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Publications archive - Waste and recycling

Disclaimer

Key departmental publications, e.g. annual reports, budget papers and program guidelines are available in our online archive.

Much of the material listed on these archived web pages has been superseded, or served a particular purpose at a particular time. It may contain references to activities or policies that have no current application. Many archived documents may link to web pages that have moved or no longer exist, or may refer to other documents that are no longer available.

Electrical and Electronic Products Infrastructure Facilitation

Nolan-ITU
Prepared in association with Centre for Design at RMIT and Product Ecology Pty Ltd
Department of the Environment and Heritage, January, 2004


Appendix C - Industry Programs


Industry Association Programs


Table AC1: Summary of Industry Association Programs
Product Category Key Program Administrator(s) - program/project name - timeframe Program Activities - Services Observations
Mobile Telephones Australian Mobile Telecommunications Association

Mobile Phone Industry Recycling Program

Mobile Phones for Planet Ark

Current
Ongoing national take-back scheme - Mobile Phone Industry Recycling Program (MPIRP) - covering mobile phones and accessories but focusing on recovery and safe reprocessing of rechargeable batteries. AMTA's MPIRP commenced approximately four years ago with phone batteries and was later extended to the complete handset, including accessories. It is a world first, voluntary, industry-funded project, which has become a template for national and international industry groups developing their own recycling schemes. Member companies such as AAPT, Cable & Wireless Optus, Orange, Telstra, Virgin Mobile and Vodafone are all directly funding the MPIRP through a levy of 40 cents on the sale of new handsets from participating manufacturers and carriers. In particular, carriers represent the primary interface between consumers and the MPIRP. It is with the carriers and their retail outlets where consumers go to drop off their obsolete mobile phone for recycling.

www.amta.org.au
Industry funded scheme with contributions from member companies including manufacturers, retailers and carriers.

Voluntary approach to scheme.

Consumer marketing, education and promotion primarily conducted by Planet Ark on behalf of AMTA.

While rechargeable batteries are being exported under permit to SNAM in France for reprocessing, it is unclear as to markets for materials/components derived from handsets and accessories.

Demonstrates an enduring model developed by Australian industry for Australian industry.

Widespread visibility and awareness of program unclear but appears to be growing with Planet Ark involvement.

MRI Australia Pty Ltd provide recovery, disassembly and recycling services.
Televisions Consumer Electronics Suppliers Association and Australian Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association

Beyond the Dead TV-Managing End-of-Life Consumer Electronics in Victoria.

2002-2003
Short-term pilot recovery and recycling project focused on cathode ray tubes from televisions and computer monitors but also covering VCRs and other consumer electronics. Pilot region covered households and small businesses in eastern metropolitan Melbourne. Participating member companies: Hitachi, LG Electronics, Mitsubishi Electric, NEC Australia, Panasonic, Philips, Samsung Electronics, Sanyo, Sharp and Sony. Co-funded by AEEMA, CESA and EcoRecycle Victoria. Other project partners included MRI Australia, Least waste and the Centre for Design at RMIT University. More than 3,500 TVs, computer monitors and VCRs were diverted from landfill during the pilot product stewardship project, Beyond the Dead TV-Managing End-of-Life Consumer Electronics in Victoria. The study included investigation of collection and transport, community awareness and site handling issues; trialing of separation techniques and processing technologies and also analysing the costs of the pilot project.

www.ecorecycle.vic.gov.au
Pilot project demonstrating considerable industry commitment.

Final report has only just been released.

One of the major conclusions concerns the significant lack of markets for recovered materials, especially plastics containing brominated flame-retardants.

Demand for leaded CRT glass also problematic with the exception of some processing through lead smelters.

Some degree of industry subsidy appears essential to compensate in the shortfall associated with cost recovery of materials.

General agreement among CESA, AEEMA and the project committee to establish a stand alone, industry based, e-waste management organisation to develop and administer a national program.

MRI Australia Pty Ltd provided recovery, disassembly and recycling services.
Computers & Peripherals Australian Information Industry Association, Resource NSW

Recycle IT!

2002/ 03
Short-term recovery and recycling project focused on computer equipment and peripherals including printers and photocopier machines. Pilot region covered households and small businesses in western Sydney. Developed and co-funded by AIIA and Resource NSW. Drop off sites supplied by Waste Service NSW as well as retail businesses and councils. The pilot also included one-day collection events. Similar objectives and outcomes to the CRT pilot described above.

www.aiia.com.au
Pilot project demonstrating considerable industry commitment.

Final report yet to be released, however envisage similar observations to TV pilot above, especially in relation to lack of markets for recovered materials, especially plastics containing brominated flame-retardants and leaded CRT glass.

The HMR Group provided recovery, disassembly and recycling services.

