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Resource Assessment Commission Coastal Zone Inquiry - Final Report November 1993

Resource Assessment Commission, November 1993
ISBN 0 64429457

CHAPTER 18 IMPLEMENTATION

18.01 Governments and their agencies must act in concert to implement the National Coastal Action Program. Section 18.1 shows the implementation agenda. Table 18.1 sets out the specific requirements for implementation. Section 18.2 considers aspects of monitoring the implementation of the Program which will need to be carried out by the National Coastal Management Agency.

18.1 IMPLEMENTATION AGENDA

18.02 The National Coastal Action Program can be implemented if all governments adopt a 12-point agenda, as follows:

  1. Agree to adopt the Program.
  2. Establish national institutional and legislative arrangements to implement the Program.
  3. Adopt national objectives and principles for coastal zone management.
  4. Establish coastal zone coordinating mechanisms within and between each sphere of government.
  5. Translate national objectives and principles into more specific Commonwealth, state, local and regional objectives, principles and criteria.
  6. Develop local and regional coastal strategies and improve approvals and environmental impact assessment procedures.
  7. Encourage community and industry involvement in coastal zone management.
  8. Ensure effective representation of Australia's indigenous communities in coastal zone management.
  9. Improve the research and information base for coastal zone resource use and management.
  10. Initiate education programs to increase the expertise available for coastal zone management.
  11. Improve quarantine and surveillance measures.
  12. Improve funding arrangements and the use of economic instruments.

18.03 All 12 points of the agenda need to be undertaken concurrently. In view of the urgency of most of the matters considered in this report, it is important that implementation commence in 1994.

18.04 Table 18.1 lists the specific components for implementing the National Coastal Action Program. The Inquiry's recommendations are presented in summary form; detailed recommendations and the rationales supporting them are presented in the final section of each chapter. The table also identifies the sphere or agency of government responsible for implementation of each recommendation, assigns priorities, and provides broad estimates of timing and costs.

18.05 The cost estimates relate to incremental costs only; that is, it is assumed that policy development, planning and review are undertaken as part of normal government agency functions and consequently do not need to be costed separately. Additional expenditures may be required once the objectives of the National Coastal Action Program have been agreed by governments and relevant agencies have reviewed their priorities and budgets to ensure that the objectives are achieved.


Table 18.1 Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       



1. Agree to develop and adopt the National Coastal Action Program

The National Coastal Action     Prime Minister,         The Commonwealth should seek agreement   Essential 1994       -          
Program be  adopted and         Premiers, Chief         with state and local governments to                                      
implemented by the three        Minister, ALGA          implement the National Coastal Action                                    
spheres of government (Section                          Program and seek their commitment to                                     
6.8)                                                    undertaking the requirements of such a                                   
                                                        Program                                                                  

                                Prime Minister,         -                                        Essential 1994       -          
                                Premiers, Chief                                                                                  
                                Minister, ALGA                                                                                   


2. Establish national institutional and legislative arrangements to implement the Program


Establish a National Coastal    Prime Minister,         The Agency should be made up of two      Essential 1994       $1 million  
Management Agency and a         Premiers, Chief         parts: a board representing state,                            per annum,  
National Coastal Consultative   Minister                local and Commonwealth governments and                        ongoing     
Council (Section 8.6)                                   indigenous people; and a secretariat.                                     
                                                        These bodies are to be national                                           
                                                        institutions, not                                                         
                                                        Commonwealth-controlled bodies. Funding                                   
                                                        arrangements for the Agency and the                                       
                                                        Council are to be shared between                                          
                                                        governments on an agreed basis.  To                                       
                                                        avoid delay in establishing the Agency                                    
                                                        and the Council, the Commonwealth could                                   
                                                        provide interim funding until the                                         
                                                        funding responsibilities between                                          
                                                        governments are determined                                                

Enact a Coastal Resource        DEST                    The Act would establish a framework for  High      1994       -           
Management Act (Section 8.6)                            financial assistance by the                                               
                                                        Commonwealth and incorporate the                                          
                                                        objectives of the National Coastal                                        
                                                        Action Program                                                            



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

Include in the proposed         DEST                    Such agreement should include provision   High     1994       -          
Coastal Zone Resource                                   for guaranteed minimum levels of                                         
Management Act provision for                            funding, flexible 'top up' arrangements,                                 
agreement between the                                   and penalties and sanctions for                                          
Commonwealth and other                                  non-compliance with provisions of the                                    
governments in relation to the                          Act relating to financial assistance                                     
funding of the National                                                                                                          
Coastal Management Agency and                                                                                                    
the National Coastal Action                                                                                                      
Program (Section 17.4)                                                                                                           



3. Adopt national objectives and principles for coastal zone management

Adopt national objectives and   National Coastal        To be developed in consultation with     Essential 1994       -          
principles for coastal zone     Management Agency       non-government groups and endorsed by                                    
management (Section 7.6)                                COAG                                                                     


