Biodiversity

Species Profile and Threats Database


For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
 
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.

EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Vulnerable
Listed marine
Listed migratory - Bonn
Listing and Conservation Advices Commonwealth Listing Advice on Macronectes halli (Threatened Species Scientific Committee, 2001m) [Listing Advice].
 
Recovery Plan Decision Recovery Plan required, this species had a recovery plan in force at the time the legislation provided for the Minister to decide whether or not to have a recovery plan (19/2/2007).
 
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
 
Other EPBC Act Plans Threat Abatement Plan 2014 for the incidental catch (or bycatch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Commonwealth of Australia, 2014o) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009t) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of exotic rodents on biodiversity on Australian offshore islands of less than 100 000 hectares 2009 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2009u) [Threat Abatement Plan].
 
Policy Statements and Guidelines Marine bioregional plan for the Temperate East Marine Region (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2012aa) [Admin Guideline].
 
Survey Guidelines for Australia's Threatened Birds. EPBC Act survey guidelines 6.2 (Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA), 2010l) [Admin Guideline].
 
Information Sheets Background Paper, Population Status and Threats to Albatrosses and Giant Petrels Listed as Threatened under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011k) [Information Sheet].
 
Information Sheet - Harmful marine Debris (Environment Australia, 2003ac) [Information Sheet].
 
Federal Register of
    Legislative Instruments
List of Migratory Species (13/07/2000) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000b) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Declaration under section 248 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of Marine Species (Commonwealth of Australia, 2000c) [Legislative Instrument].
 
Inclusion of species in the list of threatened species under section 178 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (29/03/2001) (Commonwealth of Australia, 2001h) [Legislative Instrument].
 
State Government
    Documents and Websites
NSW:Northern Giant-Petrel - vulnerable species listing. NSW Scientific Committee - final determination (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2003d) [Internet].
NSW:Northern Giant-Petrel - profile (NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water (NSW DECCW), 2005hh) [Internet].
TAS:Macronectes halli (Northern Giant-Petrel): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014xs) [State Action Plan].
VIC:Flora and Fauna Guarantee Action Statement 181 - Nine Threatened Seabirds (Holliday, I., 2003c) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
NSW: Listed as Vulnerable (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (New South Wales): August 2014 list)
QLD: Listed as Vulnerable (Nature Conservation Act 1992 (Queensland): May 2014 list)
TAS: Listed as Rare (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): Rare species: September 2012 list)
VIC: Listed as Threatened (Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (Victoria): May 2014 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Least Concern (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2013.1 list)
VIC: Listed as Near Threatened (Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria: 2013 list)
Scientific name Macronectes halli [1061]
Family Procellariidae:Procellariiformes:Aves:Chordata:Animalia
Species author Mathews, 1912
Infraspecies author  
Reference  
Distribution map Species Distribution Map

This is an indicative distribution map of the present distribution of the species based on best available knowledge. See map caveat for more information.

Illustrations Google Images

Scientific name: Macronectes halli

Common name: Northern Giant-Petrel

Other names: Giant Fulmar, Glutton, Mollymawk, Mother Carey's or Sea Goose, Nelly, Stinker, Stinkpot, Vulture of the seas, Bone-shaker (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Northern Giant-Petrel is considered to be a sibling species to Southern Giant-Petrel, and was not identified as a separate species until the 1960s, when a detailed study of the breeding biology of the Giant-petrels determined that there were actually two distinct species breeding side by side on Macquarie Island (Bourne & Warham 1966). The Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP), of which Australia is a signatory, has established a working group on the taxonomy of albatrosses and petrels. This working group considers the Northern Giant-Petrel to be a conventially accepted species.

The Northern Giant Petrel is a large dark seabird with a wing span of between 1.5-2.1 m (Pizzey & Knight 1999). They have a massive straw-coloured bill, tipped with pinkish-red or orange. The eye is pale grey. The dark crown over a whitish face and throat gives it a capped appearance, although there is a slight dark mask through the eye. Juveniles are a uniform sooty brown, with a dark brown eye (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

Hybrids of Northern and Southern Petrels share features of both (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Northern Giant Petrel breeds in the sub-Antarctic, and visits areas off the Australian mainland mainly during the winter months (May-October). Immature and some adult birds are commonly seen during this period in offshore and inshore waters from around Frenamtle (WA) to around Sydney (NSW) (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

Banded Northern Giant-Petrels from Macquarie Island are frequently observed in Australian waters (particularly along the southern coast) throughout the colder months, the majority of which (94%) are pre-breeding birds (EABG 1998).