Company Programs


Table AC2: Summary of company programs
Product Category Key Program Administrator(s) - program/project name - timeframe Program Activities - Services Observations
Photocopiers Fuji Xerox Australia (FXA)

Current
Fuji Xerox established its Eco Manufacturing Centre in Sydney in 2001 and now employs around 110 staff. The facility remanufactures parts and components from photocopiers, printers and fax machines. There is an 85% recovery rate of all used parts. The remanufacturing process has saved Fuji Xerox Australia over $20 million in import replacement costs.

Design for Environment in the Information Industry. A Centre for Design Report for the AIIA (2002).
Benchmark example of how remanufacturing has been comprehensively developed for the Australian marketplace.

Clear demonstration of broader social and business benefits associated with effective communications and public information.

Unclear as to end markets for any residuals resulting from the remanufacturing process.
Photocopier Canon

Current
Canon remanufacture copying machines, replacing worn parts with new ones in the U.S., Europe and Japan. Parts are inspected for proper functionality, and only parts with quality compatible to new ones are reused.

Design for Environment in the Information Industry. A Centre for Design Report for the AIIA (2002).
Similar observations to FXA, however much lower profile in relation to environment, remanufacturing and take-back.
Computers Compaq Australia

Computer Asset Recovery Service

Current
Compaq's Computer Asset Recovery Service in Australia provides a range of customer options for the reuse and recycling of obsolete equipment regardless of the manufacturer. HP and Compaq programs are expected to be combined under the new HP structure (a merger of the two companies).

Design for Environment in the Information Industry. A Centre for Design Report for the AIIA (2002).
Compaq have been a pioneer company in relation to e-waste management in Australia.

Claimed to be Australia's first major computer recycling program.

Focus on servicing corporate customers as opposed to general consumers or small business.

Lack of any widely promoted recovery, reuse and recycling program targeting general domestic consumers and small business.

Demonstration of broader social and business benefits associated with effective communications and public information.

Ongoing analysis required to establish impact or influence of recent AIIA computer pilot project outcomes and recommendations.

MRI Australia Pty Ltd provides recovery, reuse and/or disassembly and recycling services.
Computers HP Australia HP Australia has a computer take-back program that accepts any HP or non-HP brands of personal/office computer equipment or peripherals from corporate customers. Products that are remanufactured include servers, computers, scanners and printers.

Design for Environment in the Information Industry. A Centre for Design Report for the AIIA (2002).
Similar observations to Compaq program.

The new HP/Compaq structure should be closely monitored to assess if any change in how e-waste is managed.

Possibility of basic up-scaling of existing HP or Compaq programs.

Lack of any widely promoted recovery, reuse and recycling program targeting general domestic consumers and small business.

Ongoing analysis required to establish impact or influence of recent AIIA computer pilot project outcomes and recommendations.

The HMR Group provides recovery, reuse and/or disassembly and recycling services.
Computers IBM

Global Asset Recovery Service

Current
IBM has a Global Asset Recovery Service (GARS) to coordinate initiatives by IBM companies for asset recovery. IBM Australia recovers computer hardware and peripherals at end-of-lease from commercial and internal customers. Most of it is refurbished and sold in the second-hand market, used internally, donated to charity or sold to employees. Returned product that cannot be reused as a unit is disassembled and parts are refurbished for reuse. IBM-approved product recycling or disposal suppliers recycle any hardware that cannot be recovered through these processes.

Design for Environment in the Information Industry. A Centre for Design Report for the AIIA (2002).
Similar in many respects to corporate focused programs offered by HP/Compaq.

Lack of any widely promoted recovery, reuse and recycling program targeting general domestic consumers and small business.

Ongoing analysis required to establish impact or influence of recent AIIA computer pilot project outcomes and recommendations.

MRI Australia Pty Ltd provides recovery, reuse and/or disassembly and recycling services.
Computers Dell

Current
Dell provides asset recovery programs for customers in more than 30 countries. Old and obsolete computers are disassembled and recycled. In Australia one of Dell's partner organisations, Dell Financial Services, assists customers with disposal or recycling of old equipment. Additional services are available in specific countries, for example US customers can take advantage of a new program called DellExchange. This online service allows consumers to trade-in, donate to charity or auction old and unwanted PCs.

Dell are also offering a rebate on computers that are brought back provided the customer purchases another Dell computer. This will be an Australian wide program.

Design for Environment in the Information Industry. A Centre for Design Report for the AIIA (2002).
Lack of any widely promoted recovery, reuse and recycling program targeting general domestic consumers and small business.

Ongoing analysis required to establish impact or influence of recent AIIA computer pilot project outcomes and recommendations.
Whitegoods Electrolux Home Products (formerly Email Major Appliances formerly Southcorp Whitegoods)

Appliance Recycling Project

2000
Short term recovery and recycling project to determine the viability of establishing a recycling facility for end of life whitegoods. Involved the partial disassembly of units and outlets for the various materials were secured.

Appliance Recycling Project: Pilot Disassembly Plant for Whitegoods. Report by Email Major Appliances for EcoRecycle Victoria (2000).
Overall pilot duration was 12 months.

