Australian Biological Resources Study

Flora of Australia Online

Abbreviations and Contractions


Author abbreviations follow R.K.Brummitt & C.E.Powell, Authors of Plant Names (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1992).

Journal titles are abbreviated in accordance with G.H.M.Lawrence et al., Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum (Hunt Botanical Library, Pittsburgh, 1968) and G.D.R.Bridson & E.R.Smith, Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum/Supplementum (Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Pittsburgh, 1991).

Other literature is abbreviated in accordance with F.A.Stafleu & R.S.Cowan, Taxonomic Literature, 2nd edn (Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht, 1976–1987), except that upper case initial letters are used for proper names and significant words. The Flora of Australia is abbreviated to Fl. Australia.


Abbreviations of herbaria are in accordance with P.K.Holmgren, N.H.Holmgren & L.C.Barnett, Index Herbariorum Part I, 8th edn (New York Botanical Garden, 1990). Those most commonly cited in the Flora of Australia are:
AD State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide
ADW Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide (now part of AD)
BM The Natural History Museum, London
BRI Queensland Herbarium, Brisbane
CANB Australian National Herbarium, Canberra
CBG National Botanic Gardens, Canberra (now part of CANB)
DNA Northern Territory Herbarium, Darwin
HO Tasmanian Herbarium, Hobart
JCT James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville
K Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
MEL National Herbarium of Victoria, Melbourne
NSW National Herbarium of New South Wales, Sydney
NT Northern Territory Herbarium, Alice Springs (now part of DNA)
PERTH Western Australian Herbarium, Perth
QRS Australian National Herbarium, Atherton
US Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.


States, Territories
Abbreviations of Australian States and Territories and nearby countries as used in statements of distribution and citation of collections are:
A.C.T. Australian Capital Territory
N. Caled. New Caledonia
N.S.W. New South Wales
N.T. Northern Territory
N.Z. New Zealand
P.N.G. Papua New Guinea
Qld Queensland
S.A. South Australia
Tas. Tasmania
Vic. Victoria
W.A. Western Australia


General abbreviations
add. addendum
alt. altitude
app. appendix
auct. auctoris/auctorum (of an author or authors)
auct. mult. auctorum multorum  (of many authors)
auct. non auctorum non (of authors [but] not.…), used for misapplied names
c. circa (about)
Ck Creek
cm centimetre
coll. collector
colln collection
comb. combinatio/combination
cons. conservandus
cult. cultivated
cv. cultivar
d.b.h. diameter at breast height
Dept Department
descr. descriptio
diam. diameter
E east
ed./eds editor/editors
edn edition
eds editors
e.g. exempli gratia (for example)
et al. et alii/et aliorum; and others/and of others
f. forma/form
fam. familia/family
fig./figs figure/figures (in other works)
Fig. Figure (referring to a Figure in this volume of the Flora)
gen. genus/genus
gen. nov. genus novus (new genus)
Gt Great
holo holotype
hort. hortus (garden) or hortensis (of a garden)
HS Homestead
Hwy Highway
i.e. id est (that is)
ined. ineditus (unpublished)
in litt. in litteris (in correspondence)
in obs. in observatio (in observation)
Is. Island/s
iso isotype
isolecto isolectotype
km kilometre
L. Lake
L.A. Logging Area
lat. latitude
lecto lectotype
loc. cit. loco citato (in bibliographic citations: in the same work and page as just cited)
loc. id. loco idem (in specimen citations: in the same place as just cited)
long. longitude
L.S. longitudinal section
l:w length to width ratio
m metre
mm millimetre
Mt/Mts Mount/Mounts
Mtn/Mtns Mountain/Mountains
N north
n haploid chromosome number
2n diploid chromosome number
Natl National
n.d. no date
NE north-east (ern)
nom. cons. nomen conservandum (conserved name)
nom. cons. prop. nomen conservandum propositus (proposed conserved name)
nom. illeg. nomen illegitimum (illegitimate name)
nom. inval. nomen invalidum (name not validly published)
nom. nov. nomina nova (new name)
nom. nud. nomen nudum (name published without a description or reference to a published description)
nom. prov. nomen provisorium (provisional name)
nom. rej. nomen rejiciendum (rejected name)
nom. superfl. nomen superfluum (superfluous name)
nov. novus/new
n. ser. new series
n.v. non vidi (not seen)
NW north-west (ern)
op. cit. opere citato (in the work cited above)
opp. opposite
orth. orthography, orthographic
p./pp. page/pages
penin. peninsula
pers. comm. by personal communication
pl./pls plate/plates
p.p. pro parte (in part)
p.p. max pro parte maxima, the larger part
p.p. min pro parte minore, the smaller part
q.v. quod vide (which see)
R. River
Ra. Range
Rd Road
rly railway
S south
SE south-east (ern)
sect. sectio/section
SEM Scanning Electron Micrograph
ser. series
S.F.R. State Forest Reserve
s. lat. sensu lato (in a wide sense)
s. loc. sine loco (without locality)
s.n. sine numero (without number)
sp./spp. species (singular/plural)
sp. aff. species affinis (species related to)
sp. nov. species nova (new species)
specim. specimen
sphalm. sphalmate (by mistake, mistakenly)
s. str. sensu stricto (in a narrow sense)
St Saint/Street
stat. status/status
Stn (pastoral) Station
subg. subgenus
subsp./subspp. subspecies (singular/plural)
subsp. nov. subspecies nova (new subspecies)
suppl. supplement
SW south-west (ern)
syn syntype
synon. synonym
T Type (collection)
t./tt. tabula/tabulae (plate/plates)
T.R. Timber Reserve
trib. tribus/tribe
trig. trigonometric station
T.S. transverse section
typ. cons. typus conservandus (conserved type)
var. varietas/variety
viz. videlicet (namely)
UV ultraviolet
W west
x basic chromosome number


