Place Details

Send Feedback

Wet Tropics of Queensland, Cairns, QLD, Australia

Photographs View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record View Photo Database Record
List World Heritage List
Class Natural
Legal Status Declared property (09/12/1988)
Place ID 105080
Place File No 4/06/270/0031
Statement of Significance
For the official statement of Outstanding Universal Value see the UNESCO site http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/486

Official Values
Criterion (IX) Outstanding examples of on-going evolution
The Wet Tropics of Queensland provides outstanding examples of significant ongoing ecological processes and biological evolution including exceptionally high levels of species diversity and endemism reflecting long-isolated ancient biota of the Australian wet tropics. The World Heritage values include:
  • the high genetic diversity and endemism of the tropical rainforest ecosystems which constitute a major centre of evolution of rainforest flora;
  • endemic rainforest plant taxa (including 43 genera and at least 500 species);
  • plant and animal taxa exhibiting allopatric speciation (including the plant genera Haplosticanthus, Pseuduvaria, Elaeocarpus, Ceratopetalum, Polyosma, Endiandra, Uromyrtus, Pilidiostigma, Buckinghamia, Orites, Stenocarpus, Sarcotoechia, Bubbia, Planchonella and Symplocos);
  • plant and animal taxa which occur as disjunct populations, such as those associated with altitudinal and geographic barriers to gene flow; and
  • the diversity of flora and fauna, which includes:
  • 3,000 species of vascular plants (representing 1164 genera in 210 families), 11 mammal species, 370 bird species, 53 frog species, 170 reptile species, and 78 species of freshwater fish (in 48 genera and 35 families), more than 200 species of butterflies, 6 species of crayfish, and 217 species of land snails, and stream invertebrates).
Criterion (VII) Contains superlative natural phenomena
The Wet Tropics of Queensland has outstanding features of natural beauty and magnificent sweeping landscapes. The World Heritage values include:
  • the exceptional coastal scenery that combines tropical rainforest, white sandy beaches and fringing reefs just offshore;
  • rugged mountain peaks and gorges;
  • extensive vistas of undisturbed forest and valleys which descend rapidly in the lower reaches through spectacular waterfalls and cascades; and
  • superb gorge scenery with swiftly flowing rivers and spectacular waterfalls (e.g. Wallaman Falls which has the longest single drop (278 metres) of any waterfall in Australia).
Criterion (VIII) Outstanding examples of stages of earth's history
The Wet Tropics of Queensland contains one of the most complete and diverse living records of the major stages in the evolution of land plants, from the very first land plants to higher plants (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms), as well as one of the most important living records of the history of marsupials and songbirds. The property provides exceptional examples representing eight of the major stages in the earth's evolutionary history including:
  • Age of the Pteridophytes;
  • Age of the Conifers and Cycads;
  • Age of the Angiosperms;
  • the final break-up of Gondwana;
  • biological evolution and radiation during 35 million years of isolation;
  • the origin and radiation of the songbirds;
  • the mixing of the continental biota of the Australian and Asian continental plates; and
  • the extreme effects of the Pleistocene glacial periods on tropical rainforest vegetation.
The World Heritage values include:
  • ancient plant taxa representing two main branches of the earliest land plants, the Psilotopsida and the Lycopsida;
  • 7 ancient families of true ferns, including Lycopodiaceae, Selaginellaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae, Schizaeaceae and Gleicheniaceae;
  • taxa in the oldest and most primitive families of the largest group of pteridophytes, the Schizaeaceae and Gleicheniaceae;
  • 31 of 36 families of pteridophytes (including 111 of 364 described genera;
  • fern genera of East Gondwanan origins, including Coveniella, Lastreopis, Polystichum, Pteridoblechnum, Steenisioblechnum, Oenotrichia, Leptopteris, Todea, Tmesipteris, Lycopodiella and Huperzia;
  • the ancient, fern-like cycad Bowenia spectabilis;
  • the cycad families Cycadaceae, Zamiaceae (including the genera Cycas, Lepidozamia and Bowenia);
  • the rare assemblage of Lepidozamia hopei, Podocarpus grayi and Agathis robusta which includes the closest living counterparts of Jurassic-age fossils;
  • species of the only two surviving araucarian genera Araucaria and Agathis;
  • 3 endemic species of the podocarp genera Prumnopitys and Podocarpus;
  • 12 primitive angiosperm families in the orders Magnoliales and Laurales (Annonaceae, Austrobaileyaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, Myristicaceae, Winteraceae, Hernandiaceae, Gyrocarpaceae, Idiospermaceae, Lauraceae, Monimiaceae and Atherospermataceae);
  • small, primitive, relict angiosperm families including Austrobaileyaceae, Idiospermaceae, Eupomatiaceae and Himantandraceae;
  • plant taxa considered to occupy major nodal positions in the evolution of the angiosperms (including taxa in the orders Hamamelidales, Rosales, Euphorbiales, Dilleniales, Violales, Theales, Celastrales and Gentianales);
  • relict taxa from Cretaceous angiosperm families (including Cunoniaceae, Proteaceae, Winteraceae, Myrtaceae, Monimiaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Callitrichaceae, Chloranthaceae, Trimeniaceae, Epacridaceae, Olacaceae and Loranthaceae);
  • 153 genera in 43 families of angiosperms believed to represent the longest continuous history associated with the Gondwanan landmass;
  • frog species from the Gondwanan families Myobatrachidae and Hylidae (including primitive species from the genera Mixophyes, Taudactylus, Litoria and Nyctimystes);
  • reptiles of Gondwanan origin including geckoes of the subfamily Diplodactylinae and legless lizards of the endemic family Pygopodidae;
  • skinks of the Sphenomorphus, Egernia and Eugongylus groups, which are represented in the Oligo-Miocene fossil fauna of Riversleigh;
  • rainforest birds of Gondwanan origins including the Southern Cassowary, the orange-footed scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt) and the Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami);
  • primitive insect taxa that are relicts of the Gondwanan fauna;
  • primitive genera of the Proteaceae including Placospermum, Sphalmium and Carnarvonia;
  • 5 endemic species in the Myrtaceae group Metrosideros, which is the most primitive in the family and includes the genera, Barongia, Ristantia, Sphaerantia and the undescribed "Stockwellia";
  • the East Gondwanan genus Gymnostoma, an ancestral form of the Casuarinaceae;
  • species in the genera Euodia and Medicosma in the family Rutaceae;
  • 9 species of dasyurids including one relict species, Antechinus godmani.
  • mammalian genera related to those of Oligo-Miocene age at Riversleigh, including Hypsiprymnodon, Cercatetus, Pseudochirops and Trichosurus;
  • the Musky Rat-kangaroo, Hypsiprymnodon moschatus, the most primitive of the kangaroos and the only living member of its group;
  • 5 species of ringtail possums, including 4 rainforest-dependent species;
  • passerine (Oscines) birds representing ancestral lineages of Australo-Papuan songbirds,(e.g. the bowerbirds and the scrubwrens, thornbills and gerygones);
  • Chowchilla, Orthonyx spaldingii, a relict endemic species also found in late Oligocene deposits (~25 million years BP) at Riversleigh;
  • areas where the extant rainforest flora and fossil pollen deposits provide a record of the mixing of long separated floras including old Gondwanan and Asian elements;
  • plant genera considered to have been of Gondwanan or Laurasian descent and to have entered Australia following collision of the Australian and Asian plates (including: Alangium, Allophylus, Althoffia, Alyxia, Anthocephalus, Barringtonia, Berrya, Bombax, Bulbophyllum, Calophyllum, Canthium, Celtis, Cordia, Epipogium, Garcinia, Gardenia, Leea, Lethedon, Melia, Oreodendron, Phaleria, Securinega and Trema);
  • taxa in the frog families Microhylidae and Ranidae which provide outstanding examples of the impact on the biota of the collision of the Australian and Asian plates;
  • Bats and rodents (including Hydromys, Pogonomys, Uromys and Melomys) which are considered to have entered Australia since connections with the Asian Plate were established;
  • fossil pollen records going back over 200, 000 years from Butcher's Creek, Lynch's Crater and Lake Euramoo; and
  • Ancient taxa in the Araucariaceae (5 species), Podocarpaceae (7 species) and Casuarinaceae (1 species of Gymnostoma).
