Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listed marine
Listed migratory - Bonn, JAMBA
Listed Critical Habitat Diomedea exulans (Wandering Albatross) - Macquarie Island. .
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH), 2006q) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
 
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Wandering Albatross - endangered species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 1996) [Internet].
NSW:Wandering Albatross - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005cj) [Internet].
TAS:Diomedea exulans (sensu lato) (Wandering Albatross): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014sw) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 181 - Nine Threatened Seabirds (Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic. DSE), 2003h) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): December 2013)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): July 2012)
SA: Listed as Vulnerable (National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (South Australia): June 2011)
TAS: Listed as Endangered (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): February 2014)
WA: Listed as Vulnerable (Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (Western Australia): September 2013)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Vulnerable (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2011.2)
VIC: Listed as Endangered (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013)
NGO: Listed as Vulnerable (The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010)
Scientific name Diomedea exulans (sensu lato) [1073]
Family Diomedeidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Linnaeus,1758
Infraspecies author  
Reference http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=1647
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

The current conservation status of the Wandering Albatross, Diomedea exulans, under Australian and international conventions is as follows:

National: Listed as Vulnerable and Marine under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Protection Act 1999.

International: Listed as a Migratory species and is included in the list of 'Australian Endangered Birds' attached to the JAMBA agreement.

Scientific name: Diomedea exulans

Common name: Wandering Albatross

Significant taxonomic confusion exists within the albatross group. The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrel. This working group has agreed to follow Robertson and Nunn (1997) in splitting the Diomedea exulans complex into four species: with D. exulans representing the Wandering Albatross, and raising D. dabbemema, D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni from subspecies of D. exulans to full species.

However, this profile follows Dickson (2003) and Christidis and Boles (2008) on treating this species as a subspecies of the Diomedea exulans complex; including D. e. exulans Tristan Albatross; D. e. chionoptera Snowy Albatross; D. e. amsterdamensis Amsterdam Albatross; D. e. antipodensis Antipodean Albatross; and D. e. gibsoni Gibson's Albatross (see also AFD 2006; CAVS 2006).

The Wandering Albatross has the longest wing-span of any ocean bird, spanning 2.5 - 3.5 m. In flight, the Wandering Albatross may appear somewhat humpbacked, and with pink toes visible.

Adults have a white or pale back, extending along the dorsal surface of the wings near the body, and white underwings. Except in fully mature old males, the white tail will have black edges. Up close, the bill is large, shapely, and pale-flesh coloured; and the white plumage of the head and body have very fine grey barring (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Wandering Albatross is solitary or gregarious at sea. It breeds in colonies (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Wandering Albatross breeds on Macquarie Island (Environment Australia 2001f; Marchant & Higgins 1990). A single breeding pair has also been recorded on Heard Island (Woehler 1991). It feeds in Australian portions of the Southern Ocean (Nicholls et al. 1997).

The current range of the Wandering Albatross is stable (Gales 1998; Woehler 1996).

The Wandering Albatross has a circumpolar distribution. It breeds on six subantarctic island groups (Environment Australia 2001f; Marchant & Higgins 1990). It also has colonies in the Indian Ocean (on the Crozet, Kerguelen, Marion and Prince Edward Islands) and on South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It feeds throughout the Southern Ocean. Females and juveniles generally feed at lower latitudes than males. There are several records of the Wandering Albatross from the northern hemisphere. Non-breeding birds are usually found between 30° and 50° south, where they take advantage of weather systems to exploit food resources (Nicholls et al. 1997).

The current global population of the Wandering Albatross is estimated to be 55 000 individuals. Around 8 500 pairs breed each year. There are approximately 28 000 mature individuals (Gales 1998).

Both the size of most breeding colonies of the Wandering Albatross and its density at sea are declining (Gales 1998; Woehler 1996).

The population of the Wandering Albatross on Macquarie Island has varied between a single breeding pair in 1913, to 44 breeding pairs in 1967/1968 (Carrick & Ingham 1970). Its population may have been augmented by immigration in the 1950s, but this requires confirmation (Gales 1998). The most recent observations suggest that there are now fewer than ten pairs breeding there annually (Gales 1998).

The Wandering Albatross is marine, pelagic and aerial (Falla 1937; Hicks 1973). It occurs where water surface temperatures range from -2° to 24°C (Biermann & Voous 1950, Grindley 1981).

In the Antarctic, the Wandering Albatross occurs in open water, rarely entering the belt of icebergs (Falla 1937; Hicks 1973). In late summer, it may approach the edge of the pack-ice (Darby 1970).

