Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable as Phoebetria fusca
Listed marine as Phoebetria fusca
Listed migratory - Bonn as Phoebetria fusca
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan] as Phoebetria fusca.
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2014 for the incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument] as Phoebetria fusca.
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument] as Phoebetria fusca.
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument] as Phoebetria fusca.
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Sooty Albatross - vulnerable species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 1997d) [Internet].
NSW:Sooty Albatross - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005ja) [Internet].
NSW:Sooty Albatross Threatened Species Information (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW NPWS), 1999bp) [Information Sheet].
TAS:Phoebetria fusca (Sooty Albatross): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014xu) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list) as Phoebetria fusca
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list) as Phoebetria fusca
SA: Listed as Endangered (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011 list) as Diomedea fusca
TAS: Listed as Rare (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): Rare species: September 2012 list) as Phoebetria fusca
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): May 2014 list) as Phoebetria fusca
WA: Listed as Endangered (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013 list) as Phoebetria fusca
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Endangered (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
NGO: Listed as Endangered (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Phoebetria fusca [1075]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Hilsenberg,1822)
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Other names Diomedea fusca [85034]
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images
http://www.antdiv.gov.au/information/aboutantarctica/images_of_ant/sooty_albatross.jpg

The current conservation status of the Sooty Albatross, Phoebetria fusca, under Australian legislation is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable and Marine under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Protection Act 1999. The Sooty Albatross is also listed as a Migratory species (Bonn).

Scientific name: Phoebetria fusca

Common name: Sooty Albatross

The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrels. The Sooty Albatross is considered to be a conventially accepted species by this taxonomic working group.

Sooty Albatross are, like their name suggests, a sooty brown colour, although the nape, back and sides of the neck may be paler in adults with worn plumage. The head is slightly darker than the body and there is a partial fine white ring around the eyes. The shafts of the primary feathers and central tail feathers are white. The lower mandible is black with a pale yellow to orange stripe. The wings of the Sooty Albatross are very slender and pointed, while the tail is wedge shaped (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Sooty Albatross occurs singly or in small groups at sea. It usually nests in loose colonies or small groups, and occasionally solitarily (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Sooty Albatross has sometimes been observed foraging in inshore waters in southern Australia (Thiele 1977). The Sooty Albatross is a rare, but probably regular migrant to Australia, mostly in the autumn-winter months, occurring north to south-east Queensland, NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Sooty Albatross breeds on islands in the southern Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and forages south of 30° S, between southern NSW and Argentina (Environment Australia 2001f; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The current global population of the Sooty Albatross is estimated to be 100 000 individuals, with about 15 700 pairs breeding annually (Croxall & Gales 1998).

However, population numbers of Sooty Albatross are in decline. The small population on Possession Island (Crozet Island) has decreased by 58% over the last 20 years (Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998). This, and other local declines, has lead to an estimate of global decline of 20 to 50% in the last three generations (Environment Australia 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Sooty Albatross is marine and pelagic. In summer, the species occurs mainly south of 35° S in subtropical and subantarctic waters, but it is most abundant near the Subtropical Convergence (Falla 1937a; Tickell & Woods 1972; Weimerskirch et al. 1986). It ranges south of the Antarctic Convergence in the south-western Indian Ocean, but rarely elsewhere (Biermann & Voous 1950; Weimerskirch et al. 1986). In late autumn and winter, the Sooty Albatross occurs mainly in the Subtropical Zone (Rand 1963; Tickell & Woods 1972). Immature albatrosses are restricted to the Subtropical zone throughout the year (Stahl 1987).

The Sooty Albatross tolerates a wide range of sea surface temperatures and salinities (Biermann & Voous 1950; Jouventin & Weimerskirch 1984). During both the breeding and non-breeding seasons, the species occurs widely over pelagic waters, exploiting dispersed sources of food (Weimerskirch et al. 1986). It forages over coastal kelp beds around Tristan da Cunha (Richardson 1984).

The species breeds on subtropical and subantarctic islands in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, on vegetated cliffs and steep slopes that are sheltered from prevailing winds, often amongst tussock grass (Weimerskirch et al. 1986). On Marion Island, Prince Edward Island, Iles Kerguelen and Crozet Island, breeding is confined to coastal sites. Nests are inland on Ile Amsterdam, Gough Island and the Tristan da Cunha Group, on ridges, cliffs, high slopes and plateaux (Hagen 1952; Segonzac 1972; Shaughnessy & Fairall 1976).

