In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable as Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa (Silver Daisy-bush) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013fs) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009) [Recovery Plan] as Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa.
Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi (Department of the Environment, 2014a) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa.
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa |
|Reference||Black, J.M. (1929), Flora of South Australia 4: 1483, fig. 670H. [autonym]|
|Other names||Olearia pannosa pannosa |
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa is conventionally accepted (CHAH 2013). The subspecies is endemic to South Australia (SA) (CHAH 2013; Smith et al. 2004), however, it is not included in the NSW flora census (The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust 2013) or the Victorian flora census (Walsh & Stajsic 2007). Previous treatments of the subspecies suggested that it occurred in NSW (Cooke 1986b; Cropper 1993; Pokbe 2007) and Victoria (Cropper 1993; Pokbe 2007).
Olearia pannosa subsp. cardiophylla occurs in Victoria and SA (CHAH 2013; Hills et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2004).
The Silver Daisy-bush is a spreading shrub to growing 1.5 m high, producing rooting stems which can spread over 10–20 m along the ground. The leaf lamina (blade) is elliptic to ovate, the length usually greater than twice the width, obtuse to acute at the base; tomentum (hairs) of the lower leaf surfaces and peduncles appressed (pressed tightly together), white to cream or a very pale rusty-brown. Capitula (flower heads) are white or rarely pale mauve ray florets, with yellow disc florets in the centre (Cooke 1986b; Cropper 1993; Wisniewski et al. 1987).
The Silver Daisy-bush is endemic to SA where it is scattered throughout agricultural areas. Collections have been made in the Eyre Peninsula, Yorke Peninsula, Flinders Ranges, Lofty South, Lofty North, Murray Basin and South East botanical districts and a single collection from Kangaroo Island (Cooke 1986; Cropper 1993).
The total number of populations and total abundance of the Silver Daisy-bush across its range is not accurately known. However, detailed information is known for some regions. In the Murray River catchment, 34 populations have been recorded, consisting of a total of 1100 plants, mainly between Monarto and Goolwa, with 262 plants recorded around Strathalbyn (Obst 2005). On the Eyre Peninsula, there are 18 populations consisting of a total of 1150 plants that occur in two clusters: from Cleve Hills to Coolani Range, north-west of Cowell; and the Koppio Hills to Greenpatch area (Pobke 2007).
The Silver Daisy-bush occurs in Wanilla Conservation Park (CP), Wanilla Land Settlement Reserve, Middlecamp Hills CP, Newland Head CP and Black Hill CP (Pobke 2007; Willson & Bignall 2009).
The Silver Daisy-bush is found in sandy, flat areas and in hilly, rocky areas in woodland or mallee (Cropper 1993; Kahrimanis et al. 2001). Soil types in the hilly areas in which the subspecies occurs include hard pedal, mottled-yellow duplex and hard, pedal, red duplex (Laut et al. 1977 cited in Pobke 2007). The species occurs in a region with cool winters, hot summers and less than 500 mm average annual rainfall (Obst 2005).
In the Murray River catchment it has been found in the following vegetation associations (Obst 2005):
- Green Dumosa Mallee (Eucalyptus phenax subsp. phenax) woodland
- Peppermint Box (Eucalyptus odorata) woodland
- Pink Gum (Eucalyptus fasciculosa) woodland
- Kingscote Mallee (Eucalyptus rugosa) woodland
- Gooseberry Mallee (Eucalyptus calycogona)/Peppermint Box/Kingscote Mallee/Red Mallee (E. socialis) woodland
- Yellow Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon subsp. leucoxylon)/Mallee Box (E. porosa) woodland
- Narrow-leaved Red Mallee (Eucalyptus foecunda)/Red Mallee/Sugarwood (Myoporum platycarpum) woodland
- Mallee Box/Murray Pine (Callitris preissii)/Narrow-leaved Red Mallee woodland
- Red Mallee/Green Dumosa Mallee woodland
- Broom Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca uncinata)/Australian Blackthorn (Bursaria spinosa)/Scarlet Bottlebrush (Callistemon rugulosus) tall shrubland.
On the Eyre Peninsula, it has been found in the following vegetation associations (Pobke 2007):
- Drooping Sheoak (Allocasuarina verticillata) low woodland
- Peppermint Box (Eucalyptus odorata), E. phenax mallee woodland
- Mallee Box (Eucalyptus porosa) open mallee woodland
- Broombush (Melaleuca uncinata) tall open shrubland
- Ridge-fruited Mallee (Eucalyptus incrassata), Beaked Red Mallee (E. socialis) mallee woodland
- Sugar Gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) woodland
- Coast Ridge-fruited Mallee (Eucalyptus angulosa), Narrowleaf Red Mallee (E. leptophylla), White Mallee (E. dumosa complex), Yorrell (E. gracilis) mallee woodland
- Slender Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca gibbosa), Short-leaf Honey-myrtle (M. brevifolia), Scarlet Bottlebrush (Callistemon rugulosus), Dwarf Hakea (Hakea rugosa) shrubland
- Eyre Peninsula Blue Gum (Eucalyptus petiolaris), Peppermint Box (E. odorata) low open forest.
The Silver Daisy-bush flowers from August to October (Cooke 1986b). Seeds ripen as early as December to May, and can remain on the capitulum up to May the following year. Seed dispersal appears limited because of the small pappus (modified calyx) and relatively heavy seed. Seed set appears to be rare in the field (less than 10%). Most natural populations have low seed set and negligible seedling recruitment. Seedlings may depend on soil disturbance to become established, with the prevalence of seedlings close to road verges supporting this hypothesis (Bartley 1990; Cropper 1993; Wisniewski et al. 1987).