In the Antarctic, it concentrates near submarine plateaux, banks and ridges (Johnstone & Kerry 1976). In the Australasian region, it occurs inshore, offshore and in pelagic waters (Barton 1979, 1980; Blaber 1986; Norris 1967). It flies within 15 m of the sea surface, using the updraft from wave fronts for lift. It circles over breeding islands to heights of at least 1500 m (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

On breeding islands, the Wandering Albatross nests on coastal or inland ridges, slopes, plateaux and plains, often on marshy ground (Falla 1937; Warham & Bell 1979). Nests of the Wandering Albatross are sited on moss terraces, in dense tussocks, and often in loose aggregations on the west (windward) side of islands. It prefers open or patchy vegetation (tussocks, ferns or shrubs), and it requires nesting areas that are near exposed ridges or hillocks so that it can take off (Warham & Bell 1979).

The Wandering Albatross begins breeding at around nine years of age, and adolescents visit the nesting islands from five years of age (Carrick & Ingham 1967).

The frequency of beachcast (dead) Wandering Albatrosses in New Zealand is highest in January and June. January coincides with the fledging time of chicks from nearby subantarctic islands, and June coincides with the arrival of young birds from breeding sites on the opposite side of the Antarctic and moult in adults, which makes them more vulnerable to bad weather (Powlesland 1985).

The recent breeding success of the Wandering Albatross has been high (50%) (Environment Australia 2001f). It breeds biennially (if successful) in small, loose colonies among grass tussocks, using a large mud nest (Garnett & Crowley 2000). Nesting starts in summer, but the cycle lasts for 11 months (Serventy et al. 1971). Wandering Albatrosses return to their breeding sites from November. Old males reappear first, before the previous year's young (the progeny of different adults) have all left, and the eggs are laid in late December and early January (Carrick & Ingham 1967).

Nest building is done mostly by the female, but the male gathers most of the nesting material (Serventy et al. 1971). A single egg is laid, which is incubated by both parents. The male usually takes the first shift, and the attentive period lasts two to three weeks. The average incubation period is around 78 days (Tickell 1968).

Wandering Albatross eggs hatch in early March, and the chick is brooded by both adults in turn for four to five weeks, after which it is visited irregularly to be fed. Both adults continue to feed the chick at different times throughout winter (Serventy et al. 1971). There is no desertion period. Wandering Albatross chicks fledge from mid-November to mid-December, an average of 278 days after hatching (Tickell 1968).

Juveniles of the Wandering Albatross may forage in areas that are separate from foraging areas of adults, although their ranges overlap with those of adults. For example, 177 Wandering Albatrosses seen in April near south eastern Tasmania were all juveniles (Blaber 1986).

The Wandering Albatross eats mainly squid and fish, but also crustaceans and carrion (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Wandering Albatross feeds mainly in pelagic, offshore and inshore waters. It feeds from the sea surface or just below it, or makes shallow dives from heights of 2-5 m (Harper 1987; Voisin 1981). It regularly feeds in sheltered harbours and straits (Secker 1969), and sometimes gathers at outfalls of unmodified sewage (Milledge 1977). Foraging behaviours such as flying long distances to search for food, following boats, feeding aggressively on offal and diving for baits makes the species susceptible to being drowned in longline fishing gear (DEH 2006).

Banding returns suggest that adult Wandering Albatross and young disperse or migrate east (Tickell 1968). Movements of birds in southern breeding sites are probably circumpolar, but further study is required to confirm this (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Banding of the Wandering Albatross at feeding concentrations near eastern NSW has shown that birds of all age groups from all southern breeding colonies visit this area, principally between July and November (Gibson 1967). Most birds appear to stay for only a short period (Tickell & Gibson 1968). The Wandering Albatross is uncommon south of the Antarctic Convergence in winter, indicating that there is a northward shift in distribution then (Szijj 1967).

Foraging trips by breeding Wandering Albatross have exceeded 15 200 km between incubation bouts (Jouventin & Weimerskirch 1990). The distance travelled by the Wandering Albatross is related to wind speed. It can be almost stationary in the centre of high pressure zones for one to seven days (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The mobility of the Wandering Albatross means that individuals have a high probability of encountering longline fishing boats from which they take bait, frequently swallowing hooks and drowning, or dying from injuries after release (Brothers 1991; Gales et al. 1998). Oceanic longline fishing has been used to target pelagic and demersal fish in the southern oceans since the 1950s, and is used in almost all Australian waters today (DEH 2006). Gales and Brothers (1995) reported that 75% of the birds killed on longlines and retained for identification were albatrosses. Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without substantial by-catch mitigation measures. Therefore, birds breeding within the Australian Fishing Zone are still killed on longlines from vessels operating outside the Australian Fishing Zone (AGDEH 2006q). Hook and plastic ingestion also potentially threaten the Wandering Albatross. Hook ingestion by albatross and giant-petrels appears to have increased in recent years. Between 50 and 100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity (AGDEH 2006q).