4. Establish coastal zone coordinating mechanisms within and between each sphere of government


State governments to review     Premier or Chief        Membership of coordinating committees    Essential 1994       -          
the composition and roles of    Minister's Department   should be reviewed so as to be                                           
their coastal coordinating      or nominated lead       consistent with the characteristics                                      
committees and interagency      agency                  proposed by the Inquiry.  This should                                    
functions (Section 8.6)                                 include the establishment of advisory                                    
                                                        committees.  Consideration should be                                     
                                                        given to including agencies with                                         
                                                        similar functions in single ministries                                   

Local authorities to review     All coastal local       Various types of committees currently    High      1994       -          
their arrangements for dealing  councils                exist to assist local government in                                      
with coastal management issues                          managing coastal zone resources.  These                                  
(Section 8.6)                                           arrangements should be reviewed using                                    
                                                        the models identified in the Integrated                                  
                                                        Local Area Planning program                                              

Commonwealth Government to      Minister for            Committee to include representatives     Essential 1994       -          
establish a permanent           Environment and DEST    from departments with interests in the                                   
interdepartmental Coastal                               coastal zone.  Secretariat to be                                         
Management Committee (Section                           provided by DEST, with the committee to                                  
8.6)                                                    report to the Minister for the                                           
                                                        Environment                                                              



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       



5. Translate national objectives and principles into Commonwealth, state, local and regional objectives, principles and criteria

Each sphere of government to    All spheres of          Ministerial councils and government      Essential 1995       -          
review, develop and adopt       government              agencies preparing national criteria                                     
coastal zone objectives,                                should ensure the criteria are                                           
principles and criteria                                 consistent with the principles of the                                    
consistent with agreed                                  Program                                                                  
national objectives and                                                                                                          
principles (Section 7.6)                                                                                                         

Ensure all national             Relevant Commonwealth   To be undertaken as new strategies and   Essential Ongoing    -          
strategies, programs and        agencies and            programs are developed and existing                                      
initiatives that affect use of  ministerial councils    strategies are reviewed                                                  
resources in the coastal zone                                                                                                    
are consistent with the                                                                                                          
objectives and principles of                                                                                                     
coastal zone management agreed                                                                                                   
by COAG (Section 16.4)                                                                                                           

Ensure other strategies and     All relevant            Requires consultation by program         Essential Ongoing    -          
programs are consistent with    government agencies     managers with the National Coastal                                       
the National Coastal Action                             Management Agency, state coastal                                         
Program (Section 16.4)                                  coordinating committees, and the                                         
                                                        Commonwealth Coastal Management                                          
                                                        Committee                                                                


6. Develop local and regional coastal strategies and improve approvals and environmental impact assessment procedures


Extend funding for the          DHHLGCS and all         Requires extension of current program    High      Extend to  $2         
Integrated Local Area Planning  coastal local councils  to 1997-98, to reach a greater number                         million    
program (Section 11.4)                                  of coastal councils                                1997-98    per annum  

Develop and implement local     All coastal local       Local strategy preparation to be by      Essential 1994-95    $3         
coastal zone strategies         councils                local councils, advised by local                   to         million    
(Section 11.4)                                          interest groups and representatives of             1996-97    per annum  
                                                        state and Commonwealth agencies                                          



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

                                                        Funds should be provided to high                                         
                                                        priority areas, which should be                                          
                                                        determined on the basis of the                                           
                                                        significance of management problems                                      
                                                        experienced in an area.  Priority to be                                  
                                                        identified by the National Coastal                                       
                                                        Management Agency in consultation with                                   
                                                        relevant agencies.  Funds for regional                                   
                                                        strategies provided by Commonwealth,                                     
                                                        state and local governments.  Funding                                    
                                                        for strategy development to be                                           
                                                        conditional on agreements being reached                                  
                                                        to ensure that strategies are                                            
                                                        implemented when finalised                                               

Ensure administrative           All coastal local       The development and implementation of    Essential 1995       -          
arrangements within local       councils                local strategies will require local                                      
authorities allow development                           authorities to have appropriate                                          
and implementation of                                   administrative arrangements                                              
strategies (Section 11.4)                                                                                                        

Ensure provision of             All coastal local       -                                        Essential Ongoing    -          
infrastructure and services,    councils                                                                                         
as well as other activities by                                                                                                   
local councils, are in                                                                                                           
accordance with the local                                                                                                        
coastal strategy (Section                                                                                                        
11.4)                                                                                                                            

Application of flexible land    All coastal local       Application of land use planning in      Essential 1995       -          
use planning mechanisms         councils                this manner will assist in achieving                                     
directed at achieving strategy                          local area objectives and assist                                         
requirements for each area                              consideration of incremental effects of                                  
(Section 11.4)                                          resource uses                                                            

Develop and implement regional  State, local and        Regional strategies to be developed by   Essential 1994-95    $2         
coastal zone strategies         relevant Commonwealth   regional groups of local, state and                to         million    
(Section 11.4)                  agencies                Commonwealth government agency                     1996-97    per annum  
                                                        representatives, advised by community                                    
                                                        and industry groups.  All states should                                  
                                                        review existing regional boundaries                                      



