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Recherche Bay (North East Peninsula) Area, Southport, TAS, Australia

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List National Heritage List
Class Historic
Legal Status Listed place (07/10/2005)
Place ID 105665
Place File No 6/01/101/0034
Summary Statement of Significance
The north east peninsula of Recherche Bay has an important association with the French scientific and exploratory expedition of Rear Admiral Bruni D’Entrecasteaux.  It stopped at Recherche Bay in 1792 and in 1793 for about seven weeks in total.  The relatively extensive, well-documented encounters on the coast of the north east peninsula of Recherche Bay, compared to those in other places and involving other expeditions, between the expedition members and the Tasmanian Aborigines, provided a very early opportunity for meetings and mutual observation.  The recordings, from the French perspective, of these encounters, are important observations of the lives of the Tasmanian Aboriginal people.  The French also camped ashore on the north east peninsula (in 1792), made scientific observations, collected numerous specimens of flora and fauna, and established a vegetable garden (possibly one of several in the wider area intended, unusually, for the economic benefit of the Tasmanian Aboriginal people).
 
In particular, the place is associated, through Jacques Julien Houtou de Labillardiere’s plant collection, with the very important, first, illustrated, general publication in 1804-06 of Australian plants.  Also early French records created here of Tasmanian Aboriginal culture are the best records of Tasmanian Aboriginal society before European settlement and are major contributions to the knowledge of Tasmanian Aboriginal life and society before European settlement.
 
All of these significant activities of the French expeditioners associated with the place, constitute a significant, ‘associative’ cultural landscape.
 
The research potential deriving from the important and extensive, surviving documentation and collections created by the French expeditioners when combined with the information that could be uncovered from field survey and site investigation of the northern peninsula of Recherche Bay, is of outstanding significance to the nation.
 
From a scientific perspective, the northern peninsula of Recherche Bay was the site, in 1792, of the first deliberate scientific experiment in Australia.  This was a geomagnetic measurement undertaken by French naval officer Elisabeth Paul Edouard de Rossel, showing that goemagneticism varied with latitude.  It was an experiment of international significance.
 
The Tasmanian Aboriginal community has a strong association with the place that is of outstanding significance to the nation because Recherche Bay is associated with the best documentary evidence of Aboriginal culture before European settlement.
 
People, who by their association with the place, cause the place to have national heritage value, are two members of the 1792 and 1793 French expedition –Labillardiere, botanist, and Rossel, in modern terms, a ‘geoscientist’.
Official Values
Criterion A Events, Processes
The north east peninsula of Recherche Bay has an association with the French scientific and exploratory expedition of Rear Admiral Bruni D’Entrecasteaux, mounted to look for another French explorer, Jean Francois de Galaup de La Perouse.  It stopped at Recherche Bay for more than four weeks in 1792 and more than three weeks in 1793.
 
The relatively extensive, well-documented (both pictorially and in writing), encounters on the north east peninsula of Recherche Bay, compared with those in other places and involving other expeditions, between the expedition members and the Tasmanian Aborigines, provided a very early opportunity for meetings and mutual observation.  The recordings, from the French perspective, of these encounters, are important observations of the lives of the Tasmanian Aboriginal people before they were significantly affected by disease and European settlement.  These observations contribute significantly to knowledge of the diversity of traditional Aboriginal cultures.
 
The observations relate to various parts of the place, especially including that part of the place around Blackswan Lagoon, and the beach and hinterland east of Sullivan’s Point. 
 
The French also made astronomical observations and important geomagnetic tests (the first geo-scientific test in Australia and the critical test in a series proving that geomagnetism varied with latitude) - evidence of these and other activities may remain on site - they collected numerous specimens of flora and fauna (including type specimens of Blue Gum, the Tasmanian State emblem, and heath, the Victorian State emblem) across the peninsula, with the collections still surviving, and established a vegetable garden (the ‘French Garden’, evidence of which is said to survive).  In 1792 the French camped on the north east peninsula, repaired boats and undertook other activities there.  Parts of the place to which these various activities relate include the south and west coastal zone of the northern peninsula of Recherche Bay (a strip of 100m from the high water mark), the sites of the ‘French Garden’ and the observatory (areas defined as circles with centres, respectively, at GDA references 492725E and 5180202N, and 492129E and 5179168N, and of 100m radius), and any further archaeological sites dating to the French expedition.
 