Criterion (X) Important habitats for conservation of biological diversity
The Wet Tropics of Queensland provides important habitats for the in situ conservation of biological diversity, including the only habitat for numerous species of plants and animals of conservation significance which have outstanding universal value from the point of view of science and conservation. The World Heritage values include:
  • plant communities and animal habitats, recognised as being floristically and structurally the most diverse in Australia (including 13 major structural types and 27 broad communities types of rainforest fringed and dissected by a range of sclerophyll forest and woodland types, mangroves and swamp communities);
  • plant taxa of conservation significance and their populations (which include more than 700 species of endemic plants representing 43 genera in 33 angiosperm, and 6 gymnosperm and fern families); and
  • animal taxa of conservation significance and their populations
Description
The main distribution of rainforest in northern Queensland straddles three major geomorphic regions: the tablelands of the Great Divide, the lower coastal belt and the intermediate Great Escarpment. The undulating tablelands are remnants of an elevated and warped landscape. To the east, the Great Escarpment marks the limit of headwards erosion of these tablelands from the coastal plain. It is a zone of ruggedtopography, rapid geomorphological processes and diverse environments, with deeply incised gorges and numerous waterfalls. Wallaman Falls has the longest single drop (278m) of any waterfall in Australia. The geological history can be divided into three parts: formation of a relatively rigid and impermeable continental basement in the Palaeozoic; initiation of a north-west drainage in the Mesozoic; and intensified doming to the east in the late-Mesozoic-Caenozoic culminating in continental rifting, ocean formation, and partial foundering of the new continental margin, causing retreat of the coast to its present position by the late-Tertiary. Stepwise coastal retreat and formation of the present juvenile upland coast has led to stream reversal and slope failure. The bulk of underlying rocks (slates and greywacke to greenschist facies) are marine Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous sediments of the Hodgekinson Basin and Broken River Embayment. The Barnard Metamorphics of largely schist and gneiss, which outcrop in the south-east, may be part of this Basin. Their distinctness is emphasised by the presence nearby of the rare Babalangee Amphibolite, invariably indicative of fundamental dislocation and junctions. The greatest concentrations of volcanics and granite occurs at the southern end of the Basin at its intersection with the trend of the Broken River Embayment. This area in the vicinity of Innisfail lies west of the Barnard Metamorphics, making it the most complex in the region. One of the most striking elements of the landscape is the Great Escarpment, which has retreated to its present position as a result of catastrophic erosion. It is breached only by basalt flows, as in the case of the Johnstone River valley system. The vulcanism of the Atherton Tablelands and adjacent volcanic provinces is characterised by scoria cones, lava cones and maars of irregular distribution. Lakes Eacham and Barrine occupy the youngest maars. The tablelands and some coastal areas were greatly disturbed by basalt flows throughout the Pliocene-Pleistocene. The high nutrient status of the developing basalt soils may have proved advantageous to the rainforest in resisting stresses during the fluctuating climatic conditions associated with the Pleistocene glacial cycles (RCSQ, 1986).
Soils are diverse, reflecting the wide range of parent rocks, derived alluvia and rainfall gradients. Parent material consists of acid igneous rocks, low-grade metamorphics, basalt and alluvium derived from these materials. The alluvium of larger streams is of mixed origin but that of smaller streams may be from a single source. The oldest metamorphic rocks have given rise to moderately deep medium-textured red or yellow loams; granite rocks and acid volcanics to deeper red podzolic soils and xanthozems; and basalts to deep to very deep krasnozems. Soils of the alluvial coastal plains vary as the drainage becomes poorer from gleyed podzolics to humic gleys to acid peats. Moisture is the predominant influence on soil morphology. All major soils in the high rainfall tropics are chemically impoverished, even under virgin rainforest. A number of soils have extremely low contents of exchangeable calcium, magnesium and potassium which usually are associated with relatively high amounts of extractable aluminium. Many of the soils are poor in humus and significant erosion occurs even under undisturbed rainforest (RCSQ, 1986).
Fringing reefs occur in the northern section of the region and are most extensively developed between Daintree and Bloomfield rivers. The association between coastal rainforest and fringing coral reef to the extent it occurs off Cape Tribulation and environs appears to be undocumented elsewhere in the world (RCSQ, 1986). The reefs are part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Site.
CLIMATE A feature of the wet tropics of north-east Queensland is a high rainfall that is concentrated within a four-month period. Compared with tropical rainforests elsewhere in theworld, the wetter parts of the north-east Queensland region lie at the 'wet' to 'extreme wet' end of the hydrological spectrum. Widespread overland run-off, even on steep slopes, is a common phenomenon that is uncharacteristic of other wet tropical rainforests in the world. It results from the high rainfall intensity combined with saturated soil profiles. Mean annual rainfall ranges from 4000mm near the coast to 1200mm at the western extremity, over 60% of which falls in summer (December-March). It is much higher on the mountain ranges with, for example, 9140mm recorded on the summit of Mt Bellenden Ker for the period 1972-1979 (Walsh, 1980; Bonnell et al., 1983). Mean daily temperatures range from a maximum of 31 degrees C to a minimum of 23 degrees C on the coast, and are about 5 degrees C lower in winter. The tablelands and uplands are cooler, with mean daily temperatures ranging from a maximum of 28 degrees C to a minimum of 17 degrees C in summer and from 22 degrees C to 9 degrees C in winter. Coastal humidity averages 78% in summer but often reaches into the high nineties (DASETT, 1987).
VEGETATION The main vegetation type is wet tropical rainforest but this is fringed and to some extent dissected by sclerophyll forests, woodlands, swamps and mangrove forests. The rainforests of the wet tropics of Queensland have been classified into 13 main structural types, including two that have sclerophyll components (Eucalyptus and Acacia) (RCSQ, 1986). These have been mapped at a scale of 1:100 000 (Tracey and Webb, 1975). The main types have been divided into 27 broad communities, all of which are present and range from multi-storeyed vine forests on richer soils in warmer wetter areas to more simple vine forests on poorer soils in drier areas, and fern forests at higher, wetter altitudes. On the slopes and summits of the high peaks occur vine fern forests and thickets, in which the canopy is low and dense and shows the streamlining effects of persistent, strong winds. Regional endemism is high and localised with, for example, floristic differences between the simple microphyll vine fern forests of the Bellenden Ker Range and those of the Mt Lewis/Mt Spurgeon area. This type of rainforest , which has affinities with Australian temperate rainforests at higher latitudes and with montane rainforests of New Guinea and Indonesia, is restricted within tropical Australia to a few small sites on exposed mountain tops, all within the region. In contrast, remnant stands of complex mesophyll vine forest occur on basalt-derived soils in the wet lowlands between Innisfail and Cape Tribulation. Of all Australia's rainforests, this structural type is considered to be closest to the humid tropical lowland forests of South-east Asia. One of the most striking rainforest types is that dominated by the endemic fan palm Licuala ramsayi. It is restricted to small patches on poorly drained lowland soils. Most of this forest type has been cleared for sugar-cane farming and little more than 500ha remain, mainly within the Yarrabah Aboriginal Reserve. Very little is protected within national parks. Adjacent to the rainforest margins on the western edge of the nominated area are tall open forests (or wet sclerophyll forests) dominated by flooded gum Eucalyptus grandis. The striking contrast in structure between the adjoining rainforest and wet sclerophyll forests of northern Queensland is considered unique to Australia, being very different from the rainforests-'campos cerrados' of Brazil and the moist evergreen-dry deciduous forests of India (Webb and Tracey, 1981a). The narrow strip of tall open forest is crucial for the conservation of the northern populations of three species of mammals that are restricted to this forest type (Winter et al., 1984), namely: yellow-bellied glider Petaurus australis, brush-tailed bettong Bettongia penicillata (E) and swamp rat Rattus lutreolus. Medium and low woodlands consist predominantly of Eucalyptus spp., Acacia spp., Lophostemon suaveolens, Syncarpia glomulifera and Casuarina spp. This forest type, which is widespread in Australia, is found along the western extremity, in the Daintree Valley system and on the western slopes of the upper Mulgrave Valley. Paperbarks Melaleuca spp. occur as the dominant tree species in poorly drained, lowland coastal areas where the water table is nearto or above ground level for most of the year, such as the mouth of the Daintree River (Tracey, 1982). The understorey comprises mostly sedges. Characteristic species of paperbark communities include the epiphytes Dischidia, Hydrophytum and tea tree orchid Dendrobium canaliculatum. The mangrove forests comprise some 30 species of trees and shrubs, comparable in diversity to those of New Guinea and South-east Asia which are acclaimed as being among the richest mangrove areas in the world. The region of highest diversity lies between Ingham and Innisfail (Galloway, 1982). The most common genera are Rhizophora and Bruguiera, as well as Ceriops in some areas (Dowling and McDonald, 1982). Rainforest intergrades with the mangroves, sharing many species at the interface including Diospyros littorea, which occurs only on the landward side of mangroves (DASETT, 1987). The mangroves are rich in salt marsh plants and epiphytes, the latter including the ant plant Myrmecodia beccarii.
Some 1,161 species of higher plants have been recorded from rainforests in the area, representing 523 genera and 119 families. Of the genera, 75 are endemic to Australia and 43 are restricted to the region. Of the species, about 710 are Australian endemics and 500 (43%) occur only in this area (DASETT, 1987). A characteristic of these rainforests is the much higher diversity at generic than species level, with 66% of 516 genera represented by only a single species. Of the 43 monotypic genera recorded to date, 28 are locally endemic to the area (RCSQ, 1986). The area is a stronghold for Australian members of the Proteaceae, with 13 genera and 40 species locally endemic, including Placospermum coriaceum, one of the most primitive members of this family (Johnson and Briggs, 1975).
