Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008adh) [Conservation Advice].
 
Commonwealth Listing Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adu) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Centrolepis pedderensis Flora Recovery Plan (Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIWE), 2011a) [Recovery Plan].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (62) (14/11/2008) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008n) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Listing Statement - Pedder Bristlewort, Centrolepis pedderensis (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DIPWE), 2009) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Centrolepis pedderensis (Pedder Centrolepis, Pedder Bristlewort): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014ab) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Scientific name Centrolepis pedderensis [12647]
Family Centrolepidaceae:Restionales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author W.M.Curtis
Infraspecies author  
Reference W.M. Curtis (1985), Brunonia 7, 299
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Centrolepis pedderensis

Common name: Pedder Centrolepis

Pedder Centrolepis is a summer-growing perennial herb (or an annual in less favourable sites), forming loose tufts up to 7 cm in diameter. There are numerous leaves, arranged in two rows on opposite sides of the stem. The leaves are suberect, hairless, and grow in a fan-shaped cluster. The sheath is 3–10 mm long, passing abruptly into a subterete keeled leaf blade 3–20 mm long. The scapes (flowering stalks) are slightly longer than the leaves, often crimson, and lack hairs. Reproductive parts are enclosed within two overlapping bracts, erect and lance-shaped to 4.5–5 mm long; their outer surfaces are light brown and often flushed crimson. The stamen's filament and the anther are also crimson (Cooke 1992; Curtis 1984).

Pedder Centrolepis is endemic to south-western Tasmania (Curtis 1984). The only known extant subpopulation is on the shores of Sanctuary Lake in the Frankland Ranges, Southwest National Park. The linear range of the species is about 180 m (TSS 2008b).

This species was previously also known from Lake Pedder and the Gordon River. The Lake Pedder subpopulation was last seen in 1971, and the Gordon River population was last seen in 1977. Both subpopulations are now presumed extinct (TSS 2008b).

The extent of occurrence of Pedder Centrolepis is 0.6 ha (the extent of the Sanctuary Lake subpopulation; TSS n.d., unpubl. data). This figure corresponds to the minimum convex polygon encompassing several discrete patches of the species recorded at the margins of Sanctuary Lake in 2005. Prior to the loss of the Lake Pedder and Gordon River subpopulations, the species' extent of occurrence would have been about 110 km² (TSS n.d., unpubl. data).

The area of occupancy for this species is less than 0.1 ha (TSS 2008b). The area of occupancy is a subset of the extent of occurrence (as the latter includes unsuitable habitat in the form of deep water).

A number of targeted surveys have been undertaken for Pedder Centrolepis in south-west Tasmania following the inundation of the Lake Pedder subpopulation in 1972 (Bayly et al. 1972; Curtis 1984). Gilfedder (1989) has reported the results of surveys in the following areas: Sanctuary Lake, Serpentine River below the Serpentine dam wall, the margins of the Huon-Serpentine impoundment (Lake Pedder), as well as buttongrass communities at Condominium Creek, Sandfly Creek, Gelignite Creek, Red Knoll and McPartlan Pass. Targeted surveys of alkaline pans in the valleys of the Giblin, Olga, Maxwell and Hardwood Rivers were undertaken in April 2001 and January 2005. These surveys were based on an earlier report of the species' presence, which it is now thought was probably a misidentification (Jarman et al. 1988; Lynch & Wells 1994). Department of Primary Industries, Water and the Environment (DPIWE) personnel also conducted surveys of the Frankland Range subpopulation at Sanctuary Lake in January and March 2005, with surveys of nearby Bluff Tarn in March 2005 (TSS n.d., unpubl. data).

As noted by Lynch and Wells (1994), Pedder Centrolepis suffers from a lack of 'collectability': the species is small, is usually submerged in water, and is a monocot.

