Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Prasophyllum pruinosum
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
 
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010am) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan not required, the approved conservation advice for the species now provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats (13/07/2010).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Policy Statements and Guidelines Draft survey guidelines for Australia's threatened orchids (Department of the Environment, 2013b) [Admin Guideline].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Amendment to the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (98) (13/07/2010) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2010h) [Legislative Instrument] as Prasophyllum pruinosum.
 
State Listing Status
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Prasophyllum pruinosum
Scientific name Prasophyllum pruinosum [11821]
Family Orchidaceae:Orchidales:Liliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author R.Rogers
Infraspecies author  
Reference Rogers, R.S. (1909) Transactions, proceedings and report, Royal Society of South Australia 33: 211
Other names Prasophyllum patens var. pruinosum [50187]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Prasophyllum pruinosum

Common name: Plum Leek-orchid

Conventionally accepted as Prasophyllum pruinosum (CHAH 2010). This species is sometimes regarded as an aberrant member of the P. patens complex (Bates 2007).

Plum Leek-orchid is a perennial, deciduous terrestrial orchid growing 20–40 cm tall. The leaf is 20–40 cm long and red at the base. The flower spike is slender with flowers (6–10 cm long) crowded at the top. The flowers are generally yellow-green, brown and whitish, often with tints of pink or purple-plum. The flower is slightly scented with a minty to musty sweet smell (Bates 2007; Jones 2006; Willson & Bignall 2009).

General distribution

The Plum Leek-orchid is endemic to South Australia, where it has been recorded in the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Region (TSSC 2010aa). The species is known from eight geographically isolated and distinct locations, which extend from the Barossa Valley in the north, to Belair National Park (NP) in the south (SA DEH 2009; State Herbarium of South Australia 2009; Willson & Bignall 2009). The Belair NP population is considered the second largest (NCSSA 2009).

Collection records prior to 1983 show that the Plum Leek-orchid previously had a much wider distribution that ranged from the northern Adelaide Plains (near Roseworthy, Lyndoch and One Tree Hill), along the foothills, south to Port Noarlunga, and east to the Mount Barker area (DEH 2007 cited in Willson & Bignall 2009).

Specific locations

There is no available information on specific locations of the Plum Leek-orchid. Please contact the South Australia Herbarium for information on specific locations.

Extent of occurrence and area of occupancy

The Plum Leek-orchid's estimated area of occupancy is 0.16 km² and its extent of occurrence is 163 km² (Bates 2007; State Herbarium of South Australia 2009).

A total of 280 plants were recorded in surveys of known locations in 2008 (Willson & Bignall 2009). The species is described as undergoing a significant decline in the past 50 years, with only eight locations known from a historical number of about 21 (Willson & Bignall 2009).

The Plum Leek-orchid has been recorded in a range of open woodland habitats; usually with an overstorey of Pink Gum (Eucalyptus fasciculosa), South Australian Blue Gum (E. leucoxylon), Acacia leucoxylon and Callitris gracilis (Bates 2007; State Herbarium of South Australia 2009; Willson & Bignall 2009).

The Plum Leek-orchid is recorded growing on a range of soil types including well-drained sandy loams to heavy clays, usually in association with other species of leek orchid (Prasophyllum spp.). It may be in the open or in the shelter of broom-type shrubs (e.g. Genista spp.) (Bates 2007; State Herbarium of South Australia 2009; Willson & Bignall 2009).

The Plum Leek-orchid flowers from late September to November. It is pollinated by flies and bees (Willson & Bignall 2009).

Risk levels of threats

The regional recovery plan for Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges (Willson & Bignall 2009) lists threat risk levels for the Plum Leek-orchid:

Threat class Risk level
Weed invasion Very high
Inappropriate fire regimes Very high
Recreation activity High
Grazing and disturbance by Kangaroos (Macropus sp.) High
Grazing and disturbance by Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) High
Residential and commercial development High
Climate change, drought and severe weather Medium
Illegal collection Low

Past threats

Urban development and agriculture

Impacts of urban development and agriculture are considered to be one of the main causes of extinction in locations where the Plum Leek-orchid was historically found (Bates 2007).

