In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
|EPBC Act Listing Status||Listed as Vulnerable|
|Listing and Conservation Advices||
Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hakea aculeata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008qu) [Conservation Advice].
|Recovery Plan Decision||
Recovery Plan not required, included on the Not Commenced List (1/11/2009).
|Adopted/Made Recovery Plans|
Federal Register of
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
Documents and Websites
|State Listing Status||
|Scientific name||Hakea aculeata |
|Reference||Nuytsia 2: 375 (21 Dec. 1979).|
This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.
The Column Hakea is a shrub growing to 3 m with several strong vertical branches, each with dense short lateral branches. It has plentiful large cream and yellow flowers with a strong sweet scent (Barker et al. 1999).
This species is confined to a small area approximately 100 km E of Perth in WA. In 1998 this species was reported to occur over an 80 km range in the area S of Meckering and Tammin to W of Quairading and NE of Brookton (Brown et al. 1998; Barker et al. 1999). In 1993, 19 populations were recorded in the Merredin and Narrogin districts. All populations occurred on road reserves or private land, most with fewer than ten plants, the largest containing 182 plants, and two with no remaining plants (Mollemans et al. 1993).
There are four herbarium specimens of this species, collected from three localities, spread over a 90 km range. One of these collections (1929) was made from Hines Hill, near Merredin. This species has not been seen in the Hines Hill area in recent years (George 1979; Millar 1982a; Leigh et al. 1984).
Site details as listed by Mollemans et al. (1993) and Durell & Buehrig (2001)
|Population||District||Land status||No. of plants/condition|
|Tammin Rd.||Merredin||Road reserve||2 (3 in 1982)|
|Rogers Rd.||Merredin||Road reserve||118 (c. 150 in 1982)|
|Rabbit Rd. (a)||Merredin||Road reserve||2 (2 in 1982)|
|Rabbit Rd. (b)||Merredin||Road reserve||31 (31in 1982)|
|Rabbit Rd. (c)||Merredin/Narrogin||Road reserve||40 in 1991 (25 in 1982, 25 + 1 dead in 1990)|
|Doodenanning Rd.||Merredin||Road reserve||7 (7 in 1982, 4 dead 28/8/90 herbicide)|
|Green Rd.||Merredin||Road reserve||1 (5 in 1982, 2 dead 28/8/90 destruction)|
|Coleman Rd.||E Merredin||Private||41 (48 + 3 dead in 1982, 4/9/90)|
|Coleman Rd.||E Merredin||Private||1 (10 in 1982, 4 dead 28/8/90)|
|Moore Rd.||Merredin||Private||24 (27 + 3 dead in 1982)|
|Nth Hardy Rd.||Merredin||Road reserve||2 (10/8/82)|
|Sth Hardy Rd.||Merredin||Road reserve||2 (10/8/82)|
|Maynard Rd.||Narrogin||Road reserve||0 in 1987 (3 in 1982)|
|Goldfields Rd.||Narrogin||Road reserve||0 in 1988 (7 in 1982)|
|Mills Rd.||Merredin||Road reserve||18 (31 + 2 dead in 1982, 5 dead 4/9/90)|
|Sth Mill Rd.||Merredin||Private||6 (8 in 1982, 2 dead 4/9/90)|
|Mills Rd.||Merredin||Private||31 (1 dead 12/12/89)|
|NE Brookton||Narrogin||Private||182 (good condition 17/9/87)|
|Mawson||Narrogin||Private||89 (good condition 1990)|
(Mollemans et al. 1993; Durell & Buehrig 2001
Four further populations in the Narrogin District were mentioned in Durell & Buehrig (2001). It is unclear whether some or all of these are the same as populations mentioned in the table above.
Site details as listed by Durell & Buehrig (2001)
|Population||District||Land status||No. of plants/condition|
|Quairading||Narrogin||Water reserve||200 in 1994 (in natural bushland)|
|Brookton a, b & c||Narrogin||Road reserve & private||58 in 1993 (fenced)|
|Boyer||Narrogin||Private||278 in 1992 (fenced, rabbits, good condition)|
|Hobbs||Narrogin||Private||9 in 1994 (requires fencing, old plants)|
(Durell & Buehrig 2001)
This species is found on higher ground or hill tops (Brown et al. 1998) on pale white loamy sand and gravelly soil (Brown et al. 1998) and in clay (Barker et al. 1999).