Gilfedder (1989) and Lynch and Wells (1994) both envisaged that additional (small) subpopulations of the species would be revealed given a targeted survey effort. However, this has not proven to be the case, with the last new 'subpopulation' being discovered at Sanctuary Lake in 1989. A number of unsurveyed small glacial lakes and tarns in the Frankland, Wilmot and Companion Ranges would appear to offer the best hope of harbouring other subpopulations (Lynch & Wells 1994).

Pedder Centrolepis is known from a single subpopulation of 100–150 clumps (each clump may comprise one to many plants) at the margins of Sanctuary Lake in the Frankland Range, a remote part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (TSS 2008b). Two previously recorded subpopulations were lost in the development of hydroelectric power schemes in the 1970s, while intensive searches in recent years have failed to locate additional subpopulations. The single subpopulation on the shores of Sanctuary Lake is presumed to be the only extant population (TSS 2008b).

The known Pedder Centrolepis subpopulation occurs within the 605 000 ha Southwest National Park, part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area (Tasmanian PWS 1999). Aside from extension surveys, past management for the species in the Park has been essentially passive. Proposed activities within the Park are subject to the Tasmanian Reserve Management Code of Practice (Tasmanian PWS et al. 2003).

Pedder Centrolepis has been recorded from the sandy alluvium of streams and lakeshores in south-west Tasmania, usually in areas subject to seasonal inundation and drying (Bayly et al. 1972; Cooke 1992; Curtis & Morris 1994). The altitude range of recorded sites is 50–640 m above sea level, and the annual rainfall in the region is above 2000 mm (TSS 2008b).


Pedder Centrolepis has been recorded from the margins of Sanctuary Lake in submerged conditions (in 5–10 cm of water); the underlying substrate is composed of quartz sands and gravels (TSS 2008b). Gilfedder (1989) notes that the geology of Sanctuary Lake is composed of pre-Cambrian metamorphic pelitic sequences, with Pleistocene till, fluvioglacial and periglacial and associated deposits at the outlet to the Lake. Associated plant species at Sanctuary Lake include the allied species Centrolepis monogyna, Isolepis sp. and Myriophyllum sp., while the surrounding vegetation consists of a thick subalpine heath and coniferous shrub dominated by Leptospermum nitidum and Baeckea leptocaulis between 3–4 m high (Gilfedder 1989).

Pedder Centrolepis had been recorded in the 1970s from the quartz sand shore of the original Lake Pedder in areas subject to fluctuating water levels (Plate 2 of Bayley et al. 1971), and also the muddy river margins of a backwash near The Splits on the Gordon River (Gilfedder 1989; Lynch & Wells 1994).

Pedder Centrolepis flowers between November and March (Cooke 1992). Nothing is known of the species' pollination mechanisms or germination requirements. Germination trials conducted in the early 1990s by the Australian National Botanic Gardens from seed collected from the Sanctuary Lake subpopulation were unsuccessful (Lynch & Wells 1994).

Pedder Centrolepis can be distinguished from other Centrolepis species in Tasmania by the following combination of features: bracts acute or with a short subulate awn, leaves distichous and 8–30 mm long, inflorescence slightly above leaves, stigma carrying stout 3-lobed hairs (Curtis & Morris 1994).

Surveys should be conducted during the species' flowering period, November to March, focusing on any quartz sandy shores fringing lakes and rivers in Tasmania's south-west.

Inundation and regulated river flows
Two of the three recorded Pedder Centrolepis subpopulations in south-west Tasmania are thought to have become extinct through activities associated with the development of the Middle Gordon power scheme in the 1960s and 1970s. The Lake Pedder subpopulation was lost through direct inundation in 1972, a consequence of the damming of the Serpentine River (Bayly et al. 1972; McKenry 1972). The Gordon River subpopulation is thought to have been lost through regulated river flows subsequent to the commissioning of two turbines at the Middle Gordon power station in 1977 (Lupton 1999; Wilde 1978); the commissioning of a third turbine in the early 2000s to support the Basslink Power Scheme is likely to result in even fewer colonisation opportunities for the species along the Gordon River (Davidson & Gibbons 2001). The remaining known subpopulation is not considered to be at risk from inundation or regulation.

