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Comparison of Transport Fuels

Final Report (EV45A/2/F3C) to the Australian Greenhouse Office on the Stage 2 study of Life-cycle Emissions Analysis of Alternative Fuels for Heavy Vehicles

By Tom Beer1,2, Tim Grant3, Geoff Morgan4, Jack Lapszewicz5, Peter Anyon6, Jim Edwards7, Peter Nelson7, Harry Watson8 & David Williams7
CSIRO in association with The University of Melbourne, the Centre for Design at RMIT, Parsons Australia Pty Ltd and Southern Cross Institute of Health Research

Structure of the Report

The report consists of three main parts. Part 1 consists of 15 chapters, each of which provides a summary of the salient points of each fuel, with a graphical representation of the emissions from the fuel, the reference fuel, and similar fuels, together with a representation of the uncertainty associated with the emissions. There is no summary description of low sulfur diesel because it is the reference fuel against which all subsequent heavy vehicle fuels are examined. The first chapter of Part 1 provides information on the background of the study.

Part 2 consists of detailed chapters on each fuel. These provide a literature review for each fuel, a description of the upstream and tailpipe emissions along with an explanation of the assumptions made in the quantitative modelling, the numerical results on which the graphical information in Part 1 is based, as well as the uncertainty estimates. In addition, each chapter provides details of the viability and functionality, health effects, environmental issues and expected future emissions associated with each fuel.

Part 3 consists of supporting chapters that discuss possible weighting methodologies for examining air quality emissions, and the modelling approach for the estimates of future emissions.


Download PDF files

Executive Summary

Executive Summary - (execsummary.pdf - 186 KB)
Table of Contents
Acronyms
Glossary of Terms
Executive Summary

Part 1 Summary of Fuels

1. Background - (1ch1.pdf - 84 KB)
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA)
1.3 Structure of the Report
1.4 Sources of Quantitative Information
1.5 Emissions from Diesel Engines
1.6 Greenhouse Gases and Other Emissions
2. Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Summary - (1ch2.pdf - 39 KB)
2.1 Background
2.2 Results
2.3 Viability and Functionality
2.4 Health Effects
2.5 Environmental Issues
2.6 ADR Compliance
2.7 Summary
3. Fischer-Tropsch Diesel - (1ch3.pdf - 29 KB)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Results
3.3 Viability and Functionality
3.4 Health Issues
3.5 Environmental Impact and Benefits
3.6 ADR Compliance
3.7 Summary
4. Biodiesel - (1ch4.pdf - 36 KB)
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Emissions
4.3 Viability, Functionality and Health Issues
4.4 Environmental Issues
4.5 ADR Compliance
4.6 Summary
5. Canola - (1ch5.pdf - 12 KB)
5.1 Background
5.2 Results
5.3 Viability and Functionality
5.4 Health Issues
5.5 Environmental Impact and Benefits
6. Hydrated Ethanol - (1ch6.pdf - 39 KB)
6.1 Background
6.2 Results
6.3 Viability and Functionality
6.4 Health and OH&S
6.5 Environmental Issues
6.6 Expected Future Emissions
6.7 Summary
7. Diesohol - (1ch7.pdf - 35 KB)
7.1 Background
7.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Emissions
7.3 Viability and Functionality
7.4 Health and OH&S
7.5 Environmental issues
7.6 ADR Compliance
7.7 Summary
8. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) - (1ch8.pdf - 36 KB)
8.1 Background
8.2 Results
8.3 Viability and Functionality
8.4 Health Issues
8.5 Environmental Impact and Benefit
8.6 ADR Compliance
8.7 Summary
9. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) - (1ch9.pdf - 31 KB)
9.1 Background
9.2 Results
9.3 Viability and Functionality
9.4 Health Issues
9.5 Environmental Impact and Benefit
9.6 ADR Compliance
9.7 Summary.
10. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) - Autogas - (1ch10.pdf - 32 KB)
10.1 Background
10.2 Full Fuel Cycle Results
10.3 Viability and Functionality
10.4 Health Issues
10.5 Environmental Issues
10.6 ADR Compliance
10.7 Summary
11. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) - HD5 - (1ch11.pdf - 32 KB)
11.1 Background
11.2 Results
11.3 Viability and Functionality
11.4 Health Effects
11.5 Environmental Issues
11.6 ADR Compliance
11.7 Summary
12. Premium Unleaded Petrol Summary - (1ch12.pdf - 11 KB)
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Results
12.3 Viability and Functionality
12.4 Health Issues
12.5 Environmental Impact and Benefits
13. Anhydrous Ethanol - (1ch13.pdf - 32 KB)
13.1 Background
13.2 Results
13.3 Viability and Functionality
13.4 Health and OH&S
13.5 Environmental Issues
13.6 Expected Future Emissions
13.7 Summary
14. Petrohol - (1ch14.pdf - 36 KB)
14.1 Background
14.2 Results
14.3 Viability and Functionality
14.4 Health and OH&S
14.5 Environmental Issues
14.6 ADR Compliance
14.7 Summary
15. Hydrogen - (1ch15.pdf - 21 KB)
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Full Fuel Cycle Analysis Results
15.3 Viability and Functionality
15.4 Health Issues
15.5 Environmental Impact and Benefits

