In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans||
National Recovery Plan for Trailing Hop-bush Dodonaea procumbens (Carter, O., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Non-statutory Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Dodonaea procumbens |
|Reference||Transactions and Proceedings of the Philosophical Society of Victoria 1 (before 8 Nov. 1854) 8.|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
Scientific name: Dodonaea procumbens
Common name: Trailing Hop-bush
The Trailing Hop-bush is a small prostrate shrub growing to about 1.5 m diameter and 20 cm tall. It has angular or flattened, sometimes weakly ribbed branches covered in minute soft, erect hairs and often rooting at nodes. The leaves are 8–30 mm long and 4–9 mm wide. This species is dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants) or polygamodioecious (having bisexual and male flowers on some plants; bisexual and female flowers on others). Flowers are tiny, solitary or paired and appear in the spring and summer (Duretto 1999d; West 1984, 1986; Wilson & Scott 2002).
The Trailing Hop-bush is widely but patchily distributed across south-eastern Australia, where it occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. In New South Wales, this species is restricted to a small area between Tarago and Bungee Peak in the Southern Tablelands (Wilson & Scott 2002). In Victoria the species is confined largely to the south-west of the State, between Castlemaine and Dergholm and south to Cressy (Duretto 1999d). Although, in late 2009 a population was discovered at Dutson Downs near Sale in central Gippsland, eastern Victoria (Burns Gipplsland Water pers. comm. cited in Carter 2010c). In South Australia this species occurs near Port Lincoln, near Clare and near Burra, in the Mount Lofty Ranges and on Kangaroo Island (SA DEH 2006; State Herbarium of South Australia 2008; West 1986).
This species is known from approximately 55 populations across its range and has an estimated total population of at least 5000 plants. However, accurate location and population data only exists for around 25 of these populations. The largest known population, at Dutson Downs in central Gippsland, contains an estimated 2000 plants and the second largest population, located in Beear State Forest, contains 1000 plants. Several other populations contain 100–200 plants, although most populations are small, containing 50 plants or less (Carter 2010c). Thousands of plants occur in Kapunda-Peterborough area in South Australia, including the Mount Core Grassland Conservation Park (Lang & Kraehenbuhl 2000 pers. comm.) These populations may not be included by Carter (2010c). The following table provides the location of known Trailing Hop-bush populations and, where possible, the population size and year recorded.
|Location/site||Population size/number of plants||Year||Comments|
|New South Wales|
|Michelago (private land)||~200||2005|
|MacLaughlin Travelling Stock Route||~200||2005|
|Bobundara (private land, Bobundara)||~200||2005|
|Bredbo (private land)||~200||2005|
|Dartmoor Travelling Stock Route||~100||2005|
|Numeralla (Diggers Hall)||~100||2005|
|Bredbo (private land, Bredbo Jerangle Road)||~50||2005|
|Michelago (private land, Michalego Road)||~50||2005|
|Lake Bathurst (private land)||~25||2005|
|Cooma (private land at Quartz Hill)||20||2005|
|Bunyan (roadside, Monaro Highway)||20||2005|
|Bredbo (roadside, Rothlyn Road)||20||2005|
|Bredbo (railway easement)||20||2005|
|Bredbo (roadside, Monaro Highway
1 km south of Bredbo)
|Bredbo (roadside, Monaro Highway
4 km south of Bredbo)
|Bredbo Travelling Stock Route||20||2005|
|Bobundara (private land, roadside and reserve)||20||2005||Most plants on roadside and adjacent private land; one plant in Bobundara Nature Reserve|
|Rose Valley (roadside, Rose Valley Road)||20||2005|
|Ando (roadside, Ando Road)||10||2005|
|Numeralla, 'near cemetery'||5||1999|
|Michelago (east of railway line and north of Queanbeyan Road)||unknown||2001||Recorded in 2001; precise location and abundance unknown|
|Michelago (private land, Tinderry Road||unknown||unknown|
|Numeralla (private land)||unknown||unknown|
|Dairymans Plains (roadside, Dry Plains Road, private land)||unknown||unknown||At least two sites with plants on roadside and adjacent private land|
|Tinderry (Tinderry Road; private land||unknown||unknown||Plants on roadside and adjacent private land|
|Chakola (private land)||unknown||unknown||Plants on three separate properties; abundance unknown|
|Dutson Downs Western Bush Block 1 (private land)||~2000||2009||Plants on and adjacent to vehicle track|
|Dutson Downs Western Bush Block 2 (private land)||10||2009||Plants on and adjacent to vehicle track|
|Dutson Downs Delray Bush Block (private land)||~370||2009||Plants on and adjacent to vehicle track|
|Beear State Forest, Hallam's Track||~1000||2001|
|Victoria Valley (roadside, Victoria Valley Rd)||~500||2004|
|Wickliffe (roadside, Willaura-Wickliffe Rd)||77||2001|
|Joyces Creek (roadside, Pyrenees Hwy)||30||2004|
|Werneth (roadside, Wilgul-Werneth Road)||7||2001||2 km west of Urches Road intersection|