Whilst Jacques Julien Houtou de Labillardiere, botanist, was not the first to collect Australian flora, his collection involved a substantial number of species, many specimens of which were likely to have been collected at Recherche Bay, and were included in the first general publication of illustrated Australian plants.  Therefore, the place has heritage value for its association with Labillardiere’s botanical collection.
 
The known activities of the French expeditioners across the place and the significance of many of these activities constitute, through their association with the place, an associative cultural landscape.
 
Important features in this landscape include the coastal setting and vista, that part of the place around Blackswan Lagoon, and the beach and hinterland east of Sullivan’s Point, the south and west coastal zones of the northern peninsula of Recherche Bay (a strip of 100m from the high water mark), the sites of the ‘French Garden’ and the observatory (areas defined as circles with centres, respectively, at GDA references 492725E and 5180202N, and 492129E and 5179168N, and of 100m radius), any further archaeological sites dating to the French expedition, and trees or remnant elements of old growth forest or other vegetation contemporaneous with the French visits.
 
While the place has been much disturbed since the French visit and contains substantial re-growth forest not directly related to the values of the place except in the areas specified above, the predominantly undeveloped character of the landscape contributes to the appreciation of the values.
 
The documented association of the place with the D’Entrecasteaux expedition, which undertook the above activities, is sufficient to establish the place’s outstanding heritage value to the nation.
 
Criterion C Research
The extensive documentation and specimen collections created by the French expeditioners, if utilised in conjunction with the information that might derive from possible future field survey and investigation of the place, creates an important research potential to improve the understanding of Australia’s cultural history.
 
In terms of archaeological research value, this relates to the areas of greatest archaeological potential at the place – the south and west coastal zone of the northern peninsula of Recherche Bay (a strip of 100m from the high water mark), the sites of the ‘French Garden’ and the observatory (areas defined as circles with centres, respectively, at GDA references 492725E and 5180202N, and 492129E and 5179168N, and of 100m radius), and that part of the place around Blackswan Lagoon, and the beach and hinterland east of Sullivan’s Point.
 
Criterion F Creative or technical achievement
The observatory site associated with Rossel’s 1792 geomagnetic measurement at Recherche Bay is of importance because it is the site where the first deliberate scientific experiment on Australian soil was undertaken, and because the measurement conducted at the site was of international scientific significance as the most critical of a series of measurements proving that geomagnetism varied with latitude.  The part of the place associated with these achievements is the observatory site and any associated archaeological remains relating to the French activities at the site.
 
Criterion G Social value
There is a strong or special association by the Tasmanian Aboriginal community with the Recherche Bay Area as the place associated with the best documentary evidence of Tasmanian Aboriginal culture before European settlement.
 
This relates to various parts of the place, principally including that part of the place around Blackswan Lagoon, and the beach and hinterland east of Sullivan’s Point.
 
Criterion H Significant people
People who had significant associations with the place are certain members of the 1792 and 1793 French expedition – Jacques Julien Houtou de Labillardiere (botanist – his work here resulted in the first publication of general flora of Australia, 1804-06) and Elisabeth Paul Edouard de Rossel (‘geoscientist’).
 
Description
The place comprises the northern headland of Recherche Bay incorporating the camping and operational sites of the expedition (including the garden site, observatory, boat repair site and related work areas, and crew camping area). Recherche Bay is a natural area in the south-eastern corner of Tasmania. The terrestrial area is dominated by mixed aged tall and dry Eucalyptus obliqua forest with a history of forest harvesting. Beneath the variable E. obliqua canopy, the understorey consists of a sedge and shrub layer and is made up of species typical of the surrounding area. The ground layer consists mainly of cutting grass (Gahnia grandis) and bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) whilst the shrub layer contains species such as prickly moses (Acacia verticillata) and silver banksia (B. marginata). Parts of the area include reasonably extensive coastal wetlands dominated by sedges and other plants.
 