The Northern Giant-Petrel occupies the Antarctic Polar Front. In summer, it occurs predominantly in sub-Antarctic to Antarctic waters, usually between 40 and 64° south in open oceans. Its range extends into subtropical waters (to 28°S) in winter and early spring (EABG 1998).

The Northern Giant-Petrel breeds at several localities outside Australia, ten of which had fewer than 500 breeding pairs annually, and none of which had more than 2200 pairs at the last census. It appears to be declining at some localities, and increasing at others (EABG 1998).

Northern Giant-Petrels breed on the following non-Australian Islands (EABG 1998):


Breeding Locality Breeding Pairs Year of Census Population Status
Prince Edward Island 180 1990 ?
Marion Island 453 1997 Increasing
Crozet Islands

- Ile aux Cochons

- Ile des Pingouins

- Ile de L'est

- Ile des Apotres

- Ile de la Possession

 

250

165

190

150

306

 

1981

1981

1981

1981

1994

 

?

?

?

?

Decreasing

Kerguelen Island 1400 1985 ?
South Georgia

- Bird Island

- Other Islands

2,062

1495

1995

1978

Increasing

?

New Zealand Islands

- Antipodes Island

- Auckland Island

- Chatham Island

- Campbell Island

 

131

100

2150

234

 

2000

1972

before 1986

1997

 

?

?

?

?

Breeding populations of the Northern Giant-Petrel on the Crozet Islands and the South Georgia Islands steadily increased between 1966 and 1980, possibly due to a local increase in population of seals, which supplement the diet of males (Voisin 1988). However, from 1980 to 1985, the mean annual change at Iles Crozet was -7%, in contrast to increases at Bird Island, South Georgia of 4.3% and 3.0% from 1973 to 1982 and 1979; and 1981 to 1986 respectively (Woehler & Croxall 1997).

At Marion Island, the mean annual increase of 4.1% between 1985 and 1992 and censuses in 1990 and 1994 suggest that the population is stable (Woehler & Croxall 1997). Between 1977 and 1999, analysis of 13 whole-island counts indicated that there was a significant linear increase of 3.4% per year.

The very small population of the Northern Giant-petrel on Campbell Island had decreased for some years (Robertson & Bell 1984) but may have recovered slightly in recent times (Wiltshire & Schofield 2000). At Ile de la Possession (seven population counts) a linear model detected a significant decrease, while a polynomial model (which explained far more of the variation) suggested that the population was either stable or decreasing prior to 1993, but increased thereafter (Woehler et al. 2001). In Prydz Bay, East Antarctica, its abundance at sea decreased by 99% between 1980 and 1981 and between 1997 and 1998 (Flint & Swift 2000; Woehler et al. 2001).

Northern Giant-Petrels that were banded on Macquarie Island have been recovered in South Africa, South Georgia, Chile, Argentina, Fiji and New Zealand (EABG 1998).

A joint State and Federal Government study commissioned by the Natural Heritage Trust is studying the movements of both Northern and Southern Giant Petrels nesting on Macquarie Island using satellite tracking. This study represents the first satellite tracking of these species in Australian waters and complements existing satellite tracking data obtained for Giant Petrels at South Georgia (British Antarctic Survey) and Palmer Station, Antarctica (DEH 2006).

The global breeding population of the Northern Giant-Petrel is probably around 10 700 breeding pairs (Patterson et al., in press).

In Australia, the original breeding population of the Northern Giant-Petrel on Macquarie Island is unknown. 1000 pairs were breeding there in 1970 /1971 (Johnstone 1977). At the time of the last census in 1998/1999, the population size of the Northern Giant-Petrel at Macquarie Island consisted of 1485 pairs (EABG 1998). At present, about 1500 pairs breed there annually (Gales et al., in press).