Many examples of isolated populations of tree species are present. Species on the lowlands include Storkiella australiensis and Noahdendron nicholasii, which are restricted to near Cape Tribulation. Idiospermum australiense and Lindsayomyrtus brachyandrus have a disjunct distribution between the Cape Tribulation area and the Harveys Creek-Russell River area. On the uplands Sphalmium racemosum and Stenocarpus davalloides are restricted to the Mt Carbine Tableland in the northern section of the nominated area, whereas Lomatia fraxinifolia, Darlingia darlingiana and Cardwellia sublimis are widespread. Much remains unknown of species distribution patterns. The rainforests have a rich orchid flora with some 90 species present; about 59 of these have a restricted distribution, with 43 having an extremely small range. One of the world's largest cycads is present, as well as one of the smallest. Lepidozamia hopei may grow to a height of about 20m. The small Bowenia spectabilis is locally endemic and common in the understorey of rainforest-associated communities. The richest concentrations of ferns and their allies in Australia are found in the area. Of more than 240 species recorded in these rainforests, 46 are entirely restricted to the area and some 17 species are confined to single locations. Of the five Australian endemic fern genera, four are present (Coveniella, Neurosania, Pteridoblechnum and Platyzoma). Pteridoblechnum, the only locally endemic fern genus, is represented by P. acuminatum at Mt Spurgeon and Mossman Gorge and by the widely distributed P. neglectum (RCSQ, 1986).
Further details of the vegetation and flora are given in RCSQ (1986). The conservation status and distribution of rare and threatened plants is summarised in DASETT (1987).
FAUNA The wet tropical rainforests of north-east Queensland have the richest fauna in Australia. Although the region represents about 0.1% of the land surface of the continent, it contains 30% of marsupial species, 60% of bat species, 18% of bird species, 30% of frogspecies, 23% of reptile species and 62% of butterfly species in Australia. Some 54 species of vertebrates are unique to the area (DASETT, 1987).
The mammal fauna includes 2 monotremes, 37 marsupials, 16 rodents and 34 bats (DASETT, 1987). Nine species are endemic to the region's rainforests. These include four species of ringtail possum (Petauridae), Australia's only two tree-kangaroo species Dendrolagus lumholtzi and D. bennettianus, and the musky rat-kangaroo Hypsiprymnodon moschatus, which is the smallest and in many respects the most primitive of the macropods. The last two of the endemics, namely Thornton Peak rat Melomys hadrourus and Atherton antechinus Antechinus godmani, have very restricted distributions which have been used as the basis for defining two centres of endemism for flightless mammals (see Winter et al., 1984). Several species of mammals present are isolated from the major occurrence of the species, in two cases by over 2,000km. Of these isolated species, spotted-tailed quoll Dasyurus maculatus, is one of the largest and most ferocious of the carnivorous marsupials. Of the 33 species of bats present, nine are Australian endemics and one is locally endemic. This is the tube-nosed insectivorous bat Murina florium, considered to be the "rarest mammal recorded alive in Australia" (Richards, 1983).
The avifauna of the rainforests of northern Queensland is the most diverse in Australia (Kikkawa, 1982). More than 370 species have been recorded, of which 137 species principally inhabit the closed forests, including mangroves (DASETT, 1987). Twenty-three species are either endemic to the region or have their Australian distributions largely confined to this area (Winter et al., 1984). The majority of the 13 endemic species are confined to the upland rainforests. These include northern logrunner or chowchilla Orthonyx spaldingii, little treecreeper Climacteris minor, Atherton scrubwren Sericornis keri, Australian fernwren Crateroscelis gutturalis, mountain thornbill Acanthiza katherina, bridled honeyeater Lichenostomus frenatus, Bower's shrike-thrush Colluricincla megarhyncha, tooth-billed catbird Ailuroedus dentirostris and golden bowerbird Prionodura newtoniana (Kikkawa, 1984). Notable is the presence of the flightless Australian cassowary Casuarius casuarius, one of the largest birds in the world. It is the only one of three species of cassowary in the world found in Australia.
There are about 47 species of frogs, of which the Australian distributions of 20 species are restricted to this area (DASETT, 1987). Included are some species regarded as rare (Covacevich and McDonald, 1984), such as Litoria lorica, Cophixalus neglectus, C. bombiens, C. hosmeri, C. infacetus and Taudactylus rheophilus, a representative of a primitive endemic genus.
Of the 160 species of reptiles, 16 are restricted to the region with respect to their Australian distributions. Several species have primitive characteristics, such as chameleon gecko Carphodactylus laevis and northern leaf-tailed gecko Phyllurus cornutus (DASETT, 1987).
The skinks are a particularly diverse group, represented by 54 species within the area (DASETT, 1987). Several species are rare and very restricted, including the Bartle Frere skink Leiolopisma jigurru, which has been found in the cool montane habitat near the summit of Mt Bartle Frere. This is the first record of a temperate 'relict' species among the vertebrates of the area (Covacevich, 1984).
A recent survey of five sites along a 10km transect yielded over 5,000 species of insects and over 300 species of spiders (Monteith and Davies, 1984). The study indicated a high diversity of insects, but low populations for many species. Of particular biogeographic interest is the insect fauna preserved in the upland rainforests of the area, where the climate is relatively cool and commonly moist. There are many primitive, relict species that are isolated from their nearest relatives by at least 1,500km. One species, the large stag beetle Sphaenognathus queenslandicus, which is found only on Mt Lewis and Mt Windsor Tableland, has its closest relatives in South America (Moore, 1978). The highly diverse and numerous moth fauna of the area includes many rainforest endemic species, including the brilliantly-coloured Aenetus monabilis, one of the largest moths with a wing span up to 18cm, and the very restricted Douea xanthopygs and Polyeuta callimorpha which are only known from several collections. The widespread Hercules moth Coscinocera hercules, one of the largest moths in the world with a wingspan up to 25cm, is also present (DASETT, 1987). Butterflies are also well represented in the area and include many restricted species such as purple brown eye Chaetocneme porphyropis, Australian hedge blue Udara tenella and Cairns birdwing Ornithoptera priamus euphorion (Australia's largest butterfly).
The fauna of the freshwater streams is largely unstudied. However, three species of blue crayfish Euastacus are restricted to the area. E. fleckeri is found only on Mt Carbine Tableland, E. robertsi on Mt Finnigan and an undescribed species on the Bellenden Ker Range and Atherton Tableland. The highly restricted distribution of these 'temperate' relicts parallels similar distributions among plants and other fauna, reflecting a long history of isolation on these mountain summits (Winter, 1987).
 
History
Aboriginal occupation in the area between Cooktown and Cardwell is thought to date back to at least 40,000 years ago (Sing et al., 1980; Sluiter and Kershaw, 1983). The northern tribes (Barrineans) are considered to represent the first wave of the Aboriginal occupation of Australia, making theirs the oldest rainforest culture in the world (DASETT, 1987). Rainforest culture differed markedly from that of most other Australian Aboriginal tribes, with its heavy dependence on arboreal skills, everyday use of toxic plants and unique weapons (Horsfall, 1984). Major centres of survival of this culture are at the Bloomfield River and Murray Upper. A detailed resumé of the history of Aboriginal occupation is given in RCSQ (1986).
The first European to explore the wet tropics of Queensland was Edmund Kennedy in 1848. After further exploratory forays, notably by George Elphinstone Dalyrymple in 1873, pioneering graziers and later red cedar Toona australis cutters moved in, the latter working up the coast and reaching the Daintree and Mossman Rivers by 1875. Tin mining began to have an impact on the region in the 1880s. At the same time, rainforest was progressively cleared from the lowlands to make way for sugar cane plantations that spread along the entire northern coast to beyond Cooktown. The economy of the region has remained almost entirely dependent on primary production, but tourism has grown steadily since the 1950s (DASETT, 1987). The Wet Tropics region is the most populated of northern tropical Australia with around half a million residents. While there are no urban centres within the Area, most of the inhabitants live within 50km of the Area boundaries in the expanding communities of the major cities Townsville and Cairns, smaller coastal towns and the closely settled farming areas of the Atherton Tableland (Wet Tropics Management Authority, pers. comm., 1995). 
Condition and Integrity Not Available
Location
About 894420ha, located along the north-east coast of Queensland, comprising an area extending from just south of Cooktown to just north of Townsville.
The following is a detailed description of areas included in the Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area.