Fire

Overly frequent fires, since the mid 1990s, are suspected to have contributed to the possible extinction of the Anstey Hill Recreation Park population (Bates 2007).

Present threats

Weed invasion

Weed invasion threatens all populations of the Plum Leek-orchid through competition for resources (Quarmby 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa; Brewer 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa; Bates 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa). Weed invasion is suspected to have contributed to the decline of populations in Barossa Reservoir, Wadmore Park, Belair National Park and Sandy Creek Conservation Park (Quarmby 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa; Bates 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa). Weeds are also suspected to have contributed to the probable extinction of a population in Ferguson Conservation Park (Bates 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa).

Weeds that pose a risk include Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) and Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides) (Willson & Bignall 2009).

Browsing

Browsing of flower spikes by Rabbits, Hares (Lepus spp.), invertebrates and abnormally high numbers of Kangaroos has been observed in populations. This reduces reproductive potential and limits recruitment, especially where prolonged browsing occurs (Quarmby 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa).

Recreational activities

High levels of inappropriate recreational activities cause direct damage to plants and can degrade or fragment Plum Leek-orchid habitat in public reserves where two significant populations occur (Quarmby 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa)

The population within Belair NP is threatened by trail bike riding and horse riding (NCSSA 2009).

Inappropriate fire regimes

Frequent prescribed burning and clearing of Plum Leek-orchid habitat occurs in several reserves and is suspected to have caused population decline (TSSC 2010aa).

Future threats

Potential threats to the species include: indiscriminate weed control, construction or widening of tracks or roads, habitat clearing and illegal collection (Quarmby 2009 pers. comm. cited in TSSC 2010aa).

Approximately half the known distribution of the species occurs close to confirmed or suspected Phytophthora cinnamomi outbreak. This may be a potential threat to the species (Willson & Bignall 2009).

Minister's Reasons for Recovery Plan decision

There should not be a recovery plan for the Plum Leek-orchid as the approved conservation advice for the species now provides sufficient direction to implement priority actions and mitigate against key threats.

Regional Recovery Plan for Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges

The Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson & Bignall 2009) includes the Plum Leek-orchid. This plan addresses threat management in the context of broad vegetation groups (Willson & Bignall 2009). The Plum Leek-orchid is included in the Grassy Woodland vegetation group, which is a vegetation community that is identified as a high priority for recovery (Willson & Bignall 2009). This high priority rating means that conservation investment may be targeted at the Grassy Woodland group (rather than lower priority groups within the regional recovery plan's area), which will benefit the Plum Leek-orchid (Willson & Bignall 2009).

The plan generally addresses key threats to a range of endangered species in the region, such as: weed invasion, inappropriate fire management regimes, impacts of recreational activities and browsing of herbivorous animals (Willson & Bignall 2009). There are no specific measures to address threats to the Plum Leek-orchid, but, as it occurs in the high priority Grassy Woodland vegetation group, actions to recover this area should benefit the orchid (Willson & Bignall 2009).

Conservation Advice for the Plum Leek-orchid

The Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (TSSC 2010am) identifies a number of recovery actions for the Plum Leek-orchid, including:

Research priorities

  • More precisely assess population size, distribution, ecological requirements and the relative impacts of threatening processes.
  • Design and implement a monitoring program or, if appropriate, support and enhance existing programs.
  • Undertake survey work in suitable habitat and potential habitat to locate any additional populations.
  • Undertake seed germination and/or vegetative propagation trials to determine the requirements for successful establishment, including symbiotic propagation with mycorrhizal fungi.
  • Undertake genetic analyses to: i. assess current gene flow (using markers and analyses capable of distinguishing population divergence on an evolutionary timescale, from more recent divergence); and ii. identify populations, with low genetic diversity, that might benefit from artificial introduction of genetic material from other populations.
  • Investigate the Plum Leek-orchid's capacity to survive high browsing pressure and related management practices.
  • Investigate suitable fire regimes for the Plum Leek-orchid and the effects of current fire management practices in the region.