Recent population estimates (Patterson et al., in press) suggest that there has been an increase of 25% (1.7% per year) in the global population size of the Northern Giant-Petrel since the last published estimate (8 600 pairs, Hunter 1985). However, fewer than half of the breeding populations have been surveyed within the last fifteen years. Northern Giant-Petrels breed at several localities, ten of which had fewer than 500 annual breeding pairs, and none had more than 2200 pairs at the last census (EABG 1998).

The Northern Giant-Petrel cross-breeds with the Southern Giant-Petrel at some points along their range. Hybrids of the two share characteristics of both species (Pizzey & Knight 1999).

The Northern Giant-Petrel is marine and oceanic. It mainly occurs in sub-Antarctic waters, but regularly occurs in Antarctic waters of the southwestern Indian Ocean, the Drake Passage and west of the Antarctic Peninsula (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The range of the Northern Giant-Petrel extends into subtropical waters mainly between winter and spring. It frequents both oceanic and inshore waters near breeding islands and in the non-breeding range.

During its first year, it probably occurs mainly on continental shelves, slopes and cold eastern boundary currents off South America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. It may be more oceanic from its second year. It is attracted to land at sewage outfalls, and scavenges at colonies of penguins and seals (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Northern Giant-Petrel breeds on sub-Antarctic islands. Its breeding range extends into the Antarctic zone at South Georgia. It nests in coastal areas where vegetation or broken terrain offers shelter, on sea-facing slopes, headlands, in the lee of banks, under or against vegetation clumps, below cliffs or overhanging rocks, or in hollows. On Campbell Island, it nests on the edge of the coastal plateau. Tussock-grass (Poa) is widespread at many breeding sites. Its nests are built in secluded, coastal sites, sheltered by heavy vegetation. On Antipodes Island, it nests under Senecio antipoda (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The Northern Giant-Petrel becomes reproductively mature at around six years of age. However, most do not commence breeding until they have reached nine to eleven years of age (EABG 1998). Mean annual adult survival on South Georgia is between 88 and 93%, and on Ile de la Possession it is 92.3% (Voisin 1988). The greatest recorded time between banding and recapture is 29 years and five months (ABBBS 2000).

The Northern Giant-Petrel seldom breeds in colonies, but usually breeds as dispersed pairs. Breeding pairs establish their nest sites in August and lay their single egg between August and October. Eggs hatch after 60 days. At Macquarie Island, eggs are laid from the 10th to the 27th of October, and hatch from the 15th of December to the 2nd of January.

Breeding success of the Northern Giant-Petrel varies from 25 to 75% between sites (EABG 1998). At Macquarie Island, the mean breeding success between 1994 and 1999 was approximately 66% (the range was 53-72%, Gales et al., in press). The chick fledges at around 108 days of age, and leaves for the sea between late February and late April (Gales et al., in press).

The Northern Giant-Petrel lacks effective anti-predator behaviour, because it builds its nests on the ground and leaves them unattended during long-range foraging bouts, and has low annual productivity (EABG 1998).

The Northern Giant-Petrel eats seal, whale, and penguin carrion, and seal placentae. It often attends and follow ships to obtain offal. It also eats substantial quantities of euphausiids (krill) and other crustaceans, cephalopods (octopus and squid), and fish. It will kill and eat immature Albatross Diomedea, and a variety of other seabirds, which are either consumed as carrion or captured at sea. Kelp is also recorded in its diet (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

The breeding diet of the Northern Giant-Petrel is as follows (from Marchant & Higgins 1990):


  % mass   % frequency    
  Bird Island   Bird Island   Macquarie Island
  male female male female combined
Total birds 63.9 52.6 62-80 46-65 60-80
Penguins 59.6 41.5 62 46 60
Other birds 4.3 11.1 18 19 16-20
Crustaceans 13.6 31.7 19 42-51 5
Euphausiids 13.6 30.4 19 42 0
Fish 1.9 4.6 9 10 7
Cephalopods 2.9 2.8 7 17 21
Mammals 17.9 8.3 19 7 6
Other 0 0 0 0 32-34


There are marked differences in foraging behaviour between the sexes of the Northern Giant-Petrel. Females obtain most of their prey from the sea, while males will also scavenge from the carcasses of penguins and seals. At sea, both sexes are aggressive opportunists. Most prey is taken via surface-seizing, but it is also capable of surface-diving and pursuit-plunging down to about 2 m, and it has been observed swimming under water with their feet in pursuit of prey (EABG 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990). Foraging behaviours of Giant-Petrels, such as following boats, feeding aggressively on offal and diving for baits make them susceptible to being drowned in longline fishing gear (DEH 2006).