 
Real Property Descriptions shown hereunder are taken from the 1:100 000 cadastral map series, published by the Department of Mapping and Surveying, Brisbane, Queensland. The maps used are:
 
Atherton                      7963   Oct.1982
Bartle Frere                8063    Aug. 1974
Cairns                         8064    June 1974
Cardwell                     8161    May 1974
Cooper Point               8163    May 1974
Helenvale                    7966    Feb. 1980
Ingham                        8160    Feb. 1974
Innisfail                      8162    Oct. 1981
Kangaroo Hills           8060    March 1981
Kirrama                      8061    July 1981
Mossman                    7965    May 1979
Ravenshoe                  7962    Oct. 1982
Rollingstone               8159    June 1974
Rumula                       7964    June 1979
Tully                           8062    Oct. 1979
 
Descriptions are current only to the drawn and published date of the corresponding map. All co-ordinate values referred to are Australian Map Grid (AMG) Zone 55 co-ordinates.
Description of Property
All those pieces of land in the State of Queensland, Counties of Banks, Cardwell, Chelmsford, Dagmar, Nares, Solander, Wairuna, Wilkie Gray; Parishes of Alcock, Alexandra, Annan, Amy, Ashton, Bankton, Bartle Frere, Bellenden Ker, Berwick, Blackfriars, Blencoe, Bloomfield, Cairns, Clemant, Clerk, Cromwell, Dagmar, Danbulla, Dedin, Dinden, Dirran, Dulanban, East Barron, Ellerbeck, Gadgarra, Garioch, Garrawalt, Glady, Glenbora, Gore, Grafton, Herberton, Herkes, Hinchinbrook, Holborn, Hull, Ismailia, Japoon, Johnstone, Jordon, Kanawarra, Kirrama, Leach, Leefe, Marathon, Meunga, Mona Mona, Monkhouse, Mourilyan, Mowbray, Niagara, Noah, Ongera, Palmerston, Phipps, Pitt, Ramleh, Ravenshoe, Riflemead, Rockingham, Russell, Salisbury, Smithfield, Sophia, Sporing, Spurgeon, St. Giles, Stone, Tribulation, Trinity, Victory, Waterview, Whyanbeel, Whypalla, containing a total area (including roads) of about 9 200 square kilometres, being bounded by lines edged in green on plan catalogue numbers NI.5-273, sheets 1 to 15, in the Surveying and Land Information Group, Commonwealth Department of Administrative Services, Brisbane, Queensland, and being:
1.  National Parks 25, 26, 133, 150, 155, 164, 166, 202, 212, 226, 255, 279,
353, 398, 477, 545, 546, 547, 553, 574, 575, 584, 645 (excluding that part commencing at the intersection of the western alignment of the Bruce Highway and the eastern alignment of the North Coast Railway about 3 kilometres south from Conn Station in the Parish of Pitt, southerly by the western alignment of the Bruce Highway to its intersection with the eastern alignment of the North Coast Railway and northerly by that alignment to the point of commencement), 647, 763, 771, 880, 904, 1024, 1110, 1311, 1351, 1353, 1356, 1357, 1391, 1392, 1394, 1447, 1468, 1608.
2.  State Forests 34 (being that part south-west of a straight line commencing from the most southerly point of Lot 18 on Wg. 63, Parish of Hinchinbrook, south-easterly to the most westerly point of Lot 6 on Wg. 32, Parish of Clemant, thence by that boundary of Lot 6 south-easterly to the next corner and by a straight line from that corner south-westerly to the Parish boundary), 42 (excluding that part within the Parish of Victory to the west of Lot 50 on Sr. 52, Parish of Victory), 50 (being that part south of a straight line commencing from the most southerly point of Lot 27 on Wg. 71, Parish of Hinchinbrook, south-easterly to the most northerly point of Lot 14 on Wg. 51, Parish of Hinchinbrook), 78, 143 (excluding that part to the west of a line from the western corner of TR. 65 northerly to Half Ton Creek at a point E 308000, N 8176250, thence downstream to the McLeod River and to its intersection with Spurgeon Creek, thence northerly to the easternmost corner of Curraghmore Holding), 144 (being that part to the east and north of a line from a point E 283000 and N 8210850 on its northern boundary south to E 283000 and N 8201800, thence generally southerly along a road to a point E 286000 and N 8197000, thence east to the western boundary of NP. 133), 185 (being that part generally north and east of a line commencing at a point on the western boundary of SF. 185 and being the north-west corner of Lot 107V on Nr. 4325, Parish of Danbulla, thence east along the northern boundary of said Lot 107V to its intersection with the west boundary of Lot 108V on Nr. 4181, Parish of Danbulla, north and east along that boundary to its intersection with the western alignment of a road 60.35 metres wide, northerly along that alignment to its intersection with the boundary of land under the control of the Commissioner for Irrigation, westerly along that boundary to its intersection with Platypus Creek and easterly to its intersection with the north-western alignment of a road 60.35 metres wide, generally easterly and north-easterly along that alignment to its intersection with Downfall Creek, north-easterly by a line to a point on Kauri Creek 110 metres upstream of its intersection with Palm Gully, east by a line to its intersection with the south-eastern alignment of a road 60.35 metres wide, south-east by a line to its intersection with an eastern tributary and 475 metres upstream from Coi Creek, downstream by that tributary to Coi Creek, upstream by Coi Creek for 475 metres, west by a line to its intersection with the boundary of R. 440 (Scenic Reserve, Lake Euramoo), generally skirting the eastern, northern, western and part of the southern boundary of R. 440 to its intersection with the eastern alignment of a road and south-south-easterly by a line to a point on Mobo Creek where it intersects the south-eastern boundary of SF. 185), 190 (excluding Lot 530 on Cwl.1623, Parish of Rockingham), 194 (being that part generally south-east of a line commencing at Stewart Head, thence northerly to the south-eastern corner of Lot 213 on Cwl.380, Parish of Herberton, thence northerly along said Lot boundary to its north-eastern corner, thence north-westerly along the north-eastern boundary of road fronting said Lot to the southernmost point of Lot 215 on Cwl.342, Parish of Herberton, thence north-easterly skirting the south-eastern boundaries of said Lot and R. 207, thence generally in a south-easterly, north-easterly and north-westerly direction skirting the south-western, south-eastern and north-eastern boundaries of R. 189 to the intersection of the County boundary with the Parish boundary (between Barron and East Barron) at the crest of Herberton Range, thence easterly along said Parish boundary to the north-western corner of Lot 69V on N.157.396, Parish of Barron, thence skirting the western and southern boundaries of the latter and Lot 70V on N.157.396, Parish of Barron, to the north-western corner of Timber Reserve 930, thence south-westerly and south-easterly following the north-western and south-western boundaries of said Timber Reserve to the northernmost point of Timber Reserve 931, thence generally south-westerly along the north-western boundary of the latter to its westernmost point, thence south-easterly in a straight line to the north-west corner of National Park 353), 251, 268 (being that part north and east of a line commencing at a point on the crest of Seaview Range at the intersection of the County boundary with the Parish boundary (Waterview and Berwick), thence following the County boundary generally east to a point on the crest of Seaview Range, approximate AMG co-ordinates E 408600, N 7907500, then generally south to Paluma Ewan Road at a point approximately E 409400, N 7896400 then generally east to Blue Gum Creek at a point approximately E 414600, N 7895400 and then by a straight line south-easterly to the southernmost corner of SF 268), 310 (excluding those parts-  
  (i)  Wholly within SF 310 and commencing at a point E 360150, N 8087750, thence generally north-easterly, south-easterly, south-westerly and north-westerly through:
   E 360140, N 8087950
   E 360210, N 8088000
   E 360350, N 8088470
   E 360550, N 8088580
   E 360700, N 8088250
   E 360500, N 8087800
   E 360370, N 8087650
to the point of commencement, and
  (ii)  Commencing at the corner of SF. 310 which is nearest to the east corner of Lot 14 on Nr. 1126, Parish of Gadgarra, thence westerly along the boundary of SF. 310 for 186 metres and 157 metres, generally north-easterly, easterly, southerly and westerly through-
E 360280 and N 8087250, E 361075 and N 8087350, E 361200 and N 8087150, E
361180 and N 8086800, E 361450 and N 8086700, E 361540 and N 8086600, E 361610
and N 8086600, E 361660 and N 8086700, E 361800 and N 8086700, E 361840 and N
8087070, E 361940 and N 8087150, E 362050 and N 8087000, E 362310 and N
8087350, E 362350 and N 8087300, E 362610 and N 8087450, E 362640 and N
8087700, E 363090 and N 8087500, E 363090 and N 8087400, E 363350 and N
8087400, E 363550 and N 8087550, E 364340 and N 8087550, E 364450 and N
8087400, E 364760 and N 8087550, E 364810 and N 8087400, E 364600 and N
8087150, E 364400 and N 8087150, E 364390 and N 8086800, E 364450 and N
8086700, E 364420 and N 8086450, E 364840 and N 8086100, E 364320 and N
8086200, E 364120 and N 8086200, E 364120 and N 8086600, E 363990 and N
8086600, E 363900 and N 8086500, E 362460 and N 8086000