History
Joseph-Antoine Bruni d’Entrecasteaux’s was dispatched in 1791 to lead a surveying expedition to the Pacific, and to search for the missing Lapérouse expedition.  D’Entrecasteaux’s voyage (and the next French expedition, that of Nicolas Baudin in 1800-1804) took place in the spirit of the Enlightenment which meant they had a great eagerness for a scientific understanding of nature, including humans, and that all humans, even if different in different environments, were one.  Thus the expedition had a substantial scientific staff: two hydrographers (Beautemps-Beaupré and Miroir-Jouvency), four naturalists (Labillardiére, Deschamps, Riche and Ventenat), a mineralogist (Blavier), two artists (Piron and Chailly-Ely), a gardener-botanist (Lahaie), and two astronomers (Bertrand and Pierson).  These ‘savants’ were not subject to naval discipline.  Blavier, Chailly-Ely and Bertrand left the expedition at Cape of Good Hope, so Riche took over the mineralogist’s role, and an officer, Rossel, became astronomer.  The expedition’s instructions directed the gardener to plant European plants and instruct the indigenous people encountered about how to propagate them, as well as to gather potentially useful native plants, to be cultivated and reproduced at Ile-de-France for later transfer to the Caribbean colonies.  The naturalists were to work closely with the artists to ensure that accurate and useful representations of all plants and animals were made.  The astronomers were to provide the results of their ‘geographical observations’ to the hydrographers, and the latter were to make their plans of the coast available to the astronomers.  They were also to take geophysical measurements of the magnetic field.
 
The Recherche and Espérance sailed via the Cape of Good Hope direct to Van Diemen’s Land, where, due to a mistaken navigation bearing, d’Entrecasteaux made anchor in a protected bay previously unknown to Europeans, that he named Recherche, on 23 April 1792.  But for the navigation error, d’Entrecasteaux would have anchored at Furneaux’s Adventure Bay.  D’Entrecasteaux was quite taken by Recherche Bay:
 
‘I shall attempt the vain task of conveying the feelings I experienced at the sight of this solitary harbour, placed at the ends of the earth, and enclosed so perfectly that one could think of it as separated from the rest of the universe.  Everything reflects the rustic estate of raw nature.  Here one meets at every step, combined with the beauties of nature left to itself, signs of its decay, trees of enormous height and corresponding width, without branches along the trunk, but crowned with foliage always green: some appear as old as the world; so interlaced and compacted as to be impenetrable, they support other trees equally large but dropping with age and fertilizing the ground with debris reduced to rottenness.  Nature in all its vigour, and at the same time wasting away, seems to offer the imagination something more embellished by industry and by civilized man; wanting to conserve only the beauty, he has destroyed the charm; he has removed its unique character, that of being always ancient and always new.’ (Horner 1995: 70-71)
 
Anchoring in Port du Nord (now Pigsties Bay), the expedition spent three weeks repairing the boats, taking astronomical and magnetic observations, watering and wooding, and collecting natural history specimens.  Parties were sent out to investigate the surrounding area, and the southern shores of what is now D’Entrecasteaux Channel were explored and charted.
 
A garden was set up above the shore of what is now Coal Pit Bight by Felix Lahaie (aka, La Haye, Delahaye)—d’Entrecasteaux wrote:
 
‘Various seeds sowed by M. La Haye, gardener-botanist, might in future furnish supplies to navigators who will shelter in this haven, if however their produce escapes the destructive zeal of the natives who might mistake the new plants, the properties of which they are ignorant of, for all the other herbs which they seem to allow to perish with their fires.’ (Duyker & Duyker 2001: 38)
 
D’Entrecasteaux’s instructions placed greatest emphasis on the garden being for the benefit of the indigenous people, the benefits for mariners being secondary.  The gardener must ‘…sow European seeds that offer a chance to prosper in the lands that you will land, and to indicate as best he can to the natives of the country, the ways to cultivate and reproduce them’ (Horner 1995: 78; Duyker 2001: 296.).  Lahaie seems to have been under no pressure to achieve the latter part of this instruction in Tasmania.  However, it is clear that this garden, therefore, in one sense, evidences and symbolizes the instructions issued to D’Entrecasteaux’s presented by Anderson as: ‘the commander was to bring fruits and vegetables cultivated in Europe to the natives and instruct them in their cultivation’ (2000:214), and so to some of the philosophies behind the expedition.
 