The population of the Wandering Albatross breeding on Macquarie Island was devastated by sealers during the 19th century. There was an initial population increase on Macquarie Island following the cessation of sealing. This has now been reversed since the advent of longline fishing, because high bycatch and mortality rates of Wandering Albatrosses are decreasing the size of breeding colonies (Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The Wandering Albatross is shot for bait, or to prevent it from scavenging bait from dropline fisheries (Environment Australia 2001f). It may also be threatened by ingestion of plastics and hooks and regurgitation of these to chicks, entanglement in marine debris and accumulation of chemical contaminants (Environment Australia 2001f; Marchant & Higgins 1990). The species may also die from collisions with cables and warps used on fishing trawlers. Outside of the Australian Fishing Zone, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent may cause substantial mortality in albatrosses (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch et al. 1997; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998). Trolling (trailing a line with baited hooks) for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna Thunnus alalunga is another potential threat (Environment Australia 2001f; Gales 1998; Weimerskirch et al. 1997; Weimerskirch & Jouventin 1998).

Breeding success and/or nest-site selection of the Wandering Albatross on Macquarie Island since the cessation of hunting by sealers has probably been adversely affected by the increased population of Subantarctic Skuas Catharacta lonnbergi, and human disturbance (Environment Australia 2001f).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations was listed as a key threatening process on Schedule three of the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. The Department of the Environment and Heritage has developed a threat abatement plan for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. The threat abatement plan aims to reduce seabird by-catch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird by-catch within the Australian Fishing Zone) within five years by:

  • prescribing modifications to fishing practices or equipment (mitigation measures),
  • developing new mitigation measures,
  • educating fishers and the public,
  • improving knowledge of seabird-longline fishery interactions

The long-term aim is to achieve a zero by-catch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species (AGDEH 2006q).

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Wandering Albatross has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Wandering Albatross in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds, the Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels and the Threat Abatement Plan for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Wandering Albatross (AGDEH 2006q; Garnett & Crowley 2000; Environment Australia 2001f).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Fishing gear, oil and marine debris associated with seabirds at Bird Island South Georgia, during 1993/94. Marine Ornithology. 24:190-194. (Huin, N. & J.P. Croxall, 1996) [Journal].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Hunting and Collecting Terrestrial Animals:Harvesting for commercial purposes National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:Disturbance, especially from human recreational activities and development National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus exulans (Pacific Rat, Polynesian Rat) National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Infection by parasites National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation Catharacta lonnbergi lonnbergi (Subantarctic Skua (southern), Brown Skua) National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

Australian Faunal Directory (AFD) (2007). Australian Faunal Directory. [Online]. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources/fauna/afd/index.html.

Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (AGDEH) (2006q). Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. [Online]. Available from: http://www.aad.gov.au/default.asp?casid=20587.

Barton, D. (1979). Albatrosses in the western Tasman Sea. Emu. 79:31-35.

Barton, D. (1980). Birds around the Gasmyne Seamount. Australasian Seabird Group Newsletter. 14:9-13.

Biermann, W.H. & K.H. Voous (1950). Birds observed and collected during the whaling expeditions of the Willem Barensz in the Antarctic, 1946-47 and 1947-48. Ardea, Suppl. Page(s) 123.

Blaber, S.J.M. (1986). The distribution and abundance of seabirds south-east of Tasmania and over the Soela seamount during April 1985. Emu. 86:239-244.

Brothers, N. (1991). Albatross mortality and associated bait loss in the Japanese longline fishery in the Southern Ocean. Biological Conservation. 55:255-268.

Carrick, R. & S.E. Ingham (1967). Antarctic seabirds as subjects for ecological research. In: Proceedings Symposium Pacific-Antarctic, Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition Science Reports, Special Issue No. 1. Page(s) 151-184. Tokyo: Department of Polar Research, Natural Sciences Museum.

Carrick, R. and Ingham, S.E (1970). Ecology and population dynamics of Antarctic seabirds. In: Antarctic Ecology. Vol 1. M.W. Holdgate (ed). Page(s) 505-525. Academic Press, London.

Christidis, L. & W.E. Boles (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishing.

