In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice for Acacia rhetinocarpa (Neat Wattle) (Threatened Species Scientific Committee (TSSC), 2013fn) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan required, included on the Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
|Other EPBC Act Plans||
Threat abatement plan for competition and land degradation by rabbits (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2008adh) [Threat Abatement Plan].
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Acacia rhetinocarpa |
|Reference||Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia 44: 193, t.X (24 Dec. 1920).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
From Australian Plant Image Index
View larger image
|Other illustrations||Google Images|
The Neat Wattle is an erect, compact, rounded, resinous shrub growing up to 1.5 m high (Green 1993; Jessop & Toelkin 1986; Orchard & Wilson 2001; Whibley & Symon 1992). Branchlets are hairy and light yellowish-brown in colour, becoming dark grey towards the base (Obst 2005).
Flowers occur as inflorescences of 12 to 15 individual globular, bright yellow flower heads. Legumes (seed pods) are linear, 10 to 35 mm long, 2 to 2.5 mm wide, straight or curved, brown, resinous and glossy with an acute apex. Seeds are positioned longitudinally in the legume and have a fleshy aril (seed cover) (Jessop & Toelken 1986).
The Neat Wattle has a patchy distribution throughout south-eastern South Australia (SA), occurring in the Arno Bay area, Eyre Peninsula, the Curramulka area, Yorke Peninsula, and between Gilberts and Monarto South (Orchard & Wilson 2001).
The species' extent of occurrence in 2005 was calculated to be 4976.3 km2 (Obst 2005).
The Neat Wattle is cultivated at the Australian National Botanic Gardens, Canberra; Burrendong Arboretum, Wellington, NSW; the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney; the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide, the Society for Growing Australian Plants Study Group (Meredith & Richardson 1990) and Mt Annan Botanic Gardens, NSW (Davies 1992).
Populations of the Neat Wattle occur discontinuously throughout the species' range. They can be grouped roughly based on the following locations.
Lower Murray and Mt Lofty Ranges
In this region, there are nine known populations of the Neat Wattle; three in conservation reserves, at least three on private land, two on roadsides and one on a railway reserve (Davies 1992).
On Yorke Peninsula, most populations are confined to a 25 km2 area west of Pine Point and a 10 km2 area north-west of Point Vincent. A total population of 200—300 plants was estimated in a 1988 survey; however, the current total abundance is not known. The largest Yorke Peninsula population contains about 100, mostly healthy, plants (Green 1993).
On Eyre Peninsula all known populations occur on road reserves, except for a population of several hundred plants in Coopana Water Reserve (Davies 1992). Over 1000 plants occur on roadsides between Arno Bay and Cowell (Briggs 1987 pers. comm. cited in Davies 1992). A collection from Hambridge National Park (correct title Hambridge Conservation Park) was not refound when the reserve was searched for this species (Davies 1992).
The vast majority of Neat Wattle populations occur on roadsides or private land. Davies (2000d) reported that approximately 591 plants occurred in Ferries-McDonald Conservation Park in the Lower Murray and Mt Lofty Ranges region.
The Neat Wattle usually grows in open scrub on calcareous sand, sandy loam, red shallow porous loam or grey-brown calcareous loamy earths (Orchard & Wilson 2001; Whibley & Symon 1992). Average, annual rainfall across the species' distribution is 250-350 mm (Whibley & Symon 1992). There are some region-specific habitat characteristics that are detailed below:
Lower Murray and Mt Lofty Ranges
In this region, the Neat Wattle grows in dark grey to brown, sandy loams of pH 7, that are frequently scattered where limestone nodules occur. The species is found on the undulating floors of large, shallow, broad depressions, and on the gentle, west to north-east facing slopes of low, broad ridges (Davies 1992). Vegetation associations in the region include (Davies 1992):
- low-woodland of Black Mallee (Eucalyptus porosa) with a sparse open shrub layer dominated by Neat Wattle and Gold Dust Wattle (Acacia acinacea) and an open ground strata dominated by Lepidospermum sp., Stipa elegantissima and exotic herbs
- tall, open-shrubland of Red Mallee (Eucalyptus socialis), Narrow-leaved Red Mallee (Eucalyptus foecunda) and White Mallee (Eucalyptus dumosa), with a very sparse shrub layer dominated by Moonah (Melaleuca lanceolata), Mallee Honey-myrtle (Melaleuca acuminata), Thick-leaved Emu Bush (Eremophila crassifolia), Slender Velvet Bush (Lasiopetalum baueri), Club-moss Daisy-bush (Olearia lepidophylla) and Slender Westringia (Westringia eremicola) and a very sparse groundcover dominated by Gahnia deusta and native grasses
- tall, open-shrubland of Narrow-leaved Red Mallee and Yellow Mallee (Eucalyptus incrassata), with a sparse shrub layer, dominated by Mallee Honey-myrtle and Broombush (Melaleuca uncinata) and a sparse ground cover, dominated by Gahnia deusta and Danthonia sp..