The plants placed in the garden, which was a plot 9m x 7m, included onions, cress, chervil, celery, potatoes, cabbages, radishes, chickory and sorrel.  Labillardiere (aka La Billardiere) described the garden:
 
‘I accompanied the gardener to the ground where he had sown different European seeds.  This spot, which was very well dug for an extent of nine metres by seven, had been divided into four patches; it afforded a soil in which clay was too predominant to ensure the success of the seeds that had just been committed to it.’ (Labillardiére 1800: Vol 1, 175.)
 
He was proved right in his assessment of the garden.  On their return to the site in 1793, Labillardiere and Lahaie found that little had grown.  They met some Aborigines in the area and:
 
‘…we took them to the garden we had created the previous year at Port du Nord. M. La Haye inspected it with more care than on the first occasion; he found that a few chicory plants, cabbages, sorrel, radishes, cress and a few potatoes had grown, but had only produced the first two seminal leaves.  While he examined with extreme attention all the parts of this garden, one of the natives showed him the plants which had lifted up; he was making a perfect distinction between them and the indigenous plants, although they were nearly imperceptible.  M. La Haye ascribed, with good reason, the lack of success of his vegetable garden to the seeds having been sown in too advanced a season.’ (Duyker & Duyker 2001: 141-142.)
 
Labillardiere added; ‘…these plants would no doubt have thriven better nearer to a rivulet that we perceived to the westward. I had at least expected to find the cresses planted on its banks; surely this could have proceeded only from the forgetfulness of the gardener.’ (Labillardiere 1800: Vol2, 37-38.)
 
(In 1800, following his return to France, Lahaie was given the honour of being appointed Head Gardener for Empress Josephine Bonaparte’s palace estate of Malmaison, just outside of Paris.  Here he planted a Tasmanian garden for Josephine.)
 
The observatory was located on what is now Bennett’s Point, and on the shores of Coal Pit Bight separating the observatory and garden were the site for a carpenter’s work area and boat repair yard with forges, a washing area for the ship’s laundry, guard tents for the marines and general tents for the crews of the ships as they were being careened.  Charcoal was burnt for the ships forges, and the ships themselves were careened and caulked. The site has not been systematically surveyed to determine if any physical remains survive related to these activities, though some have been inferred to do so.
 
At the Bennett’s Point observatory Rossel, on May 11 1792, took a number of observations of the intensity of the magnetic field, by timing the oscillations of the dip needle (an instrument consisting of a circle within which a needle is pivoted in the vertical plane to measure the vertical angle of the magnetic field).  These observations, together with others made at Amboina, Surabaya, Teneriffe and Brest during the voyage, helped establish for the first time that magnetic intensity increased towards the South Pole, just as it did as the North Pole was approached. (see references for Lilley and Day).  The measurements of magnetic intensity were repeated at the observatory on the southern side of Recherche Bay, at Rocky Bay, when the expedition returned there in 1793, these observations, made on 7 February, confirmed the original observations and discounting error in the dip circle itself (Day 1991: 8).
 
While the immediate objective of magnetic research was to try to use magnetic declination in establishing longitude at sea, the Recherche Bay observations were of value to pure science as well, being one of a set of observations made by the expedition that resulted in major advance in the understanding that the earth’s magnetic field was symmetrical.  Edward Sabine, the British polar explorer and magnetician, writing in 1838, recognised Rossell as ‘having been the first who ascertained that the magnetic intensity is different at different positions on the earth’s surface’, even though his observations were not published until after those of von Humboldt, the great German scientist, who came to the same conclusion (Sabine, E. 1838, quoted in Day 1991: 8).
 
During the second stay of three weeks in January-February 1793, the ships moored in Port du Sud (now Rocky Bay), on the southern side of Recherche Bay.  Here they established another observatory (Duyker & Duyker 2001: 150.).  The purpose of these observatories was to take astronomical observations to fix longitude and rate the chronometers, and to establish the local magnetic variation and dip (declination), that would affect the compasses and bearing taken from them, and the measurement of the intensity of the magnetic field, as described above.  With the partial exception of the intensity measurements, the observations appear to have been related to practical navigation rather than to pure research.
 