to a point 150 metres north west of the north corner and on the extension of the north-eastern boundary of Lot 18 on Nr. 560 Parish of Gadgarra and generally westerly along the south-west boundary of SF. 310 to the point of commencement), 344, 350, 452, 458 (being that part formed by the north and western boundary of Lot 46, Parish of Stone, to a point on the boundary E 380750, N 7922800 thence by a line south-easterly to a point E 380000 N 7921450 thence westerly along the northern boundary of Lot 36, Parish of Stone to its north-western corner, thence following the county boundary generally north-westerly to the intersection of the Parishes of Stone, Barrett and Ryeburn, thence by a line north-westerly to the south-eastern corner of Seaview Holding, then northerly along the eastern boundary of Seaview Holding until it meets with NP. 547, thence east, thence north along the boundary of NP. 547 to the boundary of Oak Hills Holding, thence south-easterly along this boundary to the ridge at the intersection of Oak Hills and Henrietta Holdings thence easterly along the boundary of Henrietta Holding to the intersection with Parish boundaries of Ashton and Lannercost, then generally south-easterly along this parish boundary to the north-eastern corner of Lot 46 in the Parish of Stone), 461 (excluding the area north of a line commencing at the most southerly corner of Lot 18 on Cwl. 483, Parish of Glenbora, thence south easterly to E 381900, N 7980550, thence easterly to the Parish boundary (Glenbora and Ellerbeck) E 393200, N 7977150, thence generally southerly along the parish boundary to the most easterly point of the Parish of Glenbora, thence south-easterly to the south-west corner of Lot 1V on Car. 124.204, Parish of Ellerbeck also excluding an area east of a straight line commencing at the most southerly point of Lot 107 on Cwl. 652, Parish of Meunga, south-westerly to the eastern end of the most northerly boundary line of Lot 4V on Cwl. 4, Parish of Meunga, and excluding an area south of a straight line commencing from the north-western corner of the said Lot 4V south-westerly to the north-eastern corner of Lot 76 on Cwl. 474, Parish of Meunga), 475, 486, 591 (excluding Lot 131, Parish of Garrawalt, and the area south-east of a line commencing at the most northerly point of Lot 166, Parish of Leach, and following Broadwater Creek generally north-east to the eastern corner of NP. 546, thence south-easterly to E 393700, N 7962450, thence east to E 396000, N 7962800 near Canoe Creek, thence south-easterly to E 397000, N 7960800, thence south-easterly to E 398000, N 7959700, thence east to E 399900, N 7959700, thence north-easterly to a point between Dalrymple Creek and a Stock Route E 400900, N 7960400, thence south-easterly to E 402000, N 7958700, thence south to E 402100, N 7956600, thence east to the crest of Cardwell Range south of Bishop Peak at the north-west corner of Lot 9 on Cwl. 1936, Parish of Pitt), 599, 605, 607 (excluding that part generally west of a line commencing at a point on the south-western boundary of SF. 607 being the north-east corner of TR. 1322, thence north by an eastern boundary of Adler Hill Holding and its extension to the east corner of Lot 111 on Nr. 572, Parish of Danbulla, generally easterly and north-westerly by the eastern boundary of Adler Hill Holding to Mandarin Rock, east-north-easterly by a line to the intersection of Pandanus Creek and the west boundary of Pt A on Nr. 4302, Parish of Dinden, north by that boundary to the north-west corner of Pt A on Nr. 4302, north-north-westerly by a line to the west end of the south boundary of the Parish of Cairns, being a point on the eastern boundary of Lot 24 on Nr. 4303, Parish of Dinden, north-easterly by that boundary to its intersection with the left bank of Shoteel Creek, downstream by that bank to its intersection with the western extension of the south boundary of Lot 52V on Nr. 157.402, Parish of Cairns, west by that extension to its intersection with the right bank of the Clohesy River and being a point on the north-west boundary of SF. 607), 608 (being that part south of the parish boundary between the Parishes of Japoon and Mourilyan), 644 (excluding those parts-  
  (i) north of a line commencing at the south-east corner of Lot 1V, Parish of Ellerbeck, south-easterly to E 404850, N 7964800, thence east-north-easterly to the western boundary of the North Coast Railway,
  (ii) commencing at that point on the western alignment of the Bruce Highway which is due west of the North Coast Railway at Conn Station in the Parish of Pitt, southerly by that western alignment to its intersection with the western alignment of the North Coast Railway, southerly by that western alignment to its intersection with the boundary of NP. 645, north-westerly by a line to E 405600, N 7960400 and north-easterly to the point of commencement), 650, 675, 700, 750, 755, 756 (excluding the area north of a straight line commencing at the most northerly point of Lot 42 on Cwl. 973, Parish of Meunga, thence easterly to a point on the west bank of Deep Creek on the projection of the southern boundary of Lot 85 on Cwl. 646, Parish of Meunga), 757, 758, 910, 933, 1073 (excluding that part to the west and south of a line commencing at the intersection of Flaggy Creek and the boundary of SF. 1073 at Christmas Pocket, thence north-westerly to a point E 342000, N 8154800, thence westerly to a point E 339600, N 8154800, thence southerly to a point on the boundary of R1219 approximately 1.3 kilometres from the north-west corner of R1219 and excluding that part within a line commencing at the south-western corner of Lot 144, Parish of Smithfield, thence west by a line to the intersection with a track approximately 100 metres west of Flaggy Creek, then by that track southerly and easterly to its intersection with the western boundary of Lot 18V, Parish of Smithfield, then by the northern boundaries of Lots 18V and 13V, Parish of Smithfield, to the north-east corner of Lot 13V, then by a line north-easterly to the most southerly corner of Lot 144, Parish of Smithfield, then by that boundary westerly to the point of commencement), 1137, 1185,
1195, 1229 (excluding those parts-
  (i) east and south of lines from a point on the southern boundary of R 1219 2.7 kilometres from the south-western corner to a point at co-ordinates of E 341500 and N 8145300, thence to the intersection of the County and Parish boundaries (Mar and Garioch) and thence to the intersection of the Little Mitchell River and the eastern boundary of Mt Molloy Holding,
  (ii) south west of a line from that aforesaid intersection to a point on the State Forest boundary 3.1 kilometres west of the south-western corner of Lot 13V,
  (iii) north of a line from the south eastern corner of Lot 125, Parish of Garioch to the intersection of southern boundary of Lot 125 extended easterly and a road at co-ordinates of E 336000 and N 8158000), 1232, 1245, 1276,
1469.
3.  Timber Reserves 55, 65, 66, 100, 110, 140, 141, 165 (excluding those parts north-west and west of lines commencing at the north-east corner of Lot 1V, Parish of Sporing, then proceeding north-easterly to a point E 308500, N 8245000, and thence north-westerly along a range to the most south-eastern corner of the Parish of Gore thence west along the Parish boundary about 1.6 kilometres thence north to the mountain range to a point about 0.2 kilometres generally south-east of North Sampson Mountain thence along  the range north-westerly to North Sampson Mountain thence north-easterly to E 312000, N 8254800, south to E 312000, N 8254000, thence east and north to Mount Walker, thence east for 750 metres, north for 750 metres and north-easterly to the south-eastern corner of R.128 and by the eastern and northern boundaries of that reserve to its north-western corner, thence north-easterly to the south-eastern corner of Lot 57V, Parish of Monkhouse, also excluding that part to the north of a line from the south-east corner of R76 to the intersection of the southern alignment of a road adjoining Lot 10V, on Bk. 672, Parish of Monkhouse and Waterfall Creek, also excluding an area to the west and south of a line beginning on the Daintree River at its intersection with the northern boundary of NP. 133 and proceeding downstream to Boolbun Creek, thence by that creek upstream to its intersection with Callaghan Creek, thence by the boundary of the Parish of Bloomfield northerly and westerly to the eastern boundary of Lot 1V, Parish of Sporing), 244, 315, 785, 1230, 1231, 1244 (excluding that part to the north-east described as Lot 215 on Nr. 1154, Parish of Johnstone), 1344.
4.  Various Reserves 5, 10, 24, 45, 49, 52, 54, 58, 60, 67, 79, 91, 98, 113, 129, 135, 169, 189 (excluding that part generally north-west of a line commencing at the south-eastern corner of Lot 216 on Cwl. 342, Parish of Herberton, and proceeding north-easterly to the intersection of the Country boundary with the Parish boundary (between Barron and East Barron) at the crest of Herberton Range), 204 (excluding that part to the north of a line from May Peak to the mouth of Buddabadoo Creek), 227, 228 (excluding that part commencing at the northern tip of Constantine Point, southerly along the High Water Mark for 1800 metres, west by a line for 490 metres, north-west by a line to its intersection with the right bank of the Russell River and downstream by that bank to the point of commencement), 229, 242, 271, 350, 379, 405, 423, 440, 446, 466, 473, 486 (excluding all the land to the west and south of a line commencing at the intersection of the Parishes of Ramleh, Timsah and Bankton and running in a northerly direction along the Parish boundary to a point at Coordinates E 347150, N 8023900 and then in a westerly direction to a point, Coordinates E 343800, N 8023500 on the Yourka Holding Boundary), 523, 524, 525, 534, 554, 599, 748, 753, 843, 865, 881, 884, 899 (excluding that part to the south-east of a line from Red Cliff Pt south to the intersection of the boundary of TR. 315), 1007, 1044 (being the western severance of Lot 99V on Nr. 3566, Parish of East Barron), 1083, 1097, 1219 (excluding that part east of a line commencing at a point on the northern boundary 2.6 kilometres from the north-western corner, thence to a point on the southern boundary 2.7 kilometres from the south-western corner), 1234, 1235, 1236, 1272, 1273, 1315, 1317 (excluding that part of its north-eastern access arm east of a line between the points E 396500, N 8079000; E 395600, N 8078700 and E 395500, N 8077800), 1323, 1385, 1458, 1508.