CSIRO (2006). List of Australian Vertebrates, A reference with Conservation Status (CAVS) Second edition. Page(s) 162. CSIRO Publishing.

Darby, M.M. (1970). Summer seabirds between New Zealand and McMurdo Sound. Notornis. 17:28-55.

Dickinson, E.C., ed. (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Page(s) 1039. London: Christopher Helm.

Environment Australia (EA) (2001f). National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/archive/biodiversity/threatened/publications/recovery/albatross/index.html.

Falla, R.A. (1937). British Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition Report. Series B, Vol. 2, Birds.

Gales, R. (1998). Albatross populations: status and threats. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 20-45. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Gales, R. & N. Brothers (1995). Characteristics of seabirds killed in the Japanese tuna longline fishery in the Australian region. Document prepared for the first meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Southern Bluefin Tuna Ecologically Related Species Working Group, 18-20 December 1995, Wellington, New Zealand. CCSBT-ERS/95.

Gales, R., N. Brothers & T. Reid (1998). Seabird mortality in Japanese tuna longline fishery around Australia, 1988-1995. Biological Conservation. 86:37-56.

Garnett, S.T. & G.M. Crowley (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. [Online]. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia and Birds Australia. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/action/birds2000/index.html.

Gibson, J.D. (1967). The Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans): results of banding and observations in New South Wales coastal waters and the Tasman Sea. Notornis. 17:47-57.

Grindley, J.R. (1981). Observations of sea-birds at Marion and Prince Edward Islands in April and May (1973). In: Cooper, J., ed. Proceedings of the Symposium on Birds of the Sea and Shore 1979. Page(s) 169-188. Cape Town: African Seabird Group.

Harper, P.C. (1987). Feeding behaviour and other notes on 20 species of procellariiformes at sea. Notornis. 34:169-182.

Johnstone, G.W. & K.R. Kerry (1976). Ornithological observations in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean. In: Proceedings of International Ornithologists Congress XVI. Page(s) 725-738.

Jouventin, P. and Weimerskirch, H. (1990). Satellite tracking of Wandering Albatrosses. Nature. 343:746-748.

Magrath, M.J.L., M.A. Weston, P. Olsen & M. Antos (2004). Draft Survey Standards for Birds: Species Accounts. Melbourne, Victoria: Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage by Birds Australia.

Marchant, S. & P.J. Higgins, eds. (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume One - Ratites to Ducks. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.

Milledge, D. (1977). One year's observations of seabirds in continental shelf waters off Sydney, N.S.W. Corella. 1:1-12.

Nicholls, D.G., D. Murray, E. Butcher & P. Moors (1997). Weather systems determine the non-breeding distribution of Wandering Albatrosses over southern oceans. Emu. 97:240-244.

Norris, A.Y (1967). Seabird observations from the south-west Pacific in the southern winter. Emu. 67:33-55.

Pizzey, G. & F. Knight (1999). The Graham Pizzey and Frank Knight Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. Pymble, Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Powlesland, R.G. (1985). Seabirds found dead on New Zealand beaches in 1983 and a review of albatross recoveries since 1960. Notornis. 32:183-195.

Robertson, C.J.R. & G.B. Nunn (1997). Toward a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) pp. 413-19. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Secker, H.L. (1969). Procellariforms in Cook Strait, New Zealand. Emu. 69:155-160.

Serventy, D.L., V.N. Serventy & J. Warham (1971). The Handbook of Australian Seabirds. Sydney, NSW: A.H. & A.W. Reed.

Weimerskirch, H. & J. Jouventin (1998). Changes in population size and demographic parameters of six albatross species in French sub-Antarctic islands. In: Robertson, G. & R. Gales, eds. The Albatross: Biology and Conservation. Page(s) 84-91. Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty and Sons.

Weimerskirch, H., N. Brothers & J. Jouventin (1997). Population dynamics of wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, and Amsterdam albatross D. amsterdamensis in the Indian Ocean and their relationships with long-line fisheries: conservation implications. Biological Conservation. 79:257-270.

Woehler, E.J (1991). The status and conservation of seabirds of Heard Island and the McDonald Islands. In: Croxall, J.P, ed. Seabird Status and Conservation. ICBP Technical Publication No. 11. Page(s) 263-277. ICBP. ICBP, Cambridge, UK.

Woehler, E.J (1996). Concurrent decreases in five species of Southern Ocean seabirds in Prydz Bay. Polar Biology. 16:379-382.

EPBC Act email updates can be received via the Communities for Communities newsletter and the EPBC Act newsletter.

This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Diomedea exulans (sensu lato) in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Sat, 19 Apr 2014 19:44:27 +1000.