Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Barbarea australis
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice for Barbarea australis (Native Wintercress) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014f) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Barbarea australis (Native Wintercress) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2014p) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Barbarea australis Flora Recovery Plan (Tasmania Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (Tas. DPIWE), 2011) [Recovery Plan] as Barbarea australis.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Barbarea australis.
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (05/10/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001c) [Legislative Instrument] as Barbarea australis.
 
Amendment to the list of threatened species, threatened ecological communities and key threatening processes under sections 178, 181 and 183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (149) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014b) [Legislative Instrument] as Barbarea australis.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
TAS:Threatened Species Listing Statement-Native wintercress, Barbarea australis Hook.f. 1852 (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment (TAS DPIPWE), 2001) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Barbarea australis (Native Wintercress, Riverbed Wintercress): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014bx) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012) as Barbarea australis
Scientific name Barbarea australis [12540]
Family Brassicaceae:Capparales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author Hook.f.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Hooker, J.D. (1852), The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. discovery ships Erebus and Terror. II. Flora Novae-Zelandiae 1(1): 14 [tax. nov.]
Other names Barbarea vulgaris [51905]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Other illustrations Google Images

The Native Wintercress is an erect annual or short-lived perennial herb growing up to 50-100 cm tall (Gilfedder 1994; Potts & Gilfedder 1998).

This species is endemic to Tas. It was previously found in northern and central Tas. in an area ranging from the Hampshire Hills (south of Burnie) to St Patricks and North Esk Rivers (east of Launceston), and extending south to the Pine River in the central Highlands (Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1995). Eight populations have been recorded, only four of which are extant, the highest containing 50 plants. It occurs sporadically along the Ouse, Shannon and Clyde Rivers, which are all in the upper catchments of the Derwent River (Gilfedder 1994; Gilfedder & Kirkpatrick 1995).

The Ouse R. has four populations: above the Shannon R., below the Shannon R., near Waddamana and north of Kluan Bridge. The Shannon R. has one population near the Ouse R. The Clyde R. has one population which is near Bothwell. The Nive R. has one population W of Bradys L. A small population also occurs on Micks Ck near the Lake R. on the eastern Central Highlands in the Lake R. catchment. A northern population was recently discovered on the Mersey R. (below the Parangana dam), north of the Central Highlands (Potts & Gilfedder 1999).

It appears that B. australis has always had a restricted distribution in Tas. It has not been relocated at any of the localities where it was recorded last century (Potts & Gilfedder 1999).

The majority of populations occur on private land, and none are known from any secure state reserve. The Mersey R. population occurs in State Forest and may occur in an adjacent formal reserve. Part of one of the Ouse R. populations occurs on land owned by the Hydro Electric Commission and another occurs in a river reserve (Potts & Gilfedder 1999).

The Native Wintercress is a riparian species found near river margins, creek beds and along flood channels adjacent to the river, tending to favour slower reaches. It occurs in river alluvium deposited on large cobbles or on rocky ledges. Some sites were a considerable distance from the river in flood channels on sites where channels had been scoured by previous flood action, exposing river pebbles. In these sites, occasional plants were found growing in Poa tussocks. The sites where it occurs range in altitude from 260-760 m and overlie Jurassic dolerite and Tertiary basalt (Gilfedder 1994). A number of localities are associated with watercourses along contact zones between Permian mudstone and either dolerite or basalt (Gilfedder 1994; Potts & Gilfedder 1999).

It is found at the margins of riverine scrub with Leptospermum lanigerum, Dodonea viscosa and Pomaderris racemosa in communities dominated by Eucalyptus delegatensis, E. dalrympleana, E. pauciflora and E. ovata. Adjacent sites often consist of tussock grassland or grassy woodland dominated by Poa labillardieri or Themeda triandra. At most sites it grows in open situations with little competition from other plant species, although at some localities it grows amongst large Poa tussocks in relatively dense vegetation (Gilfedder 1994; Potts & Gilfedder 1999).

Seed from this species is produced in reasonable quantities, with up to 100 capsules per plant, and is readily germinated (Gilfedder 1994). Glasshouse studies found that seedlings grown in a relatively infertile soil mix failed to grow, flower or set seed, whilst seedlings regularly fertilized with a liquid fertilizer and grown in a loam mix grew quickly and achieved reproductive maturity. The seeds germinate in winter or early spring and a small basal rosette is produced. In late spring or early summer a flower stalk develops, growing 15-20 cm in height, occasionally reaching 50 cm. Peak flowering occurs from Nov. through to Feb. In the wild, bare ground is required for recruitment and the plants are short-lived, acting as annuals or biennials (Potts & Gilfedder 1999).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation City Parks and Cemeteries: Tasmania's remnant grasslands and grassy woodlands (Kirkpatrick, J., L. Gilfedder & R. Fensham, 1988) [Book].
NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Listing Advice on Barbarea australis (Native Wintercress) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001am) [Listing Advice].
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Listing Advice on Barbarea australis (Native Wintercress) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001am) [Listing Advice].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Restricted geographical distribution (area of occupancy and extent of occurrence) NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Listing Advice on Barbarea australis (Native Wintercress) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001am) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Salix spp. except S.babylonica, S.x calodendron & S.x reichardtii (Willows except Weeping Willow, Pussy Willow and Sterile Pussy Willow) Barbarea australis in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006da) [Internet].
Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds NON-CURRENT Commonwealth Listing Advice on Barbarea australis (Native Wintercress) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001am) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Changes to hydrology including construction of dams/barriers Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002 (Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder, 1999) [State Recovery Plan].

Gilfedder, L. (1994). Barbarea australis Flora Recovery Plan: Management Phase. Hobart: Tasmanian Parks & Wildlife.

Gilfedder, L. & Kirkpatrick, J.B. (1995). Conservation Ecology and Management of Two Endangered Herbs in the Brassicaceae from Tasmania, Australia. The Conservation Ecology and Management of Ten Threatened Species of Lowland Grassy Ecosystems in Tasmania.

Kirkpatrick, J., L. Gilfedder & R. Fensham (1988). City Parks and Cemeteries: Tasmania's remnant grasslands and grassy woodlands. Hobart, Tasmanian Conservation Trust.

Potts, W.C. & L. Gilfedder (1999). Barbarea australis Recovery Plan 1999-2002. [Online]. Hobart, Tasmanian: Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/b-australis/index.html.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Barbarea australis in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 19 Apr 2014 12:15:56 +1000.