The major geographical outcome of the stay at Recherche Bay was the mapping of the d’Entrecasteaux Channel, Huon River, Bruny Island, the estuary of the Derwent, and the general form of Storm Bay.  The charts produced by the expedition’s hydrographer, Beautemps-Beaupré, were made with a method developed by him, which substantially improved the accuracy of coastal survey (Beautemps-Beaupré, G.F. 1923).  Whereas Cook had used the sextant and theodolite for his surveys, Beautemps-Beaupré utilised the reflecting circle (refered to as the ‘repeating circle’ or ‘full circle’ by the British), invented in 1758 by German astronomer Tobias Mayer, and perfected by French hydrographer Jean-Charles de Borda (after whom Cape Borda on Kangaroo Island was to be named by Baudin) in 1772 (Randier, J. 1977: 123-124).  The reflecting circle allowed multiple horizontal angles to be taken to prominent points on the coast with far greater ease than with the sextant, with its restricted arc, or with the theodolite, which required a stable base and was hence difficult to use at sea.  The charts were vastly superior to anything the British had produced for the region, and accurately delineated the detail of the Storm Bay area for the first time (see Beautemps-Beaupré, G.F. 1807).  The success of the expedition in charting southern Tasmania when added to by Baudin’s wide-ranging visit in 1802, raised British fears of French intentions in Tasmania, and stimulating the British settlement of Port Phillip and Hobart in 1803 and Launceston in 1804.
 
During the stay the scientists, Labillardiere and Deschamps, collected an estimated 5,000 specimens, comprising 30 genera and about 100 species (Duyker 2003: 93).  Among the discoveries for science were Eucalyptus globulus, E. cordata, probably E. viminalis, E. ovata and E. amygdalina, the cherry ballart (Exocarpus cupressiformis), the butterfly flag (Diplarrhena moroea), the red earthstar mushroom (Aseroa rubra), the sedge Gahia grandis, Tasmania Christmas bells (Blandifordia punicea), leatherwood (Eucryphia lucida), two Lobelias, a Banksia, four species of Epacris, four new orchids, a number of species of sundew, Coreas, two melaleucas and an Embothrium.
 
Equally significant on a human scale is the record the French savants made of the Aboriginal Palawa inhabitants of this peninsula, both for the documented evidence of this pre-European society and for the history of racial relations in Australia.  The friendly, peaceful contacts , and the quality of the observational record of Aboriginal society and their emphasis upon their humanity achieved by the D’Entrecasteaux expedition, and by Baudin’s party a decade later, contrast commendably with many negative British early contacts.
 
The D’Entrecasteaux expedition’s period in Van Diemen’s Land was a model of engagement in a brief encounter across cultures and compared to the Baudin expedition’s inter-cultural interaction in 1801 (Shark Bay) it was more successful although the latter was more complex anthropologically.
 
The positive cross cultural contact that epitomized the D’Entrecasteaux’s time at Recherche Bay could be romanticized as a time when an encounter across European and Aboriginal culture succeeded, especially now looking back over the intervening years and comparing it with the nature of Indigenous settler relations in Australia.  However, from another perspective it could be said that the cross cultural interaction occurred ‘at a moment just before anthropology began to be conceived  as a discrete field of study, before human others who looked different physically and were different culturally came to be viewed scientifically as objects of measurement, comparison and observation…..field anthropology, both physical and ethnographic, was born with the departure of the Baudin expedition from Le Havre on 19 October 1800…..As a result, encounters between Europeans and Indigenous people would take on a new dimension.’  (Anderson 2000:222).
 