Habitat loss, disturbance and modification

  • Monitor the eight known populations to identify key threats.
  • Monitor the progress of recovery, including the effectiveness of management actions and the need to adapt them if necessary.
  • Identify populations of high conservation priority.
  • Manage recreational activities and associated tracks and infrastructure in public reserves to minimise trampling and habitat disturbance in Plum Leek-orchid habitat.
  • Investigate formal conservation arrangements, management agreements and covenants on private land; and for crown and private land, investigate inclusion in reserve tenure if possible.
  • Manage inappropriate clearance of Plum Leek-orchid habitat on roadside verges.

Invasive weeds

  • Review management plans within the region to ensure they include appropriate actions to protect the Plum Leek-orchid from invasive weeds including Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera), Bridal Creeper (Asparagus asparagoides), Olive (Olea europaea), Watsonia (Watsonia meriana), Harlequin Flower (Sparaxis sp.), Freesia (Freesia cultivar), Cape Tulip (Moraea flaccida) and Soursob (Oxalis pes-caprae).
  • Ensure chemicals, or other mechanisms used to eradicate weeds, do not have a significant adverse impact on the Plum Leek-orchid.

Fire

  • Develop and implement appropriate fire management practices for Plum Leek-orchid habitat on public land: such practices need to minimise fire frequency and avoid burning during the active period of growth (May to November).
  • Where appropriate, provide locations of known occurrences to fire management authorities and seek inclusion of mitigative measures in fire management plans, risk registers and/or operation maps.

Browsing or grazing

  • Monitor levels of browsing and implement herbivore management strategies as necessary; this may include installing cages, Rabbit/Hare control, and Kangaroo management programs.

Diseases, fungi and parasites

  • Develop and implement suitable hygiene protocols to protect known sites from spread of Phytophthora cinnamomi to prevent dieback of Plum Leek-orchid habitat.

Conservation information

  • Continue to raise awareness of the Plum Leek-orchid within the local community, particularly in regards to populations occurring in NPs and conservation reserves; and also with private land managers, and parks and local council managers and employees.
  • Frequently engage with relevant private landholders and land managers, and encourage these key stakeholders to contribute to the implementation of conservation management actions.

Enable recovery of additional sites and/or populations

  • Undertake appropriate seed and mycorrhizal fungi collection and storage.
  • Investigate options for linking populations and enhancing populations.
  • Implement national translocation protocols (Vallee et al. 2004) if establishing additional populations is considered necessary and feasible.

Undertaken recovery actions

The regional recovery plan for Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges suggests that the research (surveys in particular) from the Native Orchid Society of South Australia has contributed to the knowledge of the Plum Leek-orchid (Willson & Bignall 2009).

EPBC Referral 2010/5728

The following measures were to be implemented to minimise the impacts of a strategic fire break on the Plum Leek-orchid (and the Pale Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum pallidum)) (EPBC Referral 2010):