Part 2 Details of Fuels

1. Low Sulfur Diesel - (2ch1.pdf - 97 KB)
1.1 Diesel National Environment Protection Measures
1.2 Diesel Fuel and the Diesel Engine
1.3 Upstream and Tailpipe Emissions
1.4 Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis of LSD Emissions
1.5 Viability and Functionality
1.6 Health and OHS
1.7 Environmental Impact
1.8 Process trees
2. Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel - (2ch2.pdf - 696 KB)
2.1 Background
2.2 Upstream and Tailpipe Emissions
2.3 Results
2.4 Viability and Functionality
2.5 Health Effects
2.6 OHS Issues
2.7 Vapour Pressure Issues
2.8 Summary
2.9 Environmental Issues
3. Fischer-Tropsch Diesel - (2ch3.pdf - 84 KB)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Full Fuel Cycle Analysis
3.3 Results
3.4 Emissions per unit distance travelled
3.5 Viability and functionality
3.6 Health Issues
3.7 Use
3.8 OHS Issues
3.9 Vapour Pressure Issues
3.10 Summary
3.11 Environmental Impact and Benefits
3.12 ADR Compliance
4. Biodiesel - (2ch4.pdf - 347 KB)
4.1. Biodiesel from Vegetable Oils
4.2. Biodiesel
4.3. National Standardisation of Biodiesel
4.4. Tailpipe Emissions
4.5. Comparison of Tailpipe Emissions
4.6. Upstream Emissions of Canola and Rapeseed
4.7. Soybean
4.8. Tallow
4.9. Recycled Waste Cooking Oil
4.10. European Work
4.11. By-Products
4.12. Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Emissions
4.13. Viability, Functionality and Health Issues
4.14. Environmental Issues
4.15. Expected Future Emissions
5. Canola - (2ch5.pdf - 24 KB)
5.1 Background
5.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis
5.3 Viability and Functionality
5.4 Health Issues
5.5 Environmental Impact and Benefits
6. Hydrated Ethanol - (2ch6.pdf - 282 KB)
6.1 Background
6.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Emissions
6.3 Results
6.4 Viability and Functionality
6.5 Health and OHS
6.6 OHS Issues
6.7 Vapour Pressure Issues
6.8 Environmental Issues
6.9 Expected Future Emissions
6.10 Summary
7. Diesohol - (2ch7.pdf - 146 KB)
7.1 Background
7.2 Characteristics of Diesohol
7.3 Production and Distribution
7.4 Diesohol Emissions
7.5 Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Emissions
7.6 Viability and Functionality
7.7 Health and OHS
7.8 Environmental Issues
7.9 Expected Future Emission
7.10 Summary
7.11 Appendix to Diesohol Fuel Chapter
8. Compressed Natural Gas - (2ch8.pdf - 261 KB)
8.1 Background
8.2 Full Fuel Cycle
8.3 Results
8.4 Viability and Functionality
8.5 CNG conversions
8.6 Health Issues
8.7 OHS Issues
8.8 Vapour Pressure Issues
8.9 Environmental Impact and Benefit
8.10 Expected Future Emissions
8.11 Summary
9. Liquefied Natural Gas - (2ch9.pdf - 281 KB)
9.1 Background
9.2 Full Fuel-Cycle
9.3 Results
9.4 Viability and Functionality
9.5 Health Issues
9.6 OHS Issues
9.7 Vapour Pressure Issues
9.8 Environmental Impact and Benefit
9.9 Expected Future Emissions
9.10 Summary
10. Liquefied Petroleum Gas - Autogas - (2ch10.pdf - 92 KB)
10.1 Background
10.2 Exbodied Emissions
10.3 Results
10.4 Viability and Functionality
10.5 Health Issues
10.6 Environmental Issues
10.7 Expected Future Emissions
10.8 Summary
11. Liquefied Petroleum Gas - HD5 - (2ch11.pdf - 107 KB)
11.1 Background
11.2 Exbodied Emissions
11.3 Results
11.4 Dual fuel and converted vehicles
11.5 Viability and Functionality
11.6 Health Effects
11.7 Environmental Issues
11.8 Expected Future Emissions
11.9 Summary
12. Premium Unleaded Petrol - (2ch12.pdf - 74 KB)
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis
12.3 Results
12.4 Viability and Functionality
12.5 Health Issues
12.6 OHS Issues
12.7 Vapour Pressure Issues
12.8 Environmental Impact and Benefits
13. Anhydrous Ethanol - (2ch13.pdf - 69 KB)
13.1 Background
13.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Emissions
13.3 Results
13.4 Viability and Functionality
13.5 Health and OHS
13.6 Environmental Issues
13.7 Expected Future Emissions
13.8 Summary
14. Petrohol - (2ch14.pdf - 96 KB)
14.1 Background
14.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Emissions
14.3 Results
14.4 Viability and Functionality
14.5 Health
14.6 OHS Issues
14.7 Vapour Pressure Issues
14.8 Environmental
14.9 Expected Future
14.10 Summary
15. Hydrogen - (2ch15.pdf - 342 KB)
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Full Fuel-Cycle Analysis
15.3 Results
15.4 Viability and Functionality
15.5 Health Issues
15.6 OHS Issues
15.7 Vapour Pressure Issues
15.8 Environmental Impact and Benefits

