Dr Stephen Garnett and Dr Gabriel Crowley
Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane
4. Cost of Recovery
Included in the following account are the costs of actions undertaken as part of National Park and/or pastoral management, where that management is deemed to contribute to the maintenance or recovery of golden-shouldered parrots. Most of these costs are being borne by the leaseholders, and are listed here in recognition of their contributions.
|Action no.||Action description||2003||2004||2005||2006||2007||Total|
|A.1.1.1*||Advise National Park management regarding fire management of grasslands and grassy woodlands||$3,000||$1,500||$1,500||$1,500||$1,500||$9,000|
|A.1.2.1||Implement and assess adherence to grassland and grassy woodland management guidelines on designated National Parks||$20,000||$20,000||$20,000||$20,000||$20,000||$100,000|
|A.1.3.1||Participate in property planning on Cape York Peninsula||$3,000||$1,000||$1,000||$1,000||$1,000||$7,000|
|A.1.4.1||Implement and assess adherence to golden-shouldered parrot habitat management guidelines on designated pastoral properties||$2,000||$2,000||$2,000||$2,000||$2,000||$10,000|
|A.2.1.1*||Provide seed for parrots during wet season at one or more feeding stations on north-eastern edge of distribution||$3,000||$3,000||$3,000||$3,000||$3,000||$15,000|
|A.3.1.1*||Sequentially monitor populations at selected sites once every five years||$15,000||$15,000||$12,000||$18,000||$20,000||$80,000|
|A.4.1.1||Develop research plan to determine effects of pied butcherbird predation||$2,000||-||-||-||-||$2,000|
|A.4.1.2||Obtain ethics approval for pied butcherbird research plan||$500||-||-||-||-||$500|
|A.4.2.1*||Undertake quantitative study of pied butcherbird predation on golden-shouldered parrot nests||-||$5,000||$5,000||$5,000||-||$15,000|
|A.4.2.2||Determine management implications of pied butcherbird research for golden-shouldered parrots||-||-||-||$500||-||$500|
|A.4.2.3||Incorporate pied butcherbird recommendations into parrot management guidelines||-||-||-||$500||-||$500|
|A.5.1.1*||Complete research into the relationship between vegetation structure and fecundity of black-faced woodswallows||$19,000||$19,000||$7,000||-||-||$45,000|
|A.5.1.2||Determine management implications of black-faced woodswallow research for golden-shouldered parrots||-||-||$500||-||-||$500|
|A.5.1.3||Incorporate black-faced woodswallow recommendations into parrot management guidelines||-||-||$500||-||-||$500|
|A.6.1.1*||Monitor and assess cattle and pig impacts on cockatoo grass and termite mounds||$10,000||$10,000||$15,000||$15,000||$15,000||$65,000|
|A.6.2.1*||Develop and implement management strategies to minimize cattle impacts on cockatoo grass and termite mounds in golden-shouldered parrot habitat if this is determined necessary in A.6.1.1||$1,500||$1,500||$1,500||$3,000||$3,000||$10,500|
|A.6.2.2||Develop and implement management strategies for the control of pigs in golden-shouldered parrot habitat if this is determined necessary in A.6.1.1||$1,500||$1,500||$1,500||$1,500||$1,500||$7,500|
|A.6.3.1*||Advise National Park managers regarding appropriate levels of pig control||-||$3,000||$2,000||$1,000||$1,000||$7,000|
|A.7.1.1*||Restore and maintain grassland structure of reintroduction trial area using appropriate fire regime, in co-operation with leaseholders and traditional owners||$3,000||$3,000||$3,000||$3,000||$3,000||$15,000|
|A.7.2.1*||Establish and maintain nursery stocks of cockatoo grass for re-establishing in reintroduction trial area||$15,000||$15,000||$15,000||$15,000||$15,000||$75,000|
|A.7.3.1*||Establish and maintain cockatoo grass in reintroduction trial area||$4,000||$4,000||$4,000||$4,000||$4,000||$20,000|