It occurs in tall shrubland (George 1979), scrub (Brown et al. 1998) and heath (Young 1997). It may be found associated with species that include Eucalyptus macrocarpa, Dryandra horrida, D. fraseri, Leptospermum erubescens, Allocasuarina campestris, Banksia sphaerocarpa and Daviesia oxylobium ms (Durell & Buehrig 2001). Otherwise it grows on weed-choked road verges (Mollemans et al. 1993; Brown et al. 1998).
It requires a well drained site with a sunny aspect (Young 1997).
Flowering occurs from Sept. to Oct . The plants are frost and drought tolerant, and reproduce from seed and lignotuber (George 1979; Rye & Hopper 1981; Leigh et al. 1984; Hopper et al. 1990; Young 1997; Barker et al. 1999) . Seed set is low, with many follicles attacked by insects and seeds destroyed (George 1979; Leigh et al. 1984).
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.
|Threat Class||Threatening Species||References|
|Energy Production and Mining:Mining and Quarrying:Habitat destruction, disturbance and/or modification due to mining activities||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hakea aculeata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008qu) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation||Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit)||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hakea aculeata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008qu) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation by weeds||Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Hakea aculeata (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2008qu) [Conservation Advice].|
|Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition, predation and/or habitat degradation by kangaroos and wallabies|
|Natural System Modifications:Fire and Fire Suppression:Inappropriate and/or changed fire regimes (frequency, timing, intensity)|
|Pollution:Airborne Agricultural pollutants:Drift of agricultural chemicals|
|Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Poor recruitment (regeneration) and declining population numbers|
|Transportation and Service Corridors:Roads and Railroads:Development and/or maintenance of roads|
Barker, R.M., Haegi, L. & Barker, W.R. (1999). Hakea. In: Orchard, A.E., H.S.Thompson & P.M.McCarthy, eds. Flora of Australia. 17B:31-170. Canberra/Melbourne: ABRS/CSIRO.
Brown, A., C. Thomson-Dans & N. Marchant, eds. (1998). Western Australia's Threatened Flora. Como, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Durell, G.S. & R.M. Buehrig (2001). Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Narrogin District. [Online]. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management. Available from: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants.
George, A.S. (1979). Hakea aculeata (Proteaceae), a rare and endangered new species from Western Australia. Nuytsia. 2(6):375-377.
Hopper, S.D., S. van Leeuwen, A.P. Brown & S.J. Patrick (1990). Western Australia's Endangered Flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Perth, Western Australia: Department of Consrvation and Land Management.
Leigh, J., R. Boden & J. Briggs (1984). Extinct and Endangered Plants of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Macmillan.
Leigh, J.H. & J.D. Briggs (Eds) (1992). Threatened Australian Plants. Overview and Case Studies. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Meredith, L.D. & M.M. Richardson (1990). Rare or Threatened Australian Plant Species in Cultivation in Australia. Report Series No. 15. Page(s) 1-114. Canberra: Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Millar, K.A.G. (1982a). Geographically restricted plants of the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Rare & Geographically Restricted Plants of Western Australia. 15. Department of Parks & Wildlife, Perth.
Mollemans, F.H., P.H. Brown & D.J. Coates (1993). Declared rare flora and other plants in need of special protection in the Merredin District (excluding the Wongan-Ballidu Shire). Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Rye, B.L. & S.D.Hopper (1981). A Guide to the Gazetted Rare Flora of Western Australia. Report No. 42. Page(s) 1-211. Perth: Department of Fisheries & Wildlife WA.
Young, J. (1997). Hakeas of Western Australia, Botanical District of Avon, The Wheatbelt. Page(s) 1-132. WA National Parks & Reserves, Maylands.
This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.
Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Hakea aculeata in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 24 Apr 2014 05:11:42 +1000.