The species appears to be long-lived (up to 100 years) and slow-growing, with one stand of plants observed to be present for 38 years. Stem sections revealed distinct growth rings, which could facilitate studies on population age structure (Wisniewski et al. 1987).
The Silver Daisy-bush differs from the Velvet Daisy-bush (Olearia pannosa subsp. cardiophylla) in leaf shape and the orientation and colour of hairs on the underside of the leaf (Willson & Bignall 2009). The following table describes the differences (Cooke 1986):
|Silver Daisy-bush||Velvet Daisy-bush|
|Leaf lamina||elliptic to ovate||broad-ovate|
|Leaf length||greater than twice the width||less than twice the width|
|Leaf base||obtuse to acute||truncate to shallowly cordate|
|Leaf underside and peduncle tomentum||appressed, white to cream or a very pale rusty-brown||hardly appressed, buff to rusty-brown|
|Habitat||mallee, woodland and forest||woodland|
The extremely low seed set and negligible seedling recruitment in all populations limits the potential recovery of the Silver Daisy-bush. Without recruitment, population decline is inevitable. The main cause of damage to unexpanded or empty fruits was a mould and a fungus-eating beetle in the genus Corticaria (Bartley 1990).
In the Murray River catchment, high risk threats to the Silver Daisy-bush are Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) invasion, effects of fragmentation, road/rail maintenance, lack of knowledge and lack of formal protection (Obst 2005). On the Eyre Peninsula, grazing pressure, small populations and a lack of recruitment, weed invasion, habitat fragmentation, lack of fire/disturbance and roadside management (Pobke 2007).
Wildfire is a potential threat, although there is little evidence for this. The habitat of this species tends to be rocky, where the accumulation of fuel loads is limited, which suggests that ground fires are infrequent. A fire would be unlikely to destroy a population. Large portions of the plants' stems are underground and they have thick, tuberous roots, which means they are likely to survive and resprout (Cropper 1993).
Recovery plans have been developed for Silver Daisy-bush populations in the Murray River catchment (Obst 2005), Eyre Peninsula (Pobke 2007) and the Mount Lofty Ranges (Willson & Bignall 2009).
The Australian Plant Society - Eastern Eyre Peninsula Group received $1900 of funding through the Threatened Species Network Community Grants in 2001-02 for addressing threats, raising awareness of biodiversity and protecting this species.
Management documents relevant to the Silver Daisy-bush are at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation||Capra hircus (Goat)||Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006rv) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi||A Review of the Biology and Ecology of Eriostemon ericifolius A. Cunn. ex Benth Page(s) 16. (Gross, C L & Mackay, D, 1998) [Report].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:unspecified||Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006rv) [Internet].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||
Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006rv) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes|
|Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers||Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006rv) [Internet].|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Bartley, M.J. (1990). Notes on fruit condition, germinability and seedling morphology of Olearia pannosa Hook. (Velvet Daisy-bush). The Victorian Naturalist. 107(3):80-85.
Cooke, D.A. (1986). Compositae (Asteraceae). In: Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. Flora of South Australia, Part III: Polemoniaceae-Compositae. 4th Edition. Adelaide: South Australian Government Printing Division.
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2013). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/cgi-bin/apclist.
Cropper, S.C. (1993). Management of Endangered Plants. East Melbourne, Victoria: CSIRO.
Department of the Environment (2014a). Threat abatement plan for disease in natural ecosystems caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi. [Online]. Canberra; ACT: Department of the Environment. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/threat-abatement-plan-disease-natural-ecosystems-caused-phytophthora-cinnamomi.
Hills, A., D. Burns, E. Jeffrey & S. Hadden (2003). Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 189 - Velvet Daisy-bush Olearia pannosa subsp. cardiophylla. [Online]. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE). Available from: http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0014/103352/189_Velvet_Daisy_Bush_2003.pdf.
Kahrimanis, M.J., S. Carruthers, A. Opperman & R. Inns (2001). Biodiversity Plan for the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin. Adelaide, South Australia: Department of Environment and Heritage.
Obst, C. (2005). South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan. [Online]. Report to the Threatened Species and Communities Section, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/files/542b195d-5854-46d1-aeb7-9e3701172106/SAMDB_Thr_Fl_Rec_Plan_05Jun.pdf.
Pobke, K. (2007). Draft recovery plan for 23 threatened flora taxa on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia 2007-2012. [Online]. South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/biodiversity/west_bcp/pdfs/draft_recovery_plan_for23.pdf..
Smith, Z., E.A. James & P.Y. Ladiges (2004). Morphological and genetic variation in the rare daisy Olearia pannosa subsp. cardiophylla (Asteraceae). Muelleria. 20:33-48.
The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust (2013). PlantNET. [Online]. The Plant Information Network System of The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, Australia (version 2). Available from: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au.
Walsh, N.G. & V. Stajsic (2007). A census of the vascular plants of Victoria, 8th edition. [Online]. Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne, South Yarra. Available from: http://www.rbg.vic.gov.au/viclist/index.htm.
Willson, A. & J. Bignall (2009). Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. [Online]. Adelaide, South Australia: Department for Environment and Heritage. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/adelaide-and-mount-lofty-ranges.html.
Wisniewski, J.E., Scarlett, N.H. & Parsons, R.F. (1987). Rare and Endangered Victorian Plants 4. Olearia sp. aff. pannosa. The Victorian Naturalist. 104(4):108-114.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Olearia pannosa subsp. pannosa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Wed, 3 Sep 2014 14:15:39 +1000.