It is thought to be a predominantly diurnal forager, but it feeds its chicks during both the day and at night. It drinks both salt and fresh water (EABG 1998; Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Juveniles of the Northern Giant-Petrel leave their breeding areas between late January and March. On Macquarie Island, they leave in mid-March. Adult movements in winter are poorly known. Some adults remain near breeding colonies throughout the year, but some may travel widely. Juveniles apparently undertake circumpolar movements (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Satellite tracking of chicks born on Macquarie Island show that Northern Giant-Petrel fledglings spend a short time relatively close to the breeding grounds before heading almost due east across the Pacific Ocean and covering thousands of kilometres over a three-week period (DEH 2006). Likewise, chicks banded on Macquarie Island have been recovered progressively later eastwards, and birds banded at Iles Kerguelen and Iles Crozet may also follow prevailing westerly winds, although movement may also be in the opposite direction. Birds banded South Georgia also appear to travel east, although there have been no recoveries from South Africa, suggesting that immatures make rapid movement across the Southern Ocean, at least as far as Australia (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

Sightings of the Northern Giant-Petrel are associated with cold fronts passing across the South Pacific, suggesting that it makes trans-oceanic journeys, particularly when immature. High recovery rates in Australian waters during winter suggest that these may be important wintering areas for Macquarie Island birds, but immatures from South Georgia may be more likely to cross the Pacific to winter in South America (Marchant & Higgins 1990).

There have been no recoveries of banded Northern Giant-Petrels south of 50° south, and 95% of banding recoveries from Macquarie Island were between the latitudes of 25° south and 45° south (Marchant & Higgins 1990). In southeastern Australian waters, it has been recorded in all months, but it has been most common from May to September with peak numbers in July. Most Northern Giant-Petrels recorded in Australia have been immatures (Reid et al., in press).

The Northern Giant-Petrel moves long distances; the greatest distance between banding and recovery is 12 500 km (ABBBS 1977).

Distinctiveness
The Northern Giant-Petrel is similar to the Southern Giant-Petrel, which also breeds on Macquarie Island (Bourne & Warham 1966).

Recommended Methods
The Northern Giant-Petrel often moves its nest site from year to year, therefore representative surveys of a restricted area are not appropriate, and long-term monitoring of the entire population is required to detect true population trends (Wiltshire & Schofield 2000). At-sea abundances may be a more sensitive indicator of population trends than colony census data (Flint & Swift 2000). To avoid disturbance at breeding colonies, population surveys should be undertaken with minimal disturbance and probably at three to five year intervals, as for the Southern Giant-Petrel Macronectes giganteus (Woehler et al. in press).

Longline fishing causes two main forms of mortality in the Northern Giant-Petrel; by-catch during line-setting, and ingestion of discarded fishing hooks. Giant-Petrels follow fishing vessels and compete for baits. Many are hooked and drown, or are seriously injured, and others ingest hooks while they are scavenging offal, particularly if they scavenge hooked fish heads that are discarded inappropriately. Hook ingestion by albatross and Giant-Petrels appears to have increased in recent years. Between 50 and 100 million hooks are set each year in the Southern Ocean and as many as 1.1 billion hooks are set globally. Both seabirds and fishing vessels concentrate in areas of high biological productivity. Consequently, Giant petrels are seriously threatened by longline fishing (AGDEH 2006q).

Internationally, some longline fishing fleets still operate without important by-catch mitigation measures. Therefore, Northern Giant-Petrels breeding within the Australian Fishing Zone are still killed on longlines from vessels operating outside the Australian Fishing Zone (AGDEH 2006q).

Other fishing practices, such as trawling can also cause injury or death, but this may occur only rarely, especially if vessels employ simple mitigation measures; outside of the Australian Fishing Zone, trawlers carrying netsonde monitor cables or their equivalent may cause substantial mortality. Trolling (trailing a line with baited hooks) for pelagic species such as Albacore Tuna Thunnus alalunga is another potential threat to the Northern Giant-Petrel (AGDEH 2006q).