Part 3 Reference Information

1. Weighting Methodologies for Emissions from Transport Fuels - (3ch1.pdf - 77 KB)
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background
1.3 Greenhouse Gases
1.4 Air Quality
1.5 Air Toxics
1.6 ADR and Fuel Quality Review Method
1.7 Discussion
2. Modelling Emission Standards and Driving Conditions - (3ch2.pdf - 79 KB)
2.1 Modelling the Influence of Future Emission Standards
2.2 Modelling the Influence of Driving Conditions
2.3 Vehicle Data
3. Reference Information - (3ref.pdf - 60 KB)

Appendices

1. Terms of reference - (app1.pdf - 49 KB)
2. The GREET model and the SIMAPRO model - (app2.pdf - 21 KB)
3. Uncertainty Analysis - (app3.pdf - 11 KB)
4. Stakeholder Consultation - (app4.pdf - 19 KB)
5. Emissions per tonne-kilometre and per passenger-kilometre - (app5.pdf - 79 KB)
6. Diesohol information - (app6.pdf - 351 KB)
7. Euro Standards - (app7.pdf - 21 KB)
8. Carbon dioxide emission factors - (app8.pdf - 11 KB)
9. Nitrogen emissions from vehicles - (app9.pdf - 9 KB)

Full report

Please note: this is a very large file and may take some time to download.


1 CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic.
2 CSIRO Environmental Risk Network, Aspendale, Vic.
3 RMIT Centre for Design, Melbourne, Vic.
4 Southern Cross Institute of Health Research, Lismore, NSW
5 CSIRO Energy Technology, Lucas Heights, NSW
6 Parsons Australia Pty Ltd
7 CSIRO Energy Technology, North Ryde, NSW
8 University of Melbourne, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Parkville, Vic.

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