Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Endangered as Ochrosia moorei
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Ochrosia moorei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aam) [Conservation Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010o) [Recovery Plan] as Ochrosia moorei.
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Ochrosia moorei.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Southern Ochrosia - profile (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH), 2013f) [Internet].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013) as Ochrosia moorei
QLD: Listed as Endangered (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012) as Ochrosia moorei
Scientific name Ochrosia moorei [11350]
Family Apocynaceae:Gentianales:Magnoliopsida:Magnoliophyta:Plantae
Species author (F.Muell.) Benth.
Infraspecies author  
Reference Flora Australiensis 4: 310 (16 Dec. 1868).
Other names Bleekeria moorei [28004]
Lactaria moorei [43896]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Ochrosia moorei

Common name: Southern Ochrosia

This species is conventionally accepted as Ochrosia moorei (CHAH 2010).

The Southern Ochrosia is a small tree, growing up to 11 m tall. Individual plants may have several stems that grow crooked. Bark is dark-brown in colour, finely wrinkled and rough. The leaves are 8—20 cm long, arranged in twos or threes, varying in shape but tapering to a long point at the tips and gradually narrowing at the base. The leaves are also green and shiny, paler beneath and thin. When picked, the leaf-stalk exudes a milky sap.

Small white flowers are held in small clusters at the ends of branchlets. The shiny scarlet fruit is oval-shaped and 4—8 cm long. The fruit is poisonous (NSW OEH 2013f; Floyd 1989; Forster 1996h).

Alkaloids in the foliage and bark of the Southern Ochrosia have been investigated for anti-cancer properties (Carroll et al. 2008; Garbett & Graves 2004).

The Southern Ochrosia has a sparse distribution from north-east NSW to south-east Queensland. The range of this species extends from the Richmond River in NSW through to the McPherson Ranges, Queensland (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989; Forster 1996b; NSW OEH 2013f).

This species' extent of occurrence is 7700 km2 and area of occupancy is 100 ha (Barry & Thomas 1994; NSW OEH 2013f).

Twenty-five populations of the Southern Ochrosia are known, 23 in NSW and two from Queensland (CHAH 2008a). Many localities have only one or two specimens; only three sites have several individuals (Quinn et al. 1995).

Both populations in Queensland are in the Springbrook area; Springbrook National Park (Natural Arch section) and on private land and the road reserve off Lyrebird Ridge Road. The total population size in Queensland is estimated to be no more than 20 individuals.

The NSW population was estimated to encompass 50 individuals in 1994 (Barry & Thomas 1994; BRI collection records undated; NSW Herbarium undated; Quinn et al. 1995). The species is known from a number of reserves as well as Burringbar and historically from near the Tweed River (1897), Tintenbar (1891) (NSW Herbarium undated), Richmond River, Upper Coopers Creek, Emerys Scrub, Alstonville, Dalwood, Marshall Falls, Murwillumbah and Cudgera Creek (Floyd 1989).

The Southern Ochrosia is known from the following conservation areas (with number of plants where known and land tenure) (Floyd 1989; NSW Herbarium undated; Quinn et al. 1995):

Population Location No. of plants (approx) Comments
Victoria Park Nature Reserve (NR) South-south-west of Alstonville 10 -
Booyong NR East-north-east of Lismore - -
Wollumbin Wildlife Refuge Mt Warning - Two populations
Limpinwood NR West of Murwillumbah 5 Two populations
Boatharbour NR North of Lismore - -
Big Scrub Forest Reserve (FR) (in Whian Whian State Forest) North of Lismore - -
Andrew Johnston Big Scrub NR North-north-east of Lismore - -
Rotary Park NR Lismore 12 -
Wilson Park NR Lismore - -
Davis Scrub NR East of Lismore - -
Currie Park Lismore - -
Numinbah NR North-west of Murwillumbah - Two populations
Amaroo FR West of Murwillumbah - -
Snows Gully NR North-north-east of Lismore - -

The Southern Ochrosia is often found on hillsides near drainage lines, in warm subtropical rainforest or complex notophyll vineforest, at elevations of 100—1000 m above sea level. Soils are deep, alluvial or basalt derived, well-drained and reddish-brown to dark-brown.