Despite there being found evidence of the Tasmanians’ presence, by way of Aboriginal shelters, no contact occurred between the two cultural groups on the expedition’s first visit to Recherche Bay; they occurred on their second visit during February 1793.  The encounter of 10 February 1793, a most significant encounter, was depicted by Piron in his famous painting ‘Savages of Van Diemen’s land preparing their meal’.  Here is a tableau portraying the occasion when the Frenchman visited the Aborigines in their encampment.  Plomley notes that this event was quite unique:
 
‘No other observer, except perhaps GA Robinson more than thirty years later, is known to have done so.  The interest in these meetings is the greater because up to 1793 there had been few meetings of any kind between Europeans and the Aborigines, and that of Marion du Fresne twenty years earlier had been an aggressive one.’  (1993:273)
 
The main place for the various meetings was at Blackswan Lagoon, by the seashore (1993:276).  The meetings took different forms and included meals, athletic events and concerts.  Important information on many different topics was again gathered by the French - information that could not be gathered later because of subsequent history, including information on language, certain practices, and material culture.  In particular, these included vocabulary lists (two were created by different members of the expedition), information on dwellings, a canoe raft, water-containers, baskets, spears, stone throwing, clothing, firemaking, firing the vegetation, food, polygamy, body measurements and physical descriptions, sex and age distribution, singing, cicatrices and other adornments, and the division of labour.
 
While d’Entrecasteaux added only a relatively modest area of coast to the known continent, the expedition was a major one, largely because of the botanical work of Labillardiere, and the cartography of Beautemps-Beaupré.  The ethnographic observations are rare and valuable records of pre-European settlement era Aboriginal life, and influenced European imagining of the ‘hard primitivism’ of Australian Aborigines.
 
On the first visit to Recherche Bay about 220 French expeditioners camped on shore behind the beach and seemingly spread across the hinterland but the known activities of the French in 1792 and 1793 ranged across the peninsula for about seven weeks whether related to meetings with the Tasmanians, exploration, hunting, scientific investigation, collecting or other activity.  Other later events and activities on the peninsula include those related to the convict mutiny/brig Cyprus escape (1829), convict coal mining (in the 1840’s and said to be quite close to Lahaie’s garden), whaling activities (including the Sullivan’s Point shore whaling station), the 1838 visit by Lady Jane Franklin ornithologist, John Gould, and Tasmanian botanist, RC Gunn (who made botanical collections), unknown activities related to Bennetts Point features of an unidentified 21m long stone construction and remains of huts that pre-date 1863, Kemsley’s late 19th –early 20th century logging (eg timber tramway and chute remains).  All of these contribute to a rich, peninsula-wide, and significant, cultural landscape.
 
Also, on the shore of the peninsula was the former site of the well-known, beached 1874 barque James Craig, said to have been virtually at the site of the Recherche and Esperance anchorage.  This ship was towed away in 1973, is now restored and sails as part of the Australian Heritage Fleet.
Condition and Integrity
Forestry and other activities occurred in the place during late 19th and early 20th century.  A Forest Practices Plan was certified by the Tasmanian Forest Practices Board on 31/3/05.  This allows for selective logging of a harvest area of 103 hectares of a privately owned forestry reserve within the place.
Location
About 385ha, 11km south-south-west of Southport, being that part of the peninsula south of the alignment of the northern boundary of Land Parcel 15-1602 (extending from Pigsties Bay to Eliza Point) and above Low Water Mark.
 
Bibliography
Anderson, S 2000 ‘French anthropology in Australia, a prelude: the encounters between Aboriginal Tasmanians and the expedition of Bruny d’Entrecasteaux, 1793’ in Aboriginal History 24:212-223.
 
Anderson, S 2001 “French anthropology in Australia, the first fieldwork report: Francois Peron’s ‘Maria Island – anthropological observations’” in Aboriginal History 25:228-242.
 
Anderson, S ND ‘What was the ethnographic information collected during the 1793 visit to Southeast Tasmania?’ Notes distributed by Anderson at her National Archaeology Week talk given as part of the forum ‘The French at Recherche Bay 1792-93’, Department of the Environment and Heritage, 20/5/04.
 
Australian Government Printing Service 1988 Flora of Australia, Vol. 19. Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service.
 
Barker, R March 2004 ‘French gardens rediscovered in Tasmania?’ in Australian Systematic Botany Society Newsletter 118:4-5.
 
Barker, R.M. and W.R. Barker. 1990. ‘Botanical contributions overlooked: the role and recognition of collectors, horticulturists, explorers and others in the early documentation of the Australian flora’. In Short, P.S. (ed). History of Systematic Botany in Australasia. South Yarra: Australian Systematic Botany Society: pp. 37-85.
 
