shrub or spreading tree, 3-15 m high with firm, grey-green phyllodes (Harden 1991; Tame 1992; Quinn et al. 1995; Steenbeeke 1998; NSW NPWS 2003m) and golden yellow flower spikes (Orchard & Wilson 2001a).

Occurs on the Northern Tablelands, NSW, on the Bolivia Ra., near Tenterfield, from Bluff Rock to Bolivia Hill (Hunter & Earl 1999; Orchard & Wilson 2001a).

The species occurs frequently in the granite belt, too abundantly to establish absolute numbers (Hunter & Earl 1999). Large areas of uncleared or slightly disturbed granite hills occur in the Tenterfield area, however, extensive surveys of granite outcrops by J.T. Hunter did not locate additional populations (Quinn et al. 1995).

The species is reserved in Bolivia Hill and Bluff River Nature Reserves (NSW NPWS 2003m).

Summary of populations as in Quinn et al. (1995):

Pop. no.LocationTenureDate surveyed - no. of plantsComments
1.Bolivia Hillprivate property on the N slope of the range07/05/1995 - 2000+Population in good health.
2.Bolivia Hillprivate property on the S side of the range15/09/1994 - 500+Population health very poor, plants dead and stressed from drought.
3.Sailor JackBack Ck area NW of Tenterfield1992 - 200-500 -
4.Bluff Rock10 km S of Tenterfield1994 - no data -

The species occurs amongst granite outcrops, on hillsides at altitudes of 700-900 m asl (Harden 1991; Tame 1992; Quinn et al. 1995; Steenbeeke 1998). Grows in crevices and shallow basins where some soil has accumulated (Quinn et al. 1995). The soils are sandy and infertile (Steenbeeke 1998; J.T.Hunter 2000, pers. comm.; Orchard & Wilson 2001a). It is most common on southern aspects (Hunter & Earl 1999).

It occurs in dry sclerophyll forest (Harden 1991; Steenbeeke 1998), open Eucalyptus-Callitris woodland and dry heath (Orchard & Wilson 2001a) in tall scrub, frequently being dominant or subdominant. In parts of Bolivia Hill, it dominates the tall shrub stratum below an open canopy of taller Acacia adunca, in an unusual layered scrub/low open forest community. The Sailor Jack population forms an understorey in dry sclerophyll forest. Associated species at Bolivia Hill include Eucalyptus prava, E. andrewsii, Callitris endlicheri and A. adunca (Quinn et al. 1995).

The flowers are borne Aug.-Oct. (Orchard & Wilson 2001a). Fruits are borne Oct.-Nov. (Quinn et al. 1995), or during summer (Steenbeeke 1998).

The species regenerates well along roadsides at Bolivia Hill (Quinn et al. 1995).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Acacia pycnostachya in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006y) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) Acacia pycnostachya in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006y) [Internet].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Acacia pycnostachya in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006y) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works Acacia pycnostachya in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006y) [Internet].

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (1991). Flora of New South Wales, Volume Two. Kensington, NSW: University of NSW Press.

Hunter, J.T. (2000). Personal Communication.

Hunter, J.T. & J. Earl (1999). Field Survey to Determine the Locations and Distribution of the Threatened Plant Pimelea venosa Threlfall.

NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS) (2003m). Threatened Species of the New England Tablelands and North West Slopes of New South Wales. Page(s) 163 pp. Coffs Harbour: NSW NPWS & Armidale: University of New England.

Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson, eds. (2001a). Flora of Australia, Volume 11B, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 2. In: Flora of Australia. Canberra, ACT: ABRS & CSIRO.

Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.

Quinn, F., Williams, J.B., Gross, C.L. & Bruhl, J. (1995b). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. for NSW NPWS & ANCA. Armidale: University of New England.

Steenbeeke, G. (1998). Clarence Rare Plant Species Information. [Online]. Available from:

Tame, T. (1992). Acacias of Southeast Australia. Kenthurst, Kangaroo Press.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia pycnostachya in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: Accessed Thu, 2 Oct 2014 14:53:06 +1000.