5.  Freehold lands
  Parish of Alcock: Lot 33 being Commonwealth land acquired by compulsory process by notification in the Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No. 50 dated 15 June 1967;   Parish of Alexandra: Lots 12 on Bs. 5, 17 and 18 on Bs. 14, 52V on Bk. 157.151, 65V on Bk. 157.161, 83 on Sr. 596 (being that part north of a line from the south-east corner of Lot 191 to a point on the eastern boundary approximately 600 metres from the north-east corner of the subject block), 190 on Bk. 157.46 (excluding that part south-west of a line from a point on its western boundary approximately 800 metres north of its south-west corner, to its south-east corner) and 191 on Bk. 157.46 (excluding an area bounded by lines from a point on its western boundary approximately 800 metres south of the intersecting road to a point on the eastern boundary approximately 800 metres north of the south-west corner of Lot 190, thence by that boundary south to the south-east corner of Lot 191, thence by its southern boundary west for approximately 300 metres, thence generally northerly for 600 metres and generally north-west to the western boundary 900 metres south of the point of commencement, thence by that boundary north to that point);   Parish of Bellenden Ker: Lots 2V and 3V on N. 157.232;   Parish of Cairns: Lot 33V on Nr. 157.287;   Parish of Dagmar: Lot 116;   Parish of Dirran: Lots 257 on Nr. 1301, 297 on Nr. 2510 (excluding those parts (i) west of a line commencing at the southernmost corner of Lot 297 northerly to a point on its north-west boundary at E 346700, N 8052800, and   (ii) its eastern severance),  298 on Nr. 709 (excluding its south-eastern severance), 299 on Nr. 710 (being that part north-west of a straight line commencing at a point on its south-western boundary at E 347500, N 8053600 northerly to the Beatrice River);   Parish of Meunga: Lots 39 on Cwl. 134, 43 on Cwl. 371, 50 on Cwl. 373;   Parish of Mourilyan: Lot 12 on Nr. 2593, Commonwealth Acquisition 789 Sub A (excluding Lindquist Island); Parish of Noah: Lot 8 on Sr. 138, Lot 1 on Sr. 135 (being that part north-east of a line commencing on its south-east boundary approximately 100 metres north of its south-east corner, proceeding approximately 500 metres parallel to the southern boundary, thence northerly to the northern boundary); Parish of Rockingham: Lot 271 on Cwl.1978 (being that part south-east of a straight line commencing at the north-east corner of R.229, thence north-easterly to the coastline at Tam O'Shanter Point-Co-ordinates E 404700, N 8012800);   Parish of Russell: Lots 7V on N.157.282, 33 on Nr. 5073, 331 on N.157.128 (excluding that part to the west of the Graham Range); Parish of Whyanbeel: Lots 176 on Sr. 265 (being that part east of a line from the south-west corner of Lot 145 south to the southern boundary of the subject block), 297 on Sr. 184.
6.  Leasehold lands
  Parish of Alcock: Part C on Cwl.2539;   Parish of Alexandra: Lots 7 on Sr. 235, 39 on Sr. 17, 51V on Bk. 157.159, 54V, 62 on Sr. 272, 77 on Sr. 312, 78 and 79 on Sr. 313, 82 on Sr. 487 (excluding an area bounded by a line beginning on the eastern boundary of Lot 83 on Sr. 596, approximately 600 metres from the north-east corner of that block and proceeding south-easterly to the north-east corner of Lot 275, thence by the northern boundary of that lot to its north-west corner, thence southerly along its western boundary to a road, thence north-westerly by that road to the eastern boundary of Lot 83, thence by that boundary north to the point of commencement); Parish of Bartle Frere: Lot 16 on Nr. 3737; Parish of Bellenden Ker: Lots 71 on Nr. 594 (excluding that part enclosed by a line commencing at a point on the western boundary approximately 200 metres from the north-west corner then by a line generally east for approximately 300 metres, thence by a line generally south for approximately 600 metres thence by a line west to the boundary of Lot 71 thence by the western boundary northerly to the point of commencement), 114 on Nr. 979, 125, 142 and 143 on Nr. 1976, 145, 146, 199, 200, 208 and 209 on Nr. 5584, 323 on N.157.221;  Parish of Blackfriars: Lots 10 and 12 on Ws. 140, 13 on Wg. 176 (being that part east of a line commencing at a point on the crest of Seaview Range on the County boundary separating the Counties of Cardwell and Wilkie Gray, approximate AMG Co-ordinates E 408600, N 7907500, generally southerly to Paluma Ewan Road at a point approximate co-ordinates E 409400, N 7896400); Parish of Bloomfield: Lot 3 on Sr. 576 (being that part east of Boolbun Creek); Parish of Cairns: Lots 52V on N.157.402, 164 on Nr. 1735, 502 on Nr. 5053 (excluding that part to the west of a line commencing on the northern boundary of Lot 502 approximately 1000 metres from the north east corner and proceeding generally south to the Clohesy River approximately 200 metres west of the junction with Ganyan Creek); Parish of Clerk: Lots 24 on Sr. 448, 27 on Sr. 567, Lot 29 on Sr. 617; Parish of Clemant: Lot 49 (pt) on Wg. 150 (as per SF. 34);  Parish of Danbulla: Lot 161 on Nr. 3596;  Parish of Dinden: Pt.A on Nr. 4302, Lot 24 on Nr. 4303 (being that part north of a line from the most southern corner of Lot 502, Parish of Cairns, due east to a point on Shoteel Creek);  Parish of Dirran: Lots 159 on Cwl.162, 209 on Nr. 598, 341 on Nr. 1040, 542 on Nr. 2620 (being that part south west of a straight line commencing at a point on its north western boundary - Co-ordinates E 348000, N 8052500, thence south easterly to a point on its south eastern boundary - Co-ordinates E 348400, N 8052000); Parish of Dulanban: Lot 23 on Nr. 5250, M. L. 36;   Parish of East Barron: Lots 109 on Nr. 2518, 410, 434, 435, 436 on Nr. 1754;  Parish of Gadgarra: Lots 82 to 85 on Nr. 3562, 99, 100 on Nr. 1674; Parish of Garioch: Lot 225 on Da. 247 (excluding that part south and west of lines from the intersection of the County and Parish boundaries (Mar and Garioch) westerly to the intersection of the Little Mitchell River and the eastern boundary of Mount Molloy Holding, thence north-west to a point on the State Forest boundary approximately 3.1 kilometres west of the south west corner of Lot 13V Parish of Garioch); Parish of Garrawalt: Lot 104;  Parish of Glady: Lots 10V on Nr. 797, 150 on Nr. 1812 (excluding that part to the east of the road designated on plan (Nr. 2558), 161 and 162 on Nr. 766, 167, 168, 170 and 171 on Nr. 777, 176 on Nr. 4225 (excluding that part to the east of a line commencing at the north west corner of Lot 176, generally easterly and southerly through E 383450, N 8069850, E 383400, N 8069620, E 383540, N 8069550 and E 383500, N 8069270 to E 383400, N 8069230 and south-east by a line to its intersection with the north-western boundary of Lot 270, Parish of Glady), 177 on Nr. 4225, 182 on Nr. 2625, 185 on Nr. 2580, 186 on Nr. 2558, 187 on Nr. 3154, 196, 197, 198, 199 on Nr. 2261, 200 on Nr. 815, 201 on Nr. 2678 (excluding that part to the east of the road designated on plan Nr. 2558), 267, 277, 280 (excluding an area of 38.9 hectares west of a line commencing at a point on the southern boundary of that lot at a point 300 metres east of the north west corner of Lot 55V on N. 157.620 and proceeding northerly parallel to the eastern boundary of that Lot to the northern boundary), 288; Parish of Hinchinbrook: Lots 19 on Wg. 63, 40 on Wg. 113, 89, 92 on Wg. 188 (being that part south of a straight line commencing from the most southerly point of Lot 27 on Wg. 71 Parish of Hinchinbrook, south-easterly to the most northerly point of Lot 14, on Wg. 51, Parish of Hinchinbrook), 93 on Wg. 271 (excluding that part north of a straight line commencing from the south-east corner of Lot 89, Parish of Hinchinbrook, north-easterly to the most westerly point of Lot 27, Parish of Hinchinbrook);   Parish of Jordon: Parts A and B on Nr. 5692; Parish of Kanawarra: Lot 2 on Da. 226 (excluding that part to the west of a line from the western corner of TR. 65 northerly to Half Ton Creek at a point E 308000, N 8176250, thence downstream to the McLeod River and by that river to its intersection with the north western boundary of Lot 2); Parish of Kirrama: Lots 1 on Cwl.2735, 2 on Cwl.2754;   Parish of Leach: