National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp.uliginosa)
Department of Environment and Conservation, Kensington
- National recovery plan for the Swamp Honeypot (Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa) (PDF - 332 KB) | (RTF - 1.9 MB)
- Scientific Name: Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa
- Common Name: Swamp honeypot
- Family: Proteaceae
- Flowering Period: September
- DEC Region: South West
- DEC District: Blackwood
- Shires: Busselton, Augusta-Margaret River
- Recovery Team: South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team
Illustrations and/or further information:
Atkins, K. (2008) Declared Rare and Priority Flora List for Western Australia. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia; Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management (now DEC), Western Australia; George, A.S. (1996) New taxa and a new infrageneric classification in Dryandra. Nuytsia 10(3), 399-400; Western Australian Herbarium (2008) FloraBase - Information on the Western Australian Flora. Department of Environment and Conservation, Western Australia. http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/ .
Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa was declared as Rare Flora in November 1996 under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 and is currently ranked as Endangered (EN) under World Conservation Union (IUCN 2001) Red List criterion A2c due to an estimated population size reduction of over 80% and a decline in the quality of habitat. The subspecies is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). The main threats are mineral exploration, changes to hydrology, dieback disease, grazing, trampling, weed invasion, road, track and firebreak maintenance, inappropriate fire regimes, powerline maintenance, recreational activities, gravel extraction and rubbish removal.
Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa is a mounded shrub up to 1.5 m high and 1.5 m across, with long serrate-margined leaves that are similar to those of D. nivea. The flowers are variable, well hidden within the bush and yellowish-brown in colour. The style is maroon and the pollen presenter is green (Brown et al. 1998).
Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa occurs in two areas - near Busselton on the Swan Coastal Plain and on the Scott River Plain east of Augusta, growing in red, sandy, shallow loams over ironstone in thick scrub, in winter wet southern and Scott ironstones.
Habitat critical to the survival of the subspecies, and important populations: Habitat critical to the survival of the subspecies includes the area of occupancy of important populations; areas of similar habitat surrounding important populations (i.e. clay over laterite in thick scrub, in winter wet southern ironstones – these provide potential habitat for natural range extension and is necessary to allow pollinators to move between populations); the local catchment of the surface and possibly ground waters that maintain the habitat of the subspecies; and additional occurrences of similar habitat that may contain the subspecies or be suitable sites for future translocations.
Given that this subspecies is listed as Endangered it is considered that all known habitat for wild and translocated populations is habitat critical to its survival, and that all wild and translocated populations are important populations.
Benefits to other species/ecological communities:
All populations are located within Threatened Ecological Communities (TECs). Other listed and priority flora also occur in the wider habitat of populations. Recovery actions implemented to improve the quality or security of the habitat of Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa are likely to improve the status of the TECs in which populations are located, as well as other rare and priority flora.
This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity that was ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that Convention. This IRP does not affect Australia’s obligations under other international agreements.
Role and interests of indigenous people:
The Department of Indigenous Affairs Aboriginal Heritage Sites Register lists no sites of Aboriginal significance at or near populations of the subspecies covered by this IRP. However, the involvement of the Indigenous community is currently being sought to determine whether there are any issues or interests identified in the Plan. If no role is identified for indigenous communities in the recovery of this subspecies, opportunities may exist through cultural interpretation and awareness of the species.
The advice of the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council (SWALSC) and Department of Indigenous Affairs is being sought to assist in the identification of potential indigenous management responsibilities for land occupied by threatened species, or groups with a cultural connection to land that is important for the species' conservation.
Continued liaison between DEC and the indigenous community will identify areas in which collaboration will assist implementation of recovery actions.
Social and economic impacts:
The implementation of this recovery plan has the potential to have some limited social and economic impact as some populations are located on private property. There are also mineral exploration and extraction leases over the area of land containing populations 4, 11, 14, 15, and subpopulations 8a and 16a of Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa. Recovery actions refer to continued liaison between stakeholders with regard to these areas.
Stakeholders potentially affected by the implementation of this plan include the Shires of Busselton and Augusta-Margaret River, WestNet Rail, Western Power and the owners of private land.
Evaluation of the Plans Performance: DEC in conjunction with the South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team will evaluate the performance of this IRP. In addition to annual reporting on progress and evaluation against the criteria for success and failure, the plan will be reviewed following four years of implementation.
Completed recovery actions
- Land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of the subspecies.
- Declared Rare Flora (DRF) markers have been installed at populations 10 and 12 and at all other road side sites.
- Dashboard stickers and posters describing the significance of DRF markers have been produced and distributed.
- Approximately 9.9 hectares of private property containing Subpopulation 6a was purchased by DEC in 1999 and is under the care, control and management of the Conservation Commission. This area has been fenced to prevent access by stock.
- One plant within Population 12 is located within an enclosure. This was built to protect other species of Declared Rare Flora against damage from roadworks.
- In 1998 and 2000 DEC conducted aerial spraying of phosphite over approximately 11 hectares of land in the southern ironstone community that contains Subpopulation 8a and also sprayed Population 4 in March 2002. This has continued on an annual basis since 2003.
- The Botanic Gardens and Park Authority (BGPA) currently have 167 plants from four clones of Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa obtained from seed collected in 1995, 1996 and 1998.
- A research proposal for the rescue of four rare and endangered species at BHP Beenup minesite was developed by the BGPA in 2003 (Dixon et al. 2003).
- A genetic study was undertaken by BGPA in 2002. Several populations from the southern ironstone and Scott River ironstone areas were sampled and DNA-finger printing performed.
- A translocation proposal aimed at re-introducing plants of Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa, Darwinia ferricola ms, Grevillea brachystylis subsp. australis and Lambertia orbifolia subsp. Scott River Plains was developed by the BGPA and BHP Billiton in 2003.
- A fire response plan has been produced for the reserve containing Population 11 by staff from DEC’s Blackwood District and Emergency Response Planning completed for all other occurrences.
- Several collections of Banksia nivea subsp. uliginosa seed has been made from populations 3a, 3b, 3c, 4, 5, 8, 9c, 9d and 11. These are stored in DEC’s TFSC at –18°C and 4°C.
- Liaison between local land owners and staff from DEC Blackwood District has occurred and a new route for moving cattle between properties has been devised to prevent damage to the habitat at Population 5.
Ongoing and future recovery actions
- The South West Region Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team (SWTFCRT) is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will include information on progress in their annual report to DEC's Corporate Executive and funding bodies.
- Staff from DEC's Blackwood District regularly monitor populations of this subspecies.
The objective of this IRP is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the subspecies in the wild.
Criteria for success:
The number of populations have increased and/or individuals within populations have increased by ten percent or more over the five year term of this plan.
Criteria for failure:
The number of populations have decreased or individuals within populations have decreased by ten percent or more over the five year term of this plan.
- Coordinate recovery actions
- Map habitat critical to the subspecies’ survival
- Formally notify land owners and land managers
- Install and reassess position of Declared Rare Flora markers
- Undertake weed control
- Assess if fencing is required for Subpopulation 17b
- Limit access to Subpopulation 8a
- Rehabilitate habitat
- Conduct further surveys
- Remove rubbish from Population 14 and Subpopulation 8a
- Develop and implement a fire management strategy
- Maintain disease hygiene
- Apply phosphite and monitor effects
- Develop a kangaroo management strategy
- Monitor populations
- Achieve long-term protection of habitat
- Promote awareness
- Obtain biological and ecological information
- Conduct additional genetic and taxonomic studies
- Review the IRP and assess the need for further recovery actions