The Sooty Albatross forms a life bond with its mate at the age of three to four years, and breeds for the first time between nine and 15 years old (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Sooty Albatross nests biennially if successful, either singly or in colonies of up to 100 nests (usually 50 to 60 nests), among grass tussocks and other vegetation (Marchant & Higgins 1990). Pairs bond for life, and pair bonds are re-established each breeding season with complex displays at nest sites on arrival at breeding areas. Males are the first to reach breeding colonies, arriving in mid August. Breeding occurs between August to December. The nest is a cylindrical pile of earth and vegetation on a high ledge or buttress (Serventy et al. 1971).

The species lays a single egg in the second half of September, and this is incubated by both parents for between 65 and 75 days. Both parents guard and feed the young for around five months, at which time the young fledges and becomes independent (Environment Australia 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Lindsay 1986; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Sooty Albatross eats cephalopods (fish and octopuses), fish, crustaceans, siphonophores and penguin carrion on the high seas (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The species flies within 10 to 15 m of the sea surface, using updrafts from wave fronts for lift. It forages at the sea surface (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Sooty Albatross associates with whales and fishing boats (Gales 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Foraging behaviours of albatrosses, such as following boats, flying long distances to search for food, and feeding on offal make them susceptible to being drowned in longline fishing gear (AGDEH 2006q).

The Sooty Albatross ranges widely from its nesting islands, and may be migratory. However, little is known of its movements at sea (Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species disperses north in winter, deserting subantarctic and Antarctic waters. In winter, its northern limit of distribution changes from 30° to 35° S (Jouventin et al. 1982).

Its rarity in the south-western Indian Ocean between May and August, an increase in abundance east of 74° E (Hansen 1978; MacGillivray 1920) and observations of up to 20 individuals together in the Great Australian Bight (Ferguson 1921) together suggest that the Sooty Albatross moves eastwards in the Indian Ocean at that time (Grindley 1981; Rand 1962; Rand 1963).

During the breeding season, the Sooty Albatross has a potential maximum foraging range of 2150 km, but most adults are found within 600 km of their breeding site (Stahl et al. 1985). The species is highly territorial on land, and nests are defended with threat displays (Jouventin et al. 1981).

Detectability
The Sooty Albatross is conspicuous at sea. It regularly follows ships, but only for a short period (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The primary threat to the Sooty Albatross is drowning in longline fishing gear (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Until recently up to 150 Sooty Albatrosses per year were being caught by the Japanese Tuna Fleet in the Australian Fishing Zone (Gales 1998; Gales et al. 1998; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998). Oceanic longline fishing has been used to target pelagic and demersal fish in the southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in almost all Australian waters today (AGDEH 2006q). Gales and Brothers (1995) reported that 75% of the birds killed on longlines and retained for identification were albatrosses. Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial by-catch mitigation measures. Therefore, birds breeding within the Australian Fishing Zone are still killed on longlines from vessels operating outside the Australian Fishing Zone (EABG 2001).

Hook and plastic ingestion also potentially threaten the Sooty Albatross. Hook ingestion by albatross and giant-petrels appears to have increased in recent years. Between 50 and 100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (EABG 2001).

The Sooty Albatross may also die from collisions with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers. Outside of the Australian Fishing Zone, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent may cause substantial mortality in albatrosses. Trolling (trailing a line with baited hooks) for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna Thunnus alalunga is another potential threat (EABG 2001; Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch et al. 1997; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998).

A global population decrease of 20 to 50% is likely in this species over the next three generations (45 years) as a result of fishing bycatch (Environment Australia 2001f; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Recent evidence suggests that the Sooty Albatross on Amsterdam Island is also threatened by outbreaks of avian cholera and the bacterial disease Erysipelas. The diseases apparently resulted in high mortality of chicks in 2003 (Weimerskirch 2004).

The Sooty Albatross is also affected by breeding failures. Predation by introduced rats was the most likely cause of breeding failure on Ile St Paul (Segonzac 1972). Repeated fires at Iles St Paul and Amsterdam Island may have caused a decrease in the vegetation cover at breeding sites, so that material for nest construction is now scarce (Jouventin et al. 1984; Segonzac 1972).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations was listed as a key threatening process on Schedule three of the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992, the precursor to the EPBC Act 1999. The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts has developed a threat abatement plan for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. The threat abatement plan aims to reduce seabird by-catch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird by-catch within the Australian Fishing Zone) within five years by:

  • prescribing modifications to fishing practices or equipment (mitigation measures),
  • developing new mitigation measures,
  • educating fishers and the public,
  • improving knowledge of seabird-longline fishery interactions

The long-term aim is to achieve a zero by-catch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species (AGDEH 2006q).

The Action Plan for Australian Birds, The Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations and The Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Sooty Albatross (AGDEH 2006q; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Environment Australia 2001f).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Phoebetria fusca in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Thu, 2 Oct 2014 01:53:12 +1000.