Lot 115 on Cwl.2044; Parish of Japoon: Part B on Nr. 5692, Lots 67, 68, 69, 74 and 75 on Nr. 681, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120 and 121 on Nr. 762, 132, 133 and 136 on Nr. 1046, 134 and 135 on Nr. 1095, 167 and 168, 180 and 181 on Nr. 1005, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197 and 198 on Nr. 1114, 206, 207, 208 and 209 on Nr. 1888, 244, 251; Parish of Meunga: Lots 48, 49 and 51 on Cwl.373, 151 on Cwl.2574, 156 on Cwl.2623 (excluding that part north of a straight line commencing at the most northerly point of Lot 42 on Cwl.973, Parish of Meunga, thence easterly to a point on the west bank of Deep Creek on the projection of the southern boundary of Lot 85 on Cwl.646, Parish of Meunga), 165 on Cwl.2781 (being that part east of a line commencing at E 394000, N 7984800 thence south to the north eastern corner of Lot 120 on Cwl.2048 Parish of Meunga); Parish of Mona Mona: Lot 26 on Nr. 5146 (being that part north and west of lines from a point of the southern boundary of R1219 at co-ordinates E 340500 and N 8149000 to a point at co-ordinates E 341500 and N 8145300 and thence to the intersection of the County and Parish boundaries (Mar and Garioch)); Parish of Monkhouse: Lots 3 on Bs. 43, 37V on Bs. 25, 38V on Bk. 157.97; Parish of Ongera: Lots 32 on Cwl.1586, 33 on Cwl.1738, 36 on Cwl.254;   Parish of Palmerston: Lot 11 on Nr. 2635;   Parish of Pitt: Lot 10 on Cwl.1635;   Parish of Ramleh: Lots 5 on Cwl.2204, 6, Koombooloomba Dam;   Parish of Ravenshoe: Lots 121 on Cwl.178, 126 on Cwl.1976, 128 on Cwl.206, 142, 143 and 144 on Cwl.1976, 179 on Cwl.205, 222 and 224 on Cwl.219, 225 and 226 on Cwl.259, 234 on Cwl.208, 269 on Cwl.269 (being that part east of a line commencing at a point E 337800, N 8042100 on the western corner of a road to Mt Pandanus then by a line to a point E 337800, N 8041400 on the north west boundary of Lot 1V on Car. 124.221 Parish of Ismailia), 291 on Cwl.1592;   Parish of Riflemead: Lot 20;  Parish of Rockingham: Lots 1 on Cwl.46, 4 and 5 on Cwl.55, 85, 86 on Cwl.296, 108 on Cwl.299, 213 on Cwl.1333, 225 on Cwl.598, 414 on Cwl.131, 418, 419 and 429 on Cwl.818, 446 and 447 on Cwl.878, 450 on Cwl.1788 (being that part north of a straight line commencing at the south east corner of Lot 526 on Cwl.1600, thence north easterly to the north west corner of R.89), 526 on Cwl.1600, 534 on Cwl.1665, 547 on Cwl.1770, 585;  Parish of Russell: Lots 6V and 7V on N.157.282, 29V on N.157.683, 31 on Nr.4104, 40 on Nr.5543 (excluding that part east of a line commencing at the northern most corner of Lot 40, thence south to the southern boundary of that Lot), 41 on Nr.5470 (excluding all that part to the east and north of a line commencing at a point on the northern boundary at E 393000, then south to a point E 393000, N 8077400, thence east 200 metres, then north 300 metres, then north easterly to a point E 393900, N 8078400, thence north westerly to Bramston Beach Road, thence along the road to a point E 394800, N 8080100,thence south 300 metres, thence north easterly to a point on the western boundary of Lot 13, Parish of Russell, 100 metres from the north-west corner of said lot), 42 on Nr.5469 (excluding that part to the east of a line commencing at the north-east corner of the eastern severence of Lot 42, thence along the eastern boundary of R1317 to a point E 396500, N 8079000, thence south-westerly to a point E 395600, N 8078700, thence southerly to a point E395500, N 8077800, thence south-east to the south-western corner of Lot 8 Parish of Russell), 85 on Nr.4807, 86 on Nr.4808, 88 and 89 on Nr.4809, 108 onNr.1570;  Parish of Salisbury: Lots 59 on N.157.697, 82 on Sr.607;  Parish of Smithfield: Lot 124 on Nr.4313;  Parish of Sophia: Lots 105 on Nr.5260, 110 on Nr.4704;  Parish of Stone: Lot 46 (excluding that part east of a line commencing at the most south-western point of Lot 23, Parish of Stone, proceeding along a line south-easterly to a point approximately E 380750, N 7922800).  Parish of Trinity: Lots 101 on Nr.3480, 159 on Nr.4604, 163 on Nr.4741, 172 on Nr.5631;  Parish of Waterview: Lot 99 on Cwl.2612, M.H.P.Ls. 9435, 9441 and 9883;  Parish of Whyanbeel: Lots 45 on Nr.283, 76 on Sr.38 (being that part south of a line from the southern corner of its western-most boundary east to the north-eastern boundary of the subject block), 117 on N.157.164, 156 on Nr.38, 308 on Sr.247, 333, 335 and 336.
7.  Holdings
  Brooklyn (excluding that part generally west and south of lines commencing at the north west corner of Lot 47 Parish of Riflemead, thence to the eastern most corner of Lot 32 Parish of Riflemead, then to the western-most corner of TR.65), Cashmere (being that part east of a straight line commencing at E 347600, N 8005250 thence southerly to E 347750, N 8000500 on the crest of a range), Dotswood (being that part north-east of a line commencing on the boundary of Dotswood Holding at the eastern corner of Tareela Block No. 1, Parish of St. Giles, on the Paluma Range, thence south-westerly along the boundary of Tareela Block No. 1 to a point approximately 1600 metres from the southern corner of Tareela Block No. 1 then generally north-westerly to E 433000, N 7872200 to E 430900, N 78881600 thence to the St. Giles parish boundary at a point approximately 850 metres along that boundary north-easterly from the western corner of Tareela Block No. 2, thence south-west to a point on the Holborn Parish boundary approximately 3800 metres north-easterly along that boundary from the western corner of Tareela Block No. 1, Parish of St. Giles, thence westerly to E 424900, N 7883750 and north-westerly to Banana Creek at a point E 423500, N 7888200 and by that creek south-westerly to the most southerly corner of SF.268), Henrietta (being that part west of Stony Creek), Herbert River (being that part east of a line commencing at a point on the south bank of the Herbert River E 357650, N 7972700 thence south easterly to the western corner of NP.25, thence southerly to the Parish boundary (Herkes and Cromwell E 360300, N 7962000), Hervey (being that part north of the southern boundary of Tareela Block No. 2), Kirrama (being that part north east of a line commencing at E 347750, N 8000500, thence easterly to E 350100, N 8000500, thence south easterly to E 354450, N 7996400, thence easterly to E 355900, N 7996300, thence south-easterly to E 359550, N 7990600, thence south to a point on the Parish boundary (Blencoe and Kirrama) and Kirrama Holding boundary, E 359500, N 7988700, thence proceeding along the boundary of Kirrama Holding generally south-easterly and north-easterly to Mount Collins, thence proceeding south-easterly to the parish boundary (Kirrama and Niagara) at the most westerly corner of SF.350 thence, south westerly to the north bank of the Herbert River at a point E 357700, N 7972700), Leefe, Oak Hills (being that part east of a line from a point E 360200, N 7955650 generally southerly to a point E 360080, N 7952200, thence generally south easterly to a point E 369550, N 7947700, thence generally south-easterly to a point E 371150, N 7942200), Ollera Creek (excluding that part north of a straight line commencing from the most southerly point of Lot 27 on Wg.71, Parish of Hinchinbrook, south-easterly to the most northerly point of Lot 14 on Wg.51, Parish of Hinchinbrook), Seaview (being that part of Seaview Holding north and west of a line commencing at a point E 375000, N 7940400 on the eastern boundary of Seaview Holding proceeding west to the range at a point E 371700 N 794800 thence generally north-westerly to the boundary of Seaview and Oak Hills Holding at a point E 371150, N 7942200), Wairuna (being that part east of a straight line commencing at a point on the northern boundary E 360300, N 962000, thence south to the southern boundary of Wairuna Holding E 360200, N 7956000), Wooroora (being that part north-east of a line commencing at a point on Charmillin Creek Co-ordinates E 342000, N 8038000, thence north-westerly to a point on the north-west boundary of Lot 1V on Car.124.221, Parish of Ismailia, Co-ordinates E 337800, N 8041400), Yourka (being that part east of a straight line commencing at E 347400, N 8007900 thence southerly to E 347600, N 8005250).