The Northern Giant-Petrel may be shot for sport or to reduce scavenging from commercial fishing vessels. Ingestion of plastics, entanglement in marine debris, oil spills, reduced genetic variability (inbreeding depression) and accumulation of chemical contaminants also pose risks to this species (AGDEH 2006q; Garnett & Crowley 2000).

Disturbance of breeding sites associated with the development of research stations or human visitation to breeding colonies has the potential to cause serious impacts on the Northern Giant-Petrel, through a reduction in breeding success, or because birds abandon the colony (AGDEH 2006q; Woehler et al. 2001; Woehler et al., in press).

Breeding success and/or nest-site selection have probably been adversely affected by rats, cats and an elevated number of Subantarctic Skuas Catharacta lonnbergi (AGDEH 2006q; Garnett & Crowley 2000), although the threat from the latter two has been substantially reduced (G. Copson, as cited in Garnett & Crowley 2000).

The incidental catch of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations was listed as a key threatening process on Schedule three of the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts has developed a threat abatement plan for the Incidental Catch (or by-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations. The threat abatement plan aims to reduce seabird by-catch to below 0.05 seabirds per thousand hooks (a reduction of up to 90% of seabird by-catch within the Australian Fishing Zone) within five years by:

  • prescribing modifications to fishing practices or equipment (mitigation measures),
  • developing new mitigation measures,
  • educating fishers and the public,
  • improving knowledge of seabird-longline fishery interactions

The long-term aim is to achieve a zero by-catch of seabirds in longline fisheries, especially of threatened albatross and petrel species.

The Environment Australia Biodiversity Group considers that guidelines set out by the Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) should minimise or eliminate the primary threat to Giant-Petrels within the Australian Fishing Zone.

Marine bioregional plans have been developed for four of Australia's marine regions - South-west, North-west, North and Temperate East. Marine Bioregional Plans will help improve the way decisions are made under the EPBC Act, particularly in relation to the protection of marine biodiversity and the sustainable use of our oceans and their resources by our marine-based industries. Marine Bioregional Plans improve our understanding of Australia's oceans by presenting a consolidated picture of the biophysical characteristics and diversity of marine life. They describe the marine environment and conservation values of each marine region, set out broad biodiversity objectives, identify regional priorities and outline strategies and actions to address these priorities. Click here for more information about marine bioregional plans.

The Northern Giant-petrel has been identified as a conservation value in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region. See Schedule 2 of the Temperate East Marine Bioregional Plan (DSEWPaC 2012aa) for regional advice. Maps of Biologically Important Areas have been developed for Northern Giant-petrel in the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region and may provide additional relevant information. Go to the conservation values atlas to view the locations of these Biologically Important Areas. The "species group report card - seabirds" for the Temperate East (DSEWPaC 2012aa) Marine Region provides additional information.

The Action Plan for Australian Birds, the Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels and the Threat Abatement Plan 2006 - Bycatch of Seabirds for the Incidental Catch (or By-catch) of Seabirds During Oceanic Longline Fishing Operations (AGDEH 2006q) provide guides to threat abatement and management strategies for the Northern Giant-Petrel (Garnett & Crowley 2000; Environment Australia 1999; RPAGP 2001).