|White Elephant Reserve, Rowsley||5||2000|
|Werneth (roadside, Pitfield-Cressy Road)||4||2002||3 km north of Gilletts Road on west side|
|Stawell (roadside, Western Hwy)||3||2004|
|Illabrook (roadside, Rokewood-Skipton Road)||unknown||1990||Abundance unknown|
|Glenisla||unknown||1988||Precise location and abundance unknown|
|Grampians National Park (Asses Ears Road)||unknown||1986||Abundance unknown|
|Edenhope Oval||unknown||1985||Abundance unknown|
|Bullawin Flora Reserve||unknown||1984||Abundance unknown|
|Tullich||unknown||1983||Precise location and abundance unknown|
|Deep Lead Nature Conservation Reserve||unknown||1981||Precise location and abundance unknown|
|Paddys Ranges State Forest||unknown||1981||Abundance unknown|
|Victoria Valley Hall||unknown||1978||Abundance unknown|
|Dorodong (roadside, Dorodong Road)||unknown||1978||Precise location and abundance unknown|
|Lake Fyans||unknown||1966||Precise location and abundance unknown|
|Holm Hill Council (plantation) Reserve||~30||2005|
|Julie Creek (roadside)||~10||1994|
|Mokota Conservation Park||unknown||2000||Abundance unknown|
|Mintaro Cemetery||unknown||2000||'Several low clumps', abundance unknown|
|Kangaroo Island (private land)||unknown||1987||Abundance unknown|
|Pines Picnic Ground, Port Lincoln||unknown||1987||Plants reported as extending approximately 1 km along highway|
|Barrier Highway (10 km south of Burra)||unknown||1982||'Three small patches', current abundance unknown|
|Penola (roadside, Penola-Dergholm Road)||unknown||1980||Abundance unknown|
This species grows in low-lying, often winter-wet areas in woodland, low open forests, healthland and grasslands, on sands and clays (Duretto 1999d).
South Australian populations have been recorded in open River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Pink Gum (Eucalyptus fasciculosa) and Blue Gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon) woodlands in low lying areas (West 1986) and in native grasslands, where it grows with Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra), Austrodanthonia spp., Austrostipa spp. and shrubs including Wreath Wattle (Acacia acinacea), Sticky Hop-bush (Dodonaea viscosa) and Australian Blackthorn (Bursaria spinosa) (State Herbarium of South Australia 2008). At Mokota Conservation Park the species grows in Austrodanthonia low tussock grassland on rocky outcrops and in shallow soils, with Fuzzweed (Vittadinia cuneata), Lemon Beauty-heads (Calocephalus citreus), Beauty Buttons (Leptorhynchos tetrachaetus) and Triptilodiscus pygmaeus (DEH 2006). On Kangaroo Island and near Penola, the species grows in Brown Stringy Bark (Eucalyptus baxteri) open forest, sometimes in Xanthorrhoea thickets (State Herbarium of South Australia 2008).
Most populations in New South Wales occur either in in natural grassland or grassy woodland of Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora), usually on crests or slopes and on tilted sediments (Rehwinkel pers. comm. cited in Carter 2010c). A recently discovered population grows on the dry bed of Lake Bathurst near Tarago (Baines pers. comm. cited in Carter 2010c). Plants often occur on disturbed and exposed sites such as road verges and cuttings, with some populations on sandy rocky outcrops (Miles pers. comm. cited in Carter 2010c).
Victorian populations have been recorded in various plant communities including grassy woodland dominated by River Red Gum in western Victoria, heathy dry forest in central Victoria, damp heath in far-western Victoria (Carter pers. obs. cited in Carter 2010c) and sedge wetland, healthy woodland and damp heathland in eastern Victoria (Burns pers. comm. cited in Carter 2010c).
Flowering takes place in the spring and summer and fruit are usually present at this time too. The fruits may take 10-12 months to mature (West 1984; Carter 2010c).
Putative hybrids with features intermediate between the Trailing Hop-bush and the Sticky Hop-bush have been found in two populations, one in South Australia, the other in south eastern Victoria (West 1985).
This species appears to colonise and thrive on bare ground. Costin (1954) reported that it is one of a number of pioneer species which hasten the secondary succession process by acting as natural seed-beds and providing protection for less hardy species. On one site which has been badly overgrazed in the past and is badly eroded and infested with rabbits, the Dodonaea plants are large and vigorous, and appear to be expanding onto the large areas of bare soil. On another site, which is lightly grazed with a much more continuous ground cover and where rabbits are controlled, the Dodonaea plants are smaller, and may be at a later stage in succession (Rowell 1994).
Costin (1954) also reported that the Trailing Hop-bush was unpalatable to stock, and considered local dominance to be an indicator of overgrazing. As a deep-rooted perennial the plant may also survive grazing and drought better than many annuals. Rowell (1994) found at the Bredbo roadside site, many Dodonaea plants occurring on the ungrazed crest of a cutting, but only a handful of very small plants in the heavily grazed travelling stock reserve immediately adjacent.