|A.7.4.1*||Prepare a full justification for reintroduction against appropriate IUCN guidelines||$2,000||-||-||-||-||$2,000|
|A.7.4.2*||Consult with aviculturists about aviary design and the best means of building up stock for release||$2,000||-||-||-||-||$2,000|
|A.7.4.3*||Negotiate with potential donors to construct aviaries, and construct aviaries at appropriate sites||-||-||-||$40,000||$10,000||$50,000|
|A.7.4.4*||Capture an appropriate number of wild parrots of an appropriate age class for captive breeding||-||-||-||-||$25,000||$25,000|
|A.7.4.5*||Initiate captive breeding program||-||-||-||-||$25,000||$25,000|
|A.8.1.1*||If appropriate on basis of A.3.1.1 write submission to Threatened Species Scientific Committee to reclassify golden-shouldered parrot as vulnerable under Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cwlth)||-||-||-||-||$3,000||$3,000|
|A.8.2.1*||If appropriate on basis of A.3.1.1 write submission to reclassify golden-shouldered parrot as vulnerable under Schedule 3 of the Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 1994||-||-||-||-||$3,000||$3,000|
|A.9.1.1*||Manage the recovery process through a recovery team||$4,000||$4,000||$4,000||$4,000||$4,000||$20,000|
|A.9.1.2*||Consult with interested parties and keep them informed of progress||$1,000||$1,000||$1,000||$1,000||$1,000||$5,000|
|A.9.1.3*||Support non-government stakeholder attendance at meetings||$2,000||$2,000||$2,000||$2,000||$2,000||$10,000|
|A.9.1.4*||Conduct a major review of the recovery process||-||-||-||-||$10,000||$10,000|
|A.9.1.5*||Rewrite the recovery plan at the end of five years.||-||-||-||-||$5,000||$5,000|
|Funding assistance required||$84,500||$87,000||$76,000||$115,500||$153,500||$516,500|
|Funded from other programs||$29,000||$24,500||$25,500||$25,500||$24,500||$129,000|
Conservation of the golden-shouldered parrot has been possible only with the support of the Shephard family of Artemis Station. The contribution of other leaseholders and traditional owners who have co-operated with the research over the years is also acknowledged. John Clarkson (QPWS), John Neldner and Ian Fox (Environmental Protection Agency) gave advice on botanical nomenclature and mapping. Geoff Mills (Cape York Natural Heritage Trust, Department of Natural Resources and Mines) assisted in spatial analyses and drafted the distribution map. Queensland Ornithological Society, Birds Australia, Chevron, the World Wide Fund for Nature (Australia), Environment Australia, Cape York Peninsula Land Use Strategy and the Tropical Savannas Cooperative Research Centre have provided generous financial support to golden-shouldered parrot conservation.
Cover photograph generously provided by Sam Abell.
Christidis, L., and J. Norman. 1996. Genetic variability in the golden-shouldered parrot, Psephotus chrysopterygius. Report to Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. Museum of Victoria, Abbotsford, Victoria.
Crowley, G.M. and Garnett, S.T. 1998. Vegetation change in the grasslands and grassy woodlands of east-central Cape York Peninsula. Pacific Conservation Biology 4,132-148.
Crowley, G.M. and Garnett, S.T. 1999. Seeds of the annual grasses Schizachyrium spp. as a food resource for tropical granivorous birds. Australian Journal of Ecology 24, 208-20.
Crowley, G.M. and Garnett, S.T. 2000. Changing fire management in the pastoral lands of Cape York Peninsula of northeast Australia, 1623 to 1996. Australian Geographical Studies 3, 10-26.
Crowley, G.M. and Garnett, S.T. 2001. Growth, seed production and effect of defoliation in an early flowering perennial grass, Alloteropsis semialata (Poaceae), on Cape York Peninsula. Australian Journal of Botany 49, 735-43.
