Final Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, June 2008
- Appendix A1 - Sensitivity Analysis for Health Effects (PDF – 1381 KB)
- Appendix A2 - Range of Risk Factor Estimates (PDF – 1560 KB)
- Appendix B1 - Independent Fuel Analysis Results (PDF – 1606 KB)
- Appendix B2 - Exhaust Emissions - Individual Vehicle Results (PDF – 2657 KB)
- Appendix B3 - Evaporative Emissions - Individual Vehicle Results (PDF – 978 KB)
- Appendix B4 - Analytical Methodology, Method Proficiency and Speciate List for VOC Determinations (PDF – 832 KB)
- Appendix B5 - Treatment of Particle Size Distributions (PDF – 920 KB)
- Appendix C - Modelling Outcomes of Smog Chamber Experiments (PDF – 2448 KB)
- Appendix D1 - Impacts of E5 and E10 on Photochemical Smog (PDF – 1927 KB)
- Appendix D2 - The DECC Mobile Emission Inverntory Process (PDF – 880 KB)
- Appendix C - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Hyundai Excel (PDF – 753 KB)
- Appendix D - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Nissan Pulsar (PDF – 747 KB)
- Appendix E - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Ford Festiva (PDF – 930 KB)
- Appendix F - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Honda Civic (PDF – 823 KB)
- Appendix G - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Nissan_Patrol (PDF – 870 KB)
- Appendix H - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Toyota Hilux (PDF – 1000 KB)
- Appendix I - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Mazda 323 (PDF – 789 KB)
- Appendix J - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Toyota Corolla (PDF – 1000 KB)
- Appendix K - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Holden Commodore (PDF – 550 KB)
- Appendix L - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Ford Falcon (PDF – 350 KB)
- Appendix M - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Ford Laser (PDF – 433 KB)
- Appendix N - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Toyota Corolla (PDF – 475 KB)
- Appendix O - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Mitsubishi Magna (PDF – 405 KB)
- Appendix P - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Toyota Land Cruiser (PDF – 435 KB)
- Appendix Q - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Nissan Bluebird (PDF – 349 KB)
- Appendix R - Comparison of Vehicle Drivability - Holden Camira_Nissan Pulsar (PDF – 534 KB)
- Appendix S - Materials Compatability Testing - Aftermarket (PDF – 1000 KB)
About the report
This project provides data, modelling analysis and scientific interpretation by which the human health impacts of adopting E5 or E10 ethanol blends in petrol are estimated for the Australian passenger vehicle fleet in Sydney and three other major urban centres. The results are based on a work program that consisted of five activities:
- Measurement of Exhaust Emissions - (including particulate matter)
- Measurement of Evaporative Emissions
- Examination of the Formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol
- Assessment of the impacts of E5 and E10 on Photochemical Smog
- Assessment of the health impacts of E5 and E10.
The measurement program was designed to examine vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol vehicle fleet. This was achieved by choosing vehicle makes and models with highest representation in the Australian fleet, ethanol suitability and emissions control system. A representative sample of 21 vehicles from the Australian passenger vehicle fleet was selected based on the above criteria for emissions testing.
The study measured the difference in vehicle emissions between ethanol blend petrol (up to 10 per cent) and unleaded petrol under Australian conditions. The study then estimated the impact that changes in emission levels may have on the health budget, by modelling the costs of illness and death due to air pollution. The results of the study are calculated using Sydney data, which has been extrapolated to include the four major Australian cities (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth).
The study measured decreases in particulate matter (PM) emissions from vehicles using up to 10 per cent ethanol blends (E5 and E10). In some individual vehicles, emission reductions were measured at up to 30 per cent. However, while this is a positive finding, these figures represent a small fraction (less than a half of one per cent) of the total PM emissions in the Sydney airshed.
Results for other emissions from E5 and E10 show that some pollutants marginally increase such as oxides of nitrogen while others marginally decrease such as carbon monoxide marginally decrease.
Overall the study estimates a marginal health cost savings in the four major Australian cities from widespread use of E5 and E10. However this saving will be eroded over time as new vehicles, with improved emission control technology, enter the Australian fleet.