taxon included in key but not treated further in text
* naturalised taxon, not originally native (in the text); wildcard (in the web search)
# native taxon now naturalised in Australia beyond its natural range
[ ]  misapplied name or nomen invalidum; also, in localities,
denotes a place name later than that originally cited or on the herbarium sheet
± in species descriptions, more or less
± in lichen chemistry, with or without
< less than
less than or equal to
> more than
more than or equal to
µm micrometre
(♀)   female
(♂)    male


Publication date of previous volumes

Volume Title Publication date
Volume 1 (1st edition) Introduction 22 August 1981
Volume 1 (2nd edition) Introduction 2 March 1999
Volume 2 Winteraceae to Platanaceae 28 February 2007
Volume 3 Hamamelidales to Casuarinales 24 April 1989
Volume 4 Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae 12 November 1984
Volume 8 Lecythidales to Batales 9 December 1982
Volume 11A & 11B (set) Mimosaceae - Acacia part 1 & 2 9 July 2001
Volume 12 Mimosaceae (excl. Acacia), Caesalpiniaceae 4 May 1998
Volume 16 Elaeagnaceae, Proteaceae 1 30 November 1995
Volume 17A Proteaceae 2 14 April 2000
Volume 17B Proteaceae 3 26 May 1999
Volume 18 Podostemaceae to Combretaceae 8 June 1990
Volume 19 Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus, Angophora 27 June 1988
Volume 22 Rhizophorales to Celastrales 17 May 1984
Volume 25 Melianthaceae to Simaroubaceae 25 December 1985
Volume 28 Gentianales 28 June 1996
Volume 29 Solanaceae 27 July 1982
Volume 35 Brunoniaceae, Goodeniaceae 6 August 1992
Volume 39 Alismatales to Arales 25 July 2011
Volume 43 Poaceae 1: Introduction and Atlas 26 August 2002
Volume 44A Poaceae 2 3 March 2009
Volume 44B Poaceae 3 17 March 2005
Volume 45 Hydatellaceae to Liliaceae 15 May 1987
Volume 46 Iridaceae to Dioscoreaceae 2 May 1986
Volume 48 Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups 27 October 1998
Volume 49 Oceanic Islands 1 3 May 1994
Volume 50 Oceanic Islands 2 29 July 1993
Volume 51 Mosses 1 21 July 2006
Volume 54 Lichens-Introduction, Lecanorales 1 4 September 1992
Volume 55 Lichens-Lecanorales 2, Parmeliaceae 21 December 1994
Volume 56A Lichens 4 30 April 2004
Volume 57 Lichens 5 21 April 2009
Volume 58A Lichens 3 21 August 2001


Index of Flora of Australia Online Icons
Icon Rank
kingdom.png kingdom
class.png class
division.png division
order.png order
fam.png family
subfam.png subfamily
gen.png genus
subg.png subgenus
sect.png section
subsect.png subsection
ser.png series
subser.png subseries
trib.png tribe
subtrib.png subtribe
sp.png species
subsp.png subspecies
var.png variety
f.png form
formtaxon.png form taxon
informal.png informal rank
group.png group
subgroup.png subgroup
hybrid.png hybrid
doubtful.png doubtful name
key.png key
specieslist.png species list


Vascular flora


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