  1. Prescribed burning and brush cutting must only occur during November–April.
  2. Prescribed burning and brush cutting cannot occur if the orchids have emerged.
  3. Prescribed burning must occur between 5–10 year intervals, to allow sufficient time for orchid recruitment.
  4. Any prescribed burning within the 50 metres of orchid populations must be in consultation with the South Australian Department of Environment and Natural Resources (SA DENR).
  5. Heap burns must occur at a minimum of 5 metres away from orchid populations to prevent damage to tubers.
  6. The party who is responsible for the action must ensure that:
  • Prior to undertaking the proposed action, star dropper stock fencing is installed so that it surrounds the buffer for each orchid population to deter vehicle and pedestrian access.
  • Vehicles must not enter the buffer or any orchid population.
  • Brush cutting within the buffer must only occur if tall grasses and/or weeds are present, and these tall grasses or weeds cannot be removed using minimal disturbance techniques.
  • The minimum cutting height that vegetation within the buffer can be cut to is 200 mm.
  • Large shrubs that occur within the buffer must be retained to provide protection from herbivores.
  • Weeds that occur within the buffer must be controlled using minimal disturbance techniques around orchid populations.
  • Any use of herbicides within the buffer must be approved by the SA DENR and may only be applied by trained Bushcare contractor(s) or volunteer(s).
  1. The marking of orchid locations is conducted to the following requirements:
  • Prior to undertaking the proposed action signage must be installed to mark the orchid populations for field staff and contractors.
  • Signage used must be in accordance with the Native Vegetation Marker Scheme.
  • As far as possible, specific orchid locations must be kept confidential.
  1. Wheel ruts causing water drainage issues must be filled with a suitable aggregate material and water drained away from the orchid populations.
  2. Fire management plans developed for the site must include specific information on orchid populations, including population locations, dormancy period, best fire frequency regime, and heap burning requirements. The information must also include species descriptions to enable operators to identify the orchids and their different growth states.
  • Council staff, contractors and the South Australian Country Fire Service must have in writing the locations and the management information, as specified above, concerning orchid populations prior to undertaking the prescribed burning or any associated actions.
  1. The manner in which the work is done must be reviewed in consultation with SA DENR if there is a decline in orchid populations. 
  • The manner in which a decline in orchid populations is to be measured is by an annual spring survey within the project site, including all parts of the gazetted road reserve for additional orchids to be conducted by a SA DENR Threatened Flora Ecologist, or a person or body approved by SA DENR.
  1. GPS locations for all orchid populations must be entered into the City of Mitcham council’s database. Any additional populations identified through annual spring surveys must similarly be included at the completion of those surveys.
  2. Appropriate Phytophthora hygiene standards are to be adhered to:
  • No operations to be conducted at the site when ground conditions are highly saturated to reduce the risk of Dieback (Phytophthora cinnamomi) impacting on orchid populations.
  • All equipment must be cleaned before entering and/or leaving the project site, as much as practicable without the use of water.

Management documents for the Plum Leek-orchid include:

  • Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species and Ecological Communities of Adelaide and the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia (Willson & Bignall 2009).
  • Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (TSSC 2010am).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Agriculture and Aquaculture:Agriculture and Aquaculture:Land clearing, habitat fragmentation and/or habitat degradation Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Illegal collection Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for recreational purposes Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Lepus capensis (Brown Hare) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Negative impacts caused by insects Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Slashing and herbicide application for weed control Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by insects Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate prescribed regimes and/or vegetation management to control fire regimes Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2010aa) [Listing Advice].

Bates, R.J., ed. (2007). South Australian native orchids. Electronic version, October 2007. Native Orchid Society of South Australia.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

EPBC Referral (2010). Notification of REFERRAL DECISION - not controlled action if undertaken in a particular manner - Strategic Fire Break, Sheoak Road, Belair, SA (EPBC Referral 2010/5728).

Jones, D.L. (2006). A complete guide to Native Orchids of Australia, including the island Territories. Sydney, NSW: New Holland Publishers (Australia) Pty Ltd.

Nature Conservation Society of South Australia (NCSSA) (2009). Belair National Park Trails Masterplan: draft response. [Online]. Available from: http://www.ncssa.asn.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=215&Itemid=1.

South Australian Department of the Environment and Heritage (SA DEH) (2009). Lofty Block Threatened Orchid Database. Unpublished data from surveys in 2008.

State Herbarium of South Australia (2009). Adelaide Herbarium Database. Unpublished data, provided to the Commonwealth Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, March 2009.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010aa). Commonwealth Listing Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/11821-listing-advice.pdf.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC) (2010am). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Prasophyllum pruinosum (Plum Leek-orchid). [Online]. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Canberra, ACT: Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/11821-conservation-advice.pdf.

Vallee, L., T. Hogbin, L. Monks, B. Makinson, M. Matthes & M. Rossetto (2004). Guidelines for the translocation of threatened plants in Australia - Second Edition. Canberra, ACT: Australian Network for Plant Conservation.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Prasophyllum pruinosum in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 29 Jul 2014 01:09:43 +1000.