Crowley, G.M., Garnett, S.T. and Shephard, S. 2002. Land management guidelines for the maintenance of golden-shouldered parrot habitat. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Cairns (in preparation).
Franklin, D.C. 1999. Evidence of disarray amongst granivorous bird assemblages in the savannas of northern Australia, a region of sparse human settlement. Biological Conservation 90, 53-68.
Garnett, S.T. and Crowley, G.M. 1994. Wet season feeding by four species of granivorous birds in the Northern Territory. Australian Bird Watcher 5, 306-9.
Garnett, S.T. and Crowley, G.M. 1995a. Recovery plan for the golden-shouldered parrot Psephotus chrysopterygius. Version 1.0. Report to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Garnett, S.T. and Crowley, G.M. 1995b. Feeding ecology of hooded parrots Psephotus dissimilis during the early wet season. Emu 95, 54-61.
Garnett, S.T. and Crowley, G.M. 1997. The golden-shouldered parrot of Cape York Peninsula: the importance of cups of tea to effective conservation. Pp. 201-205 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, P. Hale & D. Lamb (eds). Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Garnett, S. T. and Crowley, G. M. 1999. Recovery Plan for the golden-shouldered parrot (Psephotus chrysopterygius 1999-2002. Queensland Department of Environment, Brisbane.
Garnett, S.T. and Crowley, G.M. 2000. The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Higgins, P. J. (ed.) 1999. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Vol. 4. Parrots to Dollarbird. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
IUCN SSC 1995 IUCN/SSC Guidelines For Re-Introductions. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
IUCN SSC 2001. IUCN Red List Categories Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A.A. and Morris, K. (eds) 1996. Action Plan for Australian Marsupials and Monotremes. Environment Australia.
McLennan, W. 1923. Diaries of William McLennan on a collecting expedition for H.L. White 1922 - 23. Held Birds Australia archives.
Morgan, G. 1999. Gulf Plains. Pages 2/1-3/43 in P. Sattler and R. D. Williams, editors. The Conservation Status of Queensland's Bioregional Ecosystems. Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.
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Neldner, V. J., and J. R. Clarkson. 1999. Vegetation of Cape York Peninsula. Queensland Herbarium, Queensland Department of Environment, Brisbane.
Neldner, V. J., R. J. Fensham, J. R. Clarkson, and J. P. Stanton. 1997. The natural grasslands of Cape York Peninsula, Australia: Description, distribution and conservation status. Biological Conservation 81,121-136.
QPWS, 1999a. Assessment of the conservation values of Artemis as part of Strategy 1 of the Cape York Natural Heritage Trust Plan. Prepared by the Queensland parks and Wildlife Service for the Cape York Property Planning Technical Group.
QPWS, 1999b. Assessment of the conservation values of Kalinga as part of Strategy 1 of the Cape York Natural Heritage Trust Plan. Prepared by the Queensland parks and Wildlife Service for the Cape York Property Planning Technical Group.
Thomson, D.F. 1935. Birds of Cape York Peninsula. Government Printer, Melbourne.
Weaver, C.M. 1982. Breeding habitats and status of the golden-shouldered parrot Psephotus chrysopterygius in Queensland. Emu 82, 2 - 6.
White, H. 1922. A collecting trip to Cape York Peninsula. Emu 22, 99-116.
|Peter Latch||QPWS||Threatened species manager|
|Lana Little||QPWS||District manager (Staaten River National Park)|
|Leasie Felderhof||QPWS||National resources management|
|Anne Creek||Coen Land and Sea Management Centre||Traditional owner and indigenous communities representative|
|Matt Salmon||Balkanu||Traditional owner and indigenous communities representative|
|Graham Harrington||Birds Australia||Community group representative|
|John Rainbird||Cairns and Far North Environment Centre||Community group representative|
|Peter Thompson||Cape York Peninsula Development Association||Fire management specialist|