8.  Vacant Crown Lands
  (a) In the Parish of Alexandra, Lots 173, 202, 203, 226 and 272, bounded by NP. 164, TR.165, Lots 173, 226, 144, R. 98, Lots 179, 147, 8, 148, 272, 257, 33, 32, 186, Road, Lots 189, 130, 191, 30V, 31V, 36V, 188, 38V, 42V, 43V and 202;
  (b) In the Parish of Alexandra bounded by NP. 164, Parish of Noah, Lot 203,Cooper Creek and Lot 202;
  (c) In the Parish of Alexandra bounded by Lots 54V, R. 79, High Water Mark of the Coral Sea, Lots 62 and 203;
  (d) In the Parish of Alexandra bounded by Lot 78, Hutchinson Creek, Lots 187, 44V, 43V, 46V, 54V, R. 79 and the High Water Mark of the Coral Sea;
  (e) In the Parish of Alexandra bounded by Lot 78, High Water Mark of the Coral Sea, Lot 77, R. 52, Lots 65V, 18, 17, 11, 57V, 35, 37, 82, 190, 6V, 13V, 23V, 22V, 29V, 28V, 21V, 26V, 25V and 79;
  (f) In the Parish of Ashton, to the west of NP. 547 bounded by Oak Hills
Holding;
  (g) In the Parish of Berwick, east of a line commencing at the most southerly point of Lot 24V on Car. 124.272, Parish of Berwick, thence south-westerly to E 396000, N 7910600 and thence east to the crest of Seaview Range at the junction of the parish boundary (Kangaroo Hills and Blackfriars)
with the county boundary (Cardwell and Wilkie Gray) and bounded on the east by SF. 268;
  (h) In the Parish of Dulanban, containing an area of about 8 ha, approximately 400 metres south of Lot 23 on Nr.5250, Parish of Dulanban and bounded on the north-west and south-west by TR. 315 and on the north-east and south-east by R. 899;
  (i) In the Parishes of Gadgarra and Grafton bounded by SF. 310, SF. 700, SF. 675 and Lot 123, Parish of Grafton excluding Lots 86, 87, 90, 91, 96, 97, 99 and 101, Parish of Gadgarra;
  (j) In the Parishes of Glady and Russell, bounded on the east by the High Water Mark of the Coral Sea, between the south-east corner of Lot 108, Parish of Russell, and the north-east corner of Lot 10V, Parish of Glady and generally on the south by the said Lot 10V and Lots 198, 197, 196, 90V, 76V, 77V, Parish of Glady and generally on the west by Lots 239V, 64V, 282, 88V, 95, 280 and 86V, Parish of Glady, Lots 89 and 88, Parish of Russell, Lot 54V, Parish of Glady, Lot 43V 49V, 87, 86, 85, 84, NP. 1357, Lots 45V, 44V and 331, Parish of Russell and again on the east generally by Lots 40, 41, 33, 42 and 8, Parish of Russell, and on the north generally by Lot 8, Parish of Russell and an unsurveyed line more or less north-easterly from the most easterly corner of the said Lot 8 to the High Water Mark of the Coral Sea and thence bounded again on the east generally from the said high water mark to the north-eastern corner of Lot 108, Parish of Russell, by the High Water Mark of the Coral Sea, thence bounded again on the south, east and north by the saidLot 108;
  (k) In the Parish of Glady, commencing at the south-west corner of Lot 224, being a point on the left bank of the Johnstone River, generally westerly upstream by the said left bank to its intersection with McMillan Track being an eastern corner of the Parish of Palmerston, generally westerly and northerly by SF. 755 to the western boundary of Lot 187, Parish of Glady and generally easterly and southerly by the said Lot 187 and Lots 220, 201, 288, 205, 192, 193, 195, 180, 178, 135, 176, 177, 270, 174, 162, 171, 170, 169, 168, 167, 12, 153, 16, 125A, 17, 15, 97, 279, 9, 224, 271 and 224 again, Parish of Glady, to the point of commencement, excluding Lots 291, 255, 263, 266, 267, 272 and 277, Parish of Glady;
  (l) In the Parish of Hull, between the High Water Mark of the Coral Sea and a line commencing at a point on the north-eastern bank of an inlet north-east of the northern corner of R. 979 and proceeding north-north-westerly to the southern boundary of NP. 1608 on a straight line projection to the junction point of the most westerly boundary of NP. 1608 and the southern boundary of Lot 486 on Nr. 5779 Parish of Hull, and thence easterly by the southern boundary of NP. 1608 to the High Water Mark of the Coral Sea;
  (m) In the Parish of Leefe excluding Leefe Holding;
  (n) In the Parishes of Marathon and Pitt, bounded by the southern boundary of NP. 645, Hinchinbrook Channel, Enterprise Channel, the Herbert River, Lots 41, 522, 31V, 78, 77, 15, 49, 2, 1, 2, 9, 63, 25V, 76, 29V and 64 in the Parish of Marathon, thence by the Railway Reserve generally north-westerly to the southern boundary of NP. 645;
  (o) In the Parish of Mourilyan, north and east of the town of Mourilyan Harbour to the southern boundary of R. 554;
  (p) In the Parish of Niagara bounded by lines commencing at the most easterly point of Kirrama Holding thence proceeding along the range generally east following the southern boundary of SF. 350 to its intersection with the western boundary of NP. 545, thence proceeding along the boundary of NP. 545 along the mountain range generally south and west to the most south-easterly corner of Kirrama Holding, thence north-easterly along the Kirrama Holding boundary to the most easterly point of Kirrama Holding;
  (q) In the Parish of Riflemead north of Lot 47 on Da. 335 Parish of Riflemead, west of part of the boundaries of the Parishes of Riflemead and Garioch and south-east of part of the Brooklyn Holding boundary;
  (r) In the Parish of Rockingham on Tam O'Shanter Point south of the southern boundary of Lot 271 on Cwl. 1978, Parish of Rockingham;
  (s) In the Parish of Rockingham bounded by SF. 1137, Lots 483B and 271, the right bank of the North Hull River and the left bank of the Hull River;
  (t) In the Parish of Russell commencing at a point about 3 kilometres south
along the High Water Mark of the Coral Sea, from Constantine Point and bounded by High Water Mark of the Coral Sea, SF. 1185 and R. 228;
  (u) In the Parishes of Tribulation and Noah east of TR. 165 between the eastern boundary of R. 24 and the eastern and part of the northern boundary of Lot 14 Parish of Tribulation and part of the parish boundaries of Noah and Alexandra;
  (v) In the Parish of Waterview bounded on the west by the county boundary (between Wilkie Gray and Cardwell), on the east and north-east by the western boundary of NP. 477 and on the south by a straight line proceeding due west to the aforementioned county boundary from a corner of NP. 477 at the north-western end of that boundary line of said NP. 477 extending north-westerly from Section 1, Town of Paluma;
  (w) In the Parish of Whyanbeel bounded by Lot 217, Daintree River, Crocodile Creek and Lot 264, excluding Lot 76, Parish of Whyanbeel;
  (x) In the Parish of Rockingham bounded by Lots 606, 41 and 543 and NP. 647;
  (y) In the Parish of Rockingham bounded by road adjacent to NP. 647 and Lots 586 and 40V, Lots 543, 586 and 450, NP. 647, Carmoo Creek and the Hull River downstream from Carmoo Creek;
  (z) In the Parish of Rockingham bounded by Lots 483D, 604, 51V, 1, 4, 5, 3, 8, 387 and 386, SF. 1137 and the parish boundary;
  (aa) In the Parish of Rockingham bounded by Lots 1, 4, 86 and 566 and SF. 190; (bb) In the Parish of Waterview bounded by NP. 477, SF. 268 and the county boundary between the Counties of Cardwell and Wilkie Gray.
9.  (i) Section 1 to 16, Town of Woolanmarroo;   (ii) Town of Palmerston.
Bibliography
Clough, B. F. (ed) 1982 Mangrove Ecosystems in Australia, Australian Institute of Science, ANU Press, Canberra.
Rainforest Conservation Society of Queensland 1986) Tropical Rainforests of North Queensland, Their Conservation Significance, Australian Heritage Commission Special Australian Heritage Publication Series No 3. AGPS, Canberra.
Tracey, J. G. (1982) The Vegetation of the Humid Tropical Region of North Queensland, CSIRO, Melbourne.
 

Report Produced  Sat Sep 20 16:07:09 2014