Markets for the plastics presented a problem primarily due to difficulty in identifying specific polymers.

The disassembly line operated for nine months and considerable data was collected and analysed, concluding that partial disassembly was the most efficient and cost effective method for processing units.
Whitegoods Fisher and Paykel

Currently in development
Recent reports suggest that Fisher & Paykel has been pro-actively investigating collection schemes for EOL products covering both appliances and packaging. A brief pilot study during 2002 involving NSW Corrective services Industries (CSI) explored the potential for using subsidised CSI labour to dismantle and sort recyclable materials from Fisher & Paykel whitegoods.

Personal communication, Fisher & Paykel National Recycling Manager
Discussions are continuing to identify additional trials and also cooperative arrangements with major TV and computer companies.

A specific trial with Sims Metal is planned to establish volume and potential applications of shredder residues or flock including waste to energy options.

Fisher & Paykel seem eager to ensure the development of effective solutions in partnership with retailers and other key stakeholders.

Fisher and Paykel operate and ongoing recovery, reuse and recycling scheme in Auckland covering all brands of whitegoods.

Collaborative R&D Projects


Table AC3: Summary of Collaborative R&D Projects
Product Category Key Program Administrator(s) - program/project name - timeframe Program Activities - Services Observations
Whitegoods CRC for Intelligent Manufacturing Systems, Electrolux Home Products, MetalCorp, Centre for Design at RMIT

Current
Major research and development program with engineering and applied technology focus; some policy investigation on role of Product Stewardship. Washing machine used as the primary unit for research and modelling. Specific research projects explored logistics options, disassembly, reuse, recycling, Product Stewardship and economic assessment. Considerable data and knowledge is being acquired that should inform any scheme targeting whitegoods.

Extent of adoption of results by industry partners (Electrolux and Metalcorp) is a significant factor in any major national whitegoods recovery and recycling program.
Electronics & other durables IMS International Consortium with Australian partners: AEEMA, MRI, IRIS@Swinburne University

Product Embedded Information System for Service and EOL

Current
An international R&D program aimed at developing embedded information devices that can facilitate and enable end of life product management in a range of 'high-tech' products, including whitegoods, consumer electronics and photocopiers. Project outcomes include embedded information devices, mobile readers, Knowledge and Product Data Management Systems, as well as web-enabled and embedded predictive e-services. Overseas partners include Ricoh, Mitsui, Toyota, Electrolux Zanussi, Stanford and Cambridge Universities. Highly strategic research project that will contribute to streamlining EOL processes and better tracking components and materials.

Opportunity to fully exploit DfE strategies and ensure greater connection with EOL options and associated knowledge.

Limited immediate benefits to any Australian e-waste management however an essential element of future programs.

 

Table AC4: Summary of Office Consumables Programs
Product Category Key Program Administrator(s) - program/project name - timeframe Program Activities - Services Observations
Office consumables Close the Loop & Ricoh Australia Ongoing partnership to recover and recycle office consumables such as toner bottles, cartridges, etc Most of these programs highlight the possibilities associated with productive partnerships and alliances, especially the role played by Close the Loop in advancing both logistics models and processing technologies.

Public education role performed by Planet Ark also highlights the importance of mainstream communications activities.

The extent to which the waste management hierarchy is applied within OEMs appears limited with most efforts focussed on materials recycling as opposed to widespread remanufacturing.

Collection models (especially those using Australia Post) developed by the companies should be reviewed and considered for application with smaller electronic devices, especially computer peripherals.
Office consumables Planet Ark

Cartridges for Planet Ark
New, national recovery and recycling scheme
Office consumables Lexmark Lexmark introduced its Prebate program in 1997 to promote cartridge recycling. Prebate cartridges are all new cartridges offered at a discount price with the understanding that customers agree to return the empty cartridge to Lexmark for recycling or thermal recovery. The Prebate program now applies to the majority of laser suppliers manufactured by Lexmark.
Office consumables HP Australia HP provides Australia Post Reply Paid labels on their Internet site to allow customers to mail used laser jet print cartridges and drum kits back to HP for recycling at no charge.
Office consumables Compaq Australia Compaq provides customers with a pre-paid, return mail cardboard box for the return of used toner cartridges.
Office consumables Fuji Xerox As part of its global environmental policy, Fuji Xerox Australia recovers over 80% of all print cartridges and components for remanufacturing. During 2000 over 80,000 print cartridges were returned.

Related Industry Program

Table AC5: Summary of related Industry Program
Product Category Key Program Administrator(s) - program/project name - timeframe Program Activities - Services Observations
Packaging EPS Industry group Levy funds are used for the national collection network, including capital and maintenance costs. The levy also funds a Business Development Manager who is responsible for management and communication activities. The levy is collected by the Plastic and Chemicals Industries Association (PACIA) and managed by the EPS management committee.