The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

Threat Class Threatening Species References
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Commercial harvest National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Illegal fishing practices and entanglement in set nets National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trawling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and death due to trolling fishing activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Incidental capture and drowning by longline fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Threat Abatement Plan for the incidental catch (or by-catch) of seabirds during oceanic longline fishing operations (Environment Australia, 1998) [Threat Abatement Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Fishing gear, oil and marine debris associated with seabirds at Bird Island South Georgia, during 1993/94. Marine Ornithology. 24:190-194. (Huin, N. & J.P. Croxall, 1996) [Journal].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Mortality due to capture, entanglement/drowning in nets and fishing lines National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Biological Resource Use:Fishing and Harvesting Aquatic Resources:Overfishing, competition with fishing operations and overfishing of prey fishing National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Biological Resource Use:Gathering Terrestrial Plants:Commercial harvest National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate change altering atmosphere/hydrosphere temperatures, rainfall patterns and/or frequency of severe weather events National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat changes caused by climate change National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Climate Change and Severe Weather:Habitat Shifting and Alteration:Habitat modification, destruction and alteration due to changes in land use patterns National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human disturbance as the result of ecotourism National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human induced disturbance due to unspecified activities Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Mechanical disturbance during construction, maintanance or recreational activities National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Human Intrusions and Disturbance:inappropriate conservation measures National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Recreational Activities:shooting National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Human Intrusions and Disturbance:Work and Other Activities:Disturbance through scientific research Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or habitat degradation Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit, European Rabbit) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Felis catus (Cat, House Cat, Domestic Cat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus exulans (Pacific Rat, Polynesian Rat) National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus norvegicus (Brown Rat, Norway Rat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Rattus rattus (Black Rat, Ship Rat) The threat posed by pest animals to biodiversity in New South Wales (Coutts-Smith, A.J., P.S. Mahon, M. Letnic & P.O. Downey, 2007) [Management Plan].
National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Nasua narica (Common Coati, Coatimundi) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Mustela erminea ferghanae (Ermin, Stoat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation Canis lupus familiaris (Domestic Dog) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Competition and/or predation by rats National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, competition and/or habitat degradation Mus musculus (House Mouse) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Capra hircus (Goat) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Ovis aries (Sheep) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Sus scrofa (Pig) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive Non-Native/Alien Species:Grazing, tramping, competition and/or habitat degradation Bos taurus (Domestic Cattle) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Predation, competition, habitat degradation and/or spread of pathogens by introduced species National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Presence of pathogens and resulting disease National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:pest animal control Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation Catharacta lonnbergi lonnbergi (Subantarctic Skua (southern), Brown Skua) National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Invasive and Other Problematic Species and Genes:Problematic Native Species:Competition and/or predation by birds Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Dumping of household and industrial waste National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Garbage and Solid Waste:Ingestion and entanglement with marine debris Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:Deterioration of water and soil quality (contamination and pollution) National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:Pollution due to oil spills and other chemical pollutants National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Pollution:Pollution:heavy metals National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
Pollution:Pollution:spillage National recovery plan for threatened albatrosses and giant petrels 2011-2016 (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (DSEWPaC), 2011l) [Recovery Plan].
National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low genetic diversity and genetic inbreeding Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats (SPRAT) database (Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2006nw) [Internet].
Species Stresses:Indirect Species Effects:Low numbers of individuals National Recovery Plan for Albatrosses and Giant-Petrels 2001-2005 (Environment Australia (EA), 2001f) [Recovery Plan].

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Voisin, J.F. (1988). Breeding biology of the Northern Giant-Petrel Macronectes halli and the Southern Giant-Petrel M. giganteus at Ile de la Possession, Iles Crozet, 1966-1980. Cormorant. 16:65-97.

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Woehler, E.J., J. Cooper, J.P. Croxall, W.R. Fraser, G.L. Kooyman, G.D. Miller, D.C. Nel, D.L. Patterson, H.U. Peter, C.A. Ribic, K. Salwicka , W.Z. Trivelpiece & H. Weimerskirch (2001). A statistical assessment of the status and trends of Antarctic and subantarctic seabirds. Report on SCAR BBS Workshop on Southern Ocean seabird populations. Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research.

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This database is designed to provide statutory, biological and ecological information on species and ecological communities, migratory species, marine species, and species and species products subject to international trade and commercial use protected under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (the EPBC Act). It has been compiled from a range of sources including listing advice, recovery plans, published literature and individual experts. While reasonable efforts have been made to ensure the accuracy of the information, no guarantee is given, nor responsibility taken, by the Commonwealth for its accuracy, currency or completeness. The Commonwealth does not accept any responsibility for any loss or damage that may be occasioned directly or indirectly through the use of, or reliance on, the information contained in this database. The information contained in this database does not necessarily represent the views of the Commonwealth. This database is not intended to be a complete source of information on the matters it deals with. Individuals and organisations should consider all the available information, including that available from other sources, in deciding whether there is a need to make a referral or apply for a permit or exemption under the EPBC Act.

Citation: Department of the Environment (2014). Macronectes halli in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Canberra. Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat. Accessed Mon, 22 Sep 2014 22:14:24 +1000.