Climate change
The impact of the changing global climate, with a trend towards warmer conditions in Tasmania, potentially threatens the survival of a species such as Pedder Centrolepis that is currently growing near the apparent upper limit of its temperature range (TSS 2008c).

Fire
Changes to hydrology and sedimentation rates due to fire could have an impact on Pedder Centrolepis. The species could also be damaged by fire directly if a wildfire occurred in summer when lake levels were low. Conversely, lack of fire for long periods may allow forest to develop that casts shade on Pedder Centrolepis habitat and increases competition for the species (TSS 2008b).

Stochastic Risk
The species' localised distribution exposes it to extinction due to stochastic events or unforeseen human activities. The small population could also result in a decline in genetic diversity in this species (TSS 2008b).

Minister's reason for recovery plan decision

A number of key ongoing threats can be better managed with a recovery plan in place.

The Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008adh) recommends the following local and regional priority recovery and threat abatement actions:

  • Avoid applying inappropriate flow regimes on river systems that may support this species now or in the future.
  • Undertake appropriate seed and germplasm collection and storage.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations.

    Specific recovery objectives identified for the species by Lynch and Wells (1994) include:

    • Undertake extension surveys for the species in south-west Tasmania within the triangle formed by the Giblin River mouth, the south-eastern end of the Frankland Range, and the Denison River-Gordon River junction.
    • Monitor known sites to ensure their self-sustaining viability is maintained (authors presumed a number of new sites would be located).
    • Collect seed to be used for the development of an ex situ collection. Vegetative propagation should also be undertaken if seed germination is unsuccessful. If sufficient large (new) populations are not found, then re-introduce the species into areas within its former range.

    Funding has not been specifically directed towards the implementation of the Recovery Plan of Lynch and Wells (1994), though the following activities have been undertaken by various Tasmanian Government agencies in the interim:

  • Extension surveys
    DPIWE personnel undertook targeted surveys for the species in the Giblin, Olga, Maxwell and Hardwood Rivers in April 2001 and January 2005; a survey of the known subpopulation at Sanctuary Lake was conducted in January and March 2005, and nearby Bluff Tarn was also surveyed in March 2005. The tarns and lakes in the Frankland, Wilmot and Companion Ranges, identified by Lynch and Wells (1994) as additional prospective areas, are yet to surveyed.

  • Ex situ conservation
    Material collected from the Sanctuary Lake subpopulation in 2005 has been cultivated at the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens (Hobart), and also by a local plant enthusiast. Seed from the Sanctuary Lake subpopulation should be collected and stored as part of the Millennium Seed Bank project being conducted under the auspices of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (joint partners in Tasmania include the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens, DPIWE, and the Tasmanian Herbarium), while germination trials should also be undertaken if sufficient material is available (Schahinger 2005, pers. comm.).

  • Monitoring
    Monitoring of this species is yet to be undertaken. The remoteness of the only known subpopulation makes regular monitoring problematic (Gilfedder 1989). If pursued, it is recommended that specific guidelines be developed by DPIWE to ensure that neither the species nor its habitat are adversely impacted upon by monitoring or collecting.

    Some management actions for this species are included in the Listing Statement for Centrolepis pedderensis (TSS 2008b). Recommended actions include appropriate fire management at the site, establishment of an ex situ population, and improving the understanding of the species' population dynamics, threats and seedling recruitment.

  • Management documentation for this species can be found in:

  • Centrolepis pedderensis W.M.Curtis in Tasmania: Recovery Plan. Wildlife Report 94/13 (Lynch & Wells 1994).
  • Draft Recovery Plan for Threatened Ephemeral Wetland Flora of Southwest Tasmania 2006-2010 (TSS 2006c).