CARSAG 2004.  Assessing reservation priorities for private forested land in Tasmania.  A report of the Comprehensive, Adequate and Representative Scientific Advisory Group (CARSAG) of the Private Forest Reserves Program, September 2004.  Hobart: Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment.
 
Carr, S.G.M. and Carr, D.J. 1981. ‘A charmed life: The collections of Labillardiere’. In Carr, S.G.M. and Carr, D.J. (eds). People and plants in Australia. Sydney: Academic Press.
 
Day, A.A. 1991. ‘First Geophysical Measurement at Sydney in 1793?’ The Australian Geologist, 80: 7-8.
 
Delahaye, Felix ND. Felix Delahaye:  Gardener on the D’Entrecasteaux expedition.  Extracts (5pp) from the diary – in Tasmanian waters.  Translated by Nicole Johnson 2003.  Unpublished manuscript.
 
Edwards, P. (ed). 1999. The Journals of Captain Cook. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
 
George, Alex S. 1999. William Dampier in New Holland: Australia’s first natural historian. Hawthorn: Bloomings Books.
 
Grivelet, Stephane to Hampton, Ross 30/08/2005, email from French Embassy to Minister Campbell’s Office.
 
Hewson, Helen 1999. Australia: 300 years of botanical illustration.  Canberra: CSIRO Publishing.
 
Hiatt, B. 1967. ‘The Food Quest and the Economy of Tasmanian Aborigines’. Oceania, 37: 99-133.
 
Hiatt, B. 1968. ‘The Food Quest and the Economy of Tasmanian Aborigines’. Oceania, 38: 190-219.
 
Hogg, G. 9/6/04 Letter to DEH
 
Jones, R. 1978. Why did the Tasmanians stop eating fish?  In Gould. R.A. (ed.) Explorations in Ethnoarchaeology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
 
Jones, R. 1974. Appendix Tasmanian Tribes. In Tindale, N.B. Aboriginal Tribes of Australia. California: University of California Press.
 
Kerr, J.S. 1984. Design for Convicts. Sydney: National Trust of Australia (NSW) and Australian Society of Historical Archaeology.
 
Kostoglou, Parry 1994. Historic timber getting between Cockle Creek and Lune River, Block 1, Archaeology of the Tasmanian Timber Industry Report No 4. Forestry Commission of Tasmania and Tasmanian Forest Research Council, Inc.
 
Mulvaney, Professor John 2003. Submission on the significant cultural landscape status of the northeast peninsula area on Recherche Bay. Unpublished discussion paper for the National Cultural Heritage Forum.
 
Pearson, M. 2004. A Great Southern Land: the maritime investigation of Terra Australis. Mapping the coastline thematic project report prepared for DEH.
 
References from Pearson 2004:
Beautemps-Beaupré, G.F. 1807. Atlas du voyage de Bruny Dentrecasteaux, contre-amiral de France, commandant les frigates la Recherche yet l’Esperence, fait par ordre du gouvernement en 1791, 1792 et 1793.  Depot General des Cartes et Plans de la Marine et des Colonies, Paris.
Beautemps-Beaupré, G.F. 1923. An introduction to the practice of nautical surveying and the construction of sea-charts.  Translated from the French by Capt. Richard Copeland, R.H. Laurie, London. (originally published as ‘Appendix to the narrative of Rear-Admiral Bruny d’Entrecasteaux’s voyage’, Paris, 1808).
Day, A.A. 1991. ‘First Geophysical Measurement at Sydney in 1793?’, The Australian Geologist, Newsletter No. 80: 7-8.
Duyker, E. & Duyker, M. (eds). 2001. Bruny D’Entrecasteaux: Voyage to Australia and the Pacific 1791-1793. Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Duyker, E. 2003. Citizen Labillariére: A naturalist’s life in revolution and exploration (1755-1834). Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Horner, F. 1995. Looking for La Perouse: D’Entrecasteaux in Australia and the South Pacific 1792-1793. Miegunyah Press, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.
Labillardiére, J.J.H. 1800.  An account of a voyage in search of La Perouse undertaken by order of the Constituent Assembly of France and performed in the years 1791, 1792, 1793 in the Recherche and Espérence, Ships of War under the command of Rear Admiral Bruni D’Entrecasteaux. J. Debrett, London.
Lilley, F.E.M. 1991a. ‘Geophysical measurements in Tasmania in 1792’, The Australian Geologist, Newsletter No. 80: 6-7
Lilley, F.E.M. 1991b. ‘D’Entrecasteaux in Van Diemen’s Land, 1792: A bicentenary of geomagnetism’, Geophysics Down Under, Newsletter of the Specialist group on Solid Earth Geophysics, Geological Society of Australia, No. 14: 5-6.
Lilley, F.E.M. & Day, A.A. 1993. ‘D’Entrecasteaux, 1792: Celebrating a bicentennial of Geomagnetism’, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, 74 (9): 97, 102-103.
Randier, J. 1977. Nautical antiques for the collector, Doubleday & Co, New York.
Sabine, E. 1838. ‘Report on the variations of magnetic intensity observed at different points on the Earth’s surface’, Report of the Seventh Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Liverpool, 1837, Vol VI: 185, quoted in Day 1991: 8.
 