Associated plant species include Brown Booyong (Argyodendron trifoliolatum), Native Elm (Aphananthe philippinensis), Rosewood (Dysoxylum fraserianum), Giant Stinging Tree (Dendrocnide excelsa), Black Apple (Pouteria australis), Rose Satinash (Syzygium crebrinerve), Native Pomegranate (Capparis arborea), Ficus spp., Citriobatus spp., Corkwood (Caldcluvia paniculosa), Native Tamarind (Diploglottis australis), Celerywood (Polyscias elegans), Southern Silky Oak (Orites excelsa), Yellow Carabeen (Sloanea woollsii), Red Muttonwood (Rapanea subsessilis), Ardisia bakeri, Spice Bush (Triunia youngiana) and Smooth Wilkiea (Wilkiea austroqueenslandica) (Barry & Thomas 1994; Quinn et al. 1995).

Flowers have been recorded from November to February and fruits from December to February (Floyd 1989; Forster 1996b). Fruit may be dispersed by frugivorous birds and/or mammals (Barry & Thomas 1994).
Plants are readily grown from seed, especially if excised from the fruit and sown immediately to preserve viability (Barry & Thomas 1994; Floyd 1989).

Threats to the Southern Ochrosia include (Barry & Thomas 1994; NSW OEH 2013f; Quinn et al. 1995):

  • stochastic (random) events due to the small population size at most sites
  • habitat disturbance associated with road work
  • degradation of habitat and weed invasion
  • changed hydrology, as many Queensland populations are subject to periodic flooding.

The NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (2013f) lists seven priority actions to assist in protection of the species:

  • Encourage the community to participate in the detection of Southern Ochrosia at new locations, and encourage their participation in habitat rehabilitation projects.
  • Include operational guidelines to protect this species from fire in Reserve Fire Management Strategy.
  • Identify information and resource needs to ensure that land managers are aware of Ochrosia moorei populations and habitat and that its recovery requirements are taken into account in Plans of Management, such as fire plans and pest management plans.
  • Control weeds in populations shown to be affected by weed burden.
  • Identify critical factors limiting the recovery of the species.
  • Research fire response (for the species and habitat).
  • Map habitat and populations, assess habitat condition and estimate abundance and extent of populations.

Documents relevant to the management of the Southern Ochrosia can be found at the start of the profile.

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat loss, modification and/or degradation Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Ecosystem Degradation:Decline in habitat quality Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Ecosystem/Community Stresses:Indirect Ecosystem Effects:Loss and/or fragmentation of habitat and/or subpopulations Ochrosia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pu) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds Ochrosia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pu) [Internet].
Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Natural System Modifications:Dams and Water Management/Use:Alteration of hydrological regimes and water quality Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Ochrosia moorei (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008aam) [Conservation Advice].
Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity) Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2010n) [State Recovery Plan].
Protected status:Protected status:Lack of secure conservation land tenure Ochrosia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pu) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals Ochrosia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pu) [Internet].
Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads Ochrosia moorei in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006pu) [Internet].

Barry, S.J. & G.T. Thomas (1994). Threatened Vascular Rainforest Plants of South-east Queensland: A Conservation Review. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.

BRI Collection Records (BRI) (undated). Queensland Herbarium specimens.

Carroll, A.R., R. Addepalli, G. Fecner, J. Smith, G.P. Guymer, P.I. Forster & R.J. Quinn (2008). Alkaloids from the Australian Rainforest Tree Ochrosia moorei'. Journal of Natural Products. 71(6):1063-1065.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2008a). Australia's Virtual Herbarium. [Online]. Canberra: Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research. Available from: http://avh.rbg.vic.gov.au/avh/.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH) (2010). Australian Plant Census. [Online]. Australian National Herbarium, Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian Biological Resources Study . Available from: http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/.

Floyd, A.G. (1989). Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Melbourne: Inkata Press.

Forster, P.I. (1996b). Apocynaceae. In: Flora of Australia. 28:104-196. Melbourne: CSIRO.

Forster, P.I. (1996h). Ochrosia. In: Flora of Australia. 28:134-137. CSIRO Australia, Melbourne.

Garbett, N.C. & D.E. Graves (2004). Extending Nature's Leads: The Anticancer Agent Ellipticine. Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents. 4(2):149-172.

NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW) (2010o). Border Ranges Rainforest Biodiversity Management Plan - NSW & Queensland. [Online]. Sydney South, New South Wales: Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/resource/border-ranges-rainforest-biodiversity-management-plan.

NSW Herbarium (undated). New South Wales National Herbarium specimens.

NSW Office of Environment and Heritage (NSW OEH) (2013f). Southern Ochrosia - profile. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/.

Quinn, F., J.B. Williams, C.L. Gross & J. Bruhl (1995). Report on rare and threatened plants of north-eastern New South Wales. Armidale: University of New England.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Ochrosia moorei in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 04:57:36 +1000.