    A draft Tasmanian Flora Recovery Plan (TSS 2008c) has been developed for this species.

  • The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

    Threat Class Threatening Species References
    Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Commonwealth Listing Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adu) [Listing Advice].
    Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adu) [Listing Advice].
    Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Centotheca philippinensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ke) [Conservation Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Commonwealth Listing Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adu) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes including flooding Commonwealth Listing Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adu) [Listing Advice].
    Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Species threats data recorded on the SPRAT database between 1999-2002 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012i) [Database].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adu) [Listing Advice].
    Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Centotheca philippinensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008ke) [Conservation Advice].
    Commonwealth Listing Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2008adu) [Listing Advice].

    Bayly, I.A.E., P.S. Lake, R. Swain & P.A. Tyler (1972). Lake Pedder: its importance to biological science. In: Pedder Papers: Anatomy of a Decision. Australian Conservation Foundation, Victoria.

    Cooke, D.A. (1992). A taxonomic revision of Centrolepis ( Centrolepidaceae) in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. 15(1):1-63.

    Curtis, W M & D.I. Morris (1994). The Student's Flora of Tasmania Angiospermae: Alismataceae to Burmanniaceae. Hobart, Tasmania: St David's Park Publishing.

    Curtis, W.M. (1984). New species of Tasmanian Monocotyledones in the families Juncaceae, Centrolepidaceae and Cyperaceae. Brunonia. 7:297-304.

    Davidson, N.J. & A.K. Gibbons (2001). Basslink integrated impact assessment statement: potential effects of changes to hydro power generation. Report prepared for Hydro Tasmania, Hobart.

    Gilfedder, L. (1989). Five rare Southwest Tasmanian Endemic Plant Species. Unpublished report to the World Wildlife Fund, Hobart.

    Jarman, S.J., G. Kantvilas & M.J. Brown (1988). Buttongrass Moorland in Tasmania. Research Report No 2. Tasmanian Forest Research Council Inc, Hobart.

    Lupton, R. (1999). Lifeblood: Tasmania's Hydro Power. Focus Publishing, Edgecliff, New South Wales.

    Lynch, A.J.J. and A.K. Wells (1994). Centrolepis pedderensis W.M.Curtis in Tasmania: Recovery Plan. Hobart: Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife Service.

    McKenry, K. (1972). A history and critical analysis of the controversy concerning the Gordon River power scheme. In: Pedder Papers: Anatomy of a Decision. Australian Conservation Foundation, Victoria.

    Parks and Wildlife Service, Forestry Tasmania and Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (2003). Tasmanian Reserve Management Code of Practice. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania: Department of Tourism, Parks, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/file.aspx?id=6901.

    Schahinger R. (2005). Personal communication.

    Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (Tas PWS) (1999). Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Management Plan. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/publications/tech/whaplan/all.pdf.

    Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008adh). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Centrolepis pedderensis. [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/12647-conservation-advice.pdf.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2006c). Draft Recovery Plan for Threatened Ephemeral Wetland Flora of Southwest Tasmania 2006-2010. Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2008b). Listing Statement for Centrolepis pedderensis (pedder bristlewort). [Online]. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Tasmania. Available from: http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/Attachments/SSKA-72Y8GD/$FILE/Centrolepis%20pedderensis.pdf.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (2008c). Draft Flora Recovery Plan: Centrolepis pedderensis 2008-2012. Department of Primary Industries and Water, Hobart.

    Threatened Species Section (TSS) (no date). Unpublished data held by the Threatened Species Section. Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment (DPIWE), Hobart.

    Wilde, P.D. (1978). The environment, growth projections and hydro-electricity in Tasmania's southwest. In: The Southwest Book: A Tasmanian Wilderness. Australian Conservation Foundation, Hawthorn, Victoria.

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    This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

    Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Centrolepis pedderensis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 30 Jul 2014 03:24:23 +1000.