The former distribution and abundance of the Trailing Hop-bush is not known. However, based on this species current broad distribution, the species was once probably common and widespread across the now depleted temperate grassy woodlands of south-eastern Australia (Carter 2010c).
Disturbance/destruction of habitat and individual plants
Many populations occur partially or entirely on roadsides and are at risk from damage and disturbance by vehicles, during roadworks, utilities installation and maintenance and from weed spraying. Some disturbance may be beneficial as some of these populations may have established after disturbance and lack of competition has created favourable conditions for recruitment. However, persistence at these sites will depend on future management. Populations that occur on private land may be at threat from disturbance and damage if there is changed land-use, including conversion from grazing land to cropping (Carter 2010c).
Introduced weed species pose a threat at many sites and continued high cover of perennial weeds is likely to suppress recruitment opportunities and growth for the Trailing Hop-bush. High risk weeds include African Love Grass (Eragrostis curvula) at sites in the Bredbo district (Rowell 1994), Paterson's Curse (Echium plantagineum), Bearded Oats (Avena barbata), Vulpia spp. and Aira spp. at some sites in South Australia (Bickerton pers. comm. cited in Carter 2010c) and Pharlaris spp. at some sites in Victoria (Carter 2010c).
Heavy grazing and browsing by native and introduced herbivores is a threat to several populations, including some large populations. Grazing is likely to inhibit flowering and seed production and high levels can lead to plant death. Populations on Travelling Stock Routes and on private land may be under threat by grazing and trampling by domestic stock (Carter 2010c).
Altered fire regimes
The role of fire in maintaining populations of the Trailing Hop-bush is not well understood. Fire may be important for maintaining open vegetation and preventing over-dominance by grasses, which may lead to restricted growth (and possibly seed production) in the Trailing Hop-bush. Plants are likely to resprout after fire. It is not known whether this species relies on disturbance such as fire for seed germination and establishment. Seeds of the related Sticky Hop-bush germinate in response to heat treatment (Clarke et al. 2000 cited in Carter 2010c) and the Trailing Hop-bush may have a similar response (Carter 2010c).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation||Dodonaea procumbens in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ik) [Internet].|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||Dodonaea procumbens in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ik) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures||Dodonaea procumbens in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006ik) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||National Recovery Plan for Trailing Hop-bush Dodonaea procumbens (Carter, O., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass, Weeping Lovegrass, Weeping Love Grass, Boer Lovegrass, Weeping Grass)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Avena barbata (Bearded Oats)||National Recovery Plan for Trailing Hop-bush Dodonaea procumbens (Carter, O., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].|
|Echium plantagineum (Paterson's Curse, Salvation Jane, Purple Bugloss, Blue Echium, Blueweed, Blue Weed, Lady Campbell Weed, Plantain-leaf Viper's Bugloss, Purple Echium, Riverina Bluebell)||National Recovery Plan for Trailing Hop-bush Dodonaea procumbens (Carter, O., 2010c) [Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Aira spp.|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Phalaris spp.|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation caused by Vulpia spp.|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Slashing and herbicide application for weed control|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Habitat degradation caused by firebreak construction and/or maintenance|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Herbicide drift|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development of roads and railroads|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Transportation and Service Corridors:Road and rail maintenance works|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Utility and Service Lines:Powerline easement maintenance and construction; mortality due to collision with powerlines|
Brett Lane & Associates (2009). Proposed Berrybank windfarm flora and fauna overview. [Online]. Victoria: TME Australia Pty Ltd. Available from: http://www.unionfenosa.com.au/f/PRvicBB/Environmental-Assessment-(EA)/08_BB_Appendix_4_Flora_and_Fauna_Assessment.pdf.
Carter, O. (2010c). National Recovery Plan for Trailing Hop-bush Dodonaea procumbens. [Online]. Melbourne, Victoria : DSE. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/dodonaea-procumbens.html.
Clarke, P.J., E.A. Davison & L. Fulloon (2000). Germination and dormancy of grassy woodland and forest species: effects of smoke, heat, darkness and cold. Australian Journal of Botany. 48:687-700.
Costin, A.B. (1954). A Study of the Ecosystems of the Monaro Region of New South Wales with special reference to soil erosion. Government Printer, Sydney.
Duretto, M.F. (1999d). Sapindaceae. In: Walsh, N.G. & Entwisle, T.J., eds. Flora of Victoria. 4:153-197. Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Rowell, A. (1994). A study of the native grasslands of the Monaro district. Dickson, A.C.T.
South Australia Department of Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2006). Mokota Conservation Park Draft Grassland Management Plan . Internal Report.
State Herbarium of South Australia (2008). Adelaide Herbarium (ADHERB) database. Extracted September 2008.
West, J.G. (1984). A Revision of Dodonaea Miller (Sapindaceae) in Australia. Brunonia. 7(1):1-194.
West, J.G. (1985). Dodonaea. In: Flora of Australia. 25:114-163. Canberra: AGPS.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Dodonaea procumbens in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:23:36 +1000.