On Yorke Peninsula, the Neat Wattle occurs in sandy loams of pH 8-9. The soil colour is yellow, red-brown or dark brown, and surface calcrete has been observed at some sites. The landform is gently undulating to flat. Native vegetation in the area is heavily modified. The species is mostly found in roadside vegetation, where groundcovers are mostly introduced grasses and herbs. In less modified remnants, the native grasses, Danthonia, Stipa and Gahnia spp. are the principal ground covers. The shrub layer appears to be naturally sparse (Green 1993). The principal native species are Ruby Saltbush (Enchylaena tomentosa), Moonah, Broombush, Weeping Pittosporum (Pittosporum augustifolium), Seaberry Saltbush (Rhagodia candolleana) and Coast Bonefruit (Threlkeldia diffusa). The mallee overstorey of Kangaroo Island Mallee (Eucalyptus anceps), Yorrell (Eucalyptus gracilis), Yellow Mallee and Red Mallee has often been thinned along roadsides (Green 1993).
On Eyre Peninsula, the Neat Wattle grows on deep, yellow sand, on the gentle, east-facing slopes of a wide valley between low sand ridges. The species has been collected from low mallee communities featuring White Mallee, Narrow-leaved Red Mallee, Gooseberry Mallee (Eucalyptus calycogona), Yellow Mallee and Chindoo Mallee (Eucalyptus brachycalyx) with an understorey containing Broombush, Mallee Honey-myrtle, Callitris sp., Elm Seed Hakea (Hakea cycloptera), Tar Bush (Eremophila glabra), Dodonaea sp., Olearia sp., Desert Heath-myrtle (Baeckea crassifolia), Silvery Phebalium (Phebalium bullatum), Calytrix involucrata, Rosemary Dampiera (Dampiera rosmarinifolia), Pultenea sp. and Spinifex (Triodia spp.) (Davies 1992).
The flowers of the Neat Wattle are mainly borne between August and October, but may occur as late as March. Fruits and seeds have been collected from August to January (Davies 1992).
There are a number of threats to the Neat Wattle throughout its distribution. Fragmentation, weed invasion, grazing damage and road and rail maintenance have been identified as the primary threats. Vegetation clearance and Phytophthora cinnamomi infection have been identified as secondary threats (Obst 2005). There is a lack of knowledge about the species' key ecological characteristics, population trends and abundance; resolving these knowledge gaps would improve threat management.
A number of threat abatement actions have been proposed for the Neat Wattle in the South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan and the Draft recovery plan for 23 threatened flora taxa on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia 2007-2012.
Some of the specific actions identified in the South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan are:
- Accurately survey known critical habitat
- Protect populations on private land
- Control weeds in the vicinity of populations
- Control the impacts of grazing herbivores
- Control the impacts of edge effects
- Undertake Phytophthora testing
- Prevent further fragmentation of populations and manage the risk of losing genetic diversity
Some of the specific actions identified in the Draft recovery plan for 23 threatened flora taxa on Eyre Peninsula, South Australia 2007-2012 are:
- Collect baseline information (i.e. population size, population trends and key ecological features)
- Manage threats and improve habitat
- Carry out research critical to management of the species
- Improve community engagement
Documents that are relevant for the management of threats to the Neat Wattle can be found at the start of the profile.
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Agriculture and Aquaculture:Livestock Farming and Grazing:Grazing pressures and associated habitat changes||
Acacia rhetinocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aa) [Internet].
Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities||Acacia rhetinocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aa) [Internet].|
|Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:camping||Acacia rhetinocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aa) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||Acacia rhetinocarpa in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2006aa) [Internet].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Asparagus asparagoides (Bridal Creeper, Bridal Veil Creeper, Smilax, Florist's Smilax, Smilax Asparagus)|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Vegetation and habitat loss caused by dieback||Phytophthora cinnamomi|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)||Regional Recovery Plan for Threatened Species & Ecological Communities of Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges 2009-2014 (Willson, A. & J. Bignall, 2009a) [State Recovery Plan].|
|Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste|
|Residential and Commercial Development:Housing and Urban Areas:Habitat loss, modification and fragmentation due to urban development|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Davies, R.J.P. (1992). Threatened Plants of the Murray Mallee, Mt Lofty Range and Kangaroo Island Region of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia.
Davies, R.J.P. (2000d). Population Trends for Threatened Plant Species in Parks and Pastoral Leases in South Australia. South Australia: Biodiversity Conservation Programs, Biodiversity Branch Department for Environment and Heritage.
Green, P. (1993). Threatened Plants of the Yorke Peninsula.
Jessop, J.P. & H.R. Toelken, eds. (1986). Flora of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: SA Government Printing Division.
Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Obst, C. (2005). South Australian Murray Darling Basin Threatened Flora Recovery Plan. [Online]. Report to the Threatened Species and Communities Section, Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.sa.gov.au/files/542b195d-5854-46d1-aeb7-9e3701172106/SAMDB_Thr_Fl_Rec_Plan_05Jun.pdf.
Orchard, A.E. & A.J.G. Wilson (eds) (2001). Flora of Australia, Volume 11A, Mimosaceae, Acacia Part 1.
Preiss, K (1968). Acacia rhetinocarpa at Monarto. South Australian Naturalist. 43(1):22-24.
Whibley, D.J.E. & D.E. Symon (1992). Acacias of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Flora and Fauna of South Australia Handbook Committee.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Acacia rhetinocarpa in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Tue, 23 Sep 2014 06:08:21 +1000.