Plomley, N.J.B  1976.  A Word-List of the Tasmanian Aboriginal Languages. Launceston: State of Tasmania.
 
Plomley, N.J.B 1990.  The French and Tasmanian Aborigines. In Blackman, M. (ed.) Australian Aborigines and the French. French Australian Research Centre, Occasional Monographs 3. Sydney: UNSW.
 
Plomley, N.J.B. 1993. The Tasmanian Aborigines. Tasmania. The Plomley Foundation.
 
Plomley, B and Piard-Bernier, J 1993 The general.  The visits of the expedition led by Bruny d’Entrecasteaux to Tasmanian waters in 1792 and 1793. Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston.
 
Potts, B. M. and Reid, J. R. 2003 ‘Tasmania’s eucalypts: their place in science.’ In Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania. Vol 137, 21-37.
 
Poulson, Bruce 2004. Recherche Bay: A short history. Southport: Southport Community Centre.
 
Rayment, L. nd. Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni D’Entrecasteaux. Discoverers Web. http://www.win.tue.nl/~engels/discovery/entrecast.html
 
Recherche Bay Protection Group 2/10/2003 Nomination to the Tasmanian Heritage Council for the gazetting of the NE Peninsula of Recherche Bay on the Register of Historic Places.
 
Richard, H. 2003. The De’Entrecasteaux expedition and the Recherche Bay Garden.  In Smith, S. Tasmania’s French Connections: Report on the Goddard Sapin-Jaloustre Scholarship 2002. Appendix 9, 79-80.
 
Richard, H. 2003. The French Garden at Recherche Bay. In Smith, S. Tasmania’s French Connections: Report on the Goddard Sapin-Jaloustre Scholarship 2002. Appendix 10, 81-3.
 
Ryan, L. 1996. The Aboriginal Tasmanians. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
 
Selkirk, H 1918. ‘La Perouse and the French monuments at Botany Bay’ in Royal Australian Historic Society Journal and Proceedings. Vol; IV Part VII:329-361.
 
Smith, B. 1989. European Vision and the South Pacific. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
 
Smith, S. December 2003 Tasmania’s French connection. Report on the Goddard Sapin-Jaloustre Scholarship 2002. Hobart. Printing Authority of Tasmania.
 
Yeates, A.N. 2001. An assessment of Australian geological sites of possible national or international significance: Volume 1, Rocks and landforms. Canberra: Unpublished report for the Australian Heritage Commission.
 
Databases  
Australian Heritage Assessment Tool 2004. Analysis of major fauna and flora taxa, South-East Cape 1: 100 000 mapsheet.
 
Australian Heritage Database Register of the National Estate records: North East Peninsula of Recherche Bay 6/1/101/34.
 
http://mpec.sc.mahidol.ac.th/radok/discaust/DIARTAS4.HTM.
 
http://www.anbg.gov.au/botanical-history/botanical-discovery.html.
 
Information on Tasmanian RFA vegetation community reservation targets was provided by the Conservation Incentives Section, Land, Water and Coasts Division, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
 
http://www.science.org.au/newsletters/aas60.pdf).
 

Report Produced  Tue Sep 16 23:33:13 2014