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

                                                        Funds should be provided to high                                         
                                                        priority areas, which should be                                          
                                                        determined on the basis of the                                           
                                                        significance of management problems                                      
                                                        experienced in an area.  Priority to be                                  
                                                        identified by the National Coastal                                       
                                                        Management Agency in consultation with                                   
                                                        relevant agencies.  Funds for regional                                   
                                                        strategies provided by Commonwealth,                                     
                                                        state and local governments.  Funding                                    
                                                        for strategy development to be                                           
                                                        conditional on agreements being reached                                  
                                                        to ensure that strategies are                                            
                                                        implemented when finalised                                               

Within each state, establish    All spheres of          Governments should continue to support    High     Ongoing    -          
unified assessment and          government              current reform processes.  Unified                                       
approval systems for                                    systems should cover proposals affecting                                 
development and conservation                            marine as well as land resources                                         
proposals (Section 12.4)                                                                                                         

Adopt stringent guidelines for  All spheres of          Development approval processes for major  High     1995       -          
the conduct of environmental    government              projects should include assessment of                                    
and other impact assessments                            ecological, economic, social and                                         
(Section 12.4)                                          cultural impacts and cumulative impacts                                  

Evaluate the potential of       National Coastal        Strategic environmental assessments may   High     1994       -          
strategic environmental         Management Agency and   provide a means of taking into account                                   
assessments (Section 12.4)      state coastal           cumulative impacts                                                       
                                coordinating                                                                                     
                                committees                                                                                       



7. Encourage community and industry involvement in coastal zone management


Establish a Coastcare program    Commonwealth           The program should provide funds for      Essentia 1994-95    $4         
(Section 9.6)                    Government (DPIE,      community facilitators and extension      l        to         million    
                                 DEST)                  services and limited funds for                     1996-97    per annum  
                                                        rehabilitation works                                                     



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                   Responsibility         Comments                                  Priority Completion Cost        

Review public participation      State and local        Community involvement in coastal          High      Ongoing    -          
arrangements in the formulation  governments            resource decision making is essential                                     
of policies and programs for                            for improved management of coastal                                        
coastal zone management                                 resources                                                                 
(Section 9.6)                                                                                                                     

Undertake a range of community                          The National Coastal Management Agency                                    
education initiatives,                                  should ensure close liaison between the                                   
including                                               Coastcare program, the Marine and                                         
                                                        Coastal Community Network, the National                                   
                                                        Marine Education Program and other                                        
                                 DEST                   natural resource and indigenous           High      1994-95    $500 000   
-  extension of the National                            education initiatives                               to         per annum  
Marine                                                  -                                                   1996-97               
    Education Program            Council for                                                      High                 $100 000   
                                 Aboriginal                                                                 Ongoing    per annum  
-  extension of community        Reconciliation,        -                                                                         
education                        ATSIC, other relevant                                                                            
    programs relating to         agencies                                                         High                 $50 000    
indigenous issues                                                                                           Ongoing    per annum  
                                 National Coastal       This should also include materials for                                    
                                 Management Agency      providing information to local                                            
-  production of education                              government employees on the National                                      
materials                                               Coastal Action Program                                                    
    explaining the National                                                                                                       
Coastal Action                                                                                                                    
    Program (Section 9.6)                                                                                                         

Provide tax deductibility for    Commonwealth Treasury  This will provide an important incentive  Essential 1995       Not        
expenditure on coastal resource                         for companies and individuals to support                       estimated  
conservation projects (Section                          projects to improve coastal resource                                      
9.6)                                                    quality                                                                   



8. Ensure effective representation of Australia's indigenous communities in coastal zone management


Establish a process whereby     COAG                    This will require consultation with      Essential 1995       -          
traditional hunting, fishing                            indigenous communities and amendment of                                  
and gathering rights are                                relevant legislation.  In the interim,                                   
recognised by governments                               governments should ensure there are no                                   
(Section 10.4)                                          unreasonable prosecutions                                                

                                                        In the event of failure to negotiate                                     
                                                        national arrangements, the Commonwealth                                  
                                                        should enact legislation to establish                                    
                                                        national criteria                                                        



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

Establish national criteria     ANZECC, ATSIC           Criteria should include provision for    Essential 1994       -          
for the participation of                                representation on relevant management                                    
Australia's indigenous people                           authorities and the establishment of                                     
in the management of                                    indigenous consultative committees to                                    
conservation areas (Section                             advise these authorities                                                 
10.4)                                                                                                                            

Amend the Great Barrier Reef    DEST                    -                                        Essential 1994       -          
Marine Park Authority Act 1975                                                                                                   
to provide for greater                                                                                                           
indigenous involvement in                                                                                                        
management (Section 10.4)                                                                                                        

Extend the community ranger     ATSIC, ANCA             To be undertaken in conjunction with     High      1994       $1         
system, support the                                     state resource management agencies.                           million    
establishment of indigenous                             Funding arrangements to be determined                         per annum  
natural resource management                             following review                                                         
agencies, and review funding                                                                                                     
for these initiatives                                                                                                            
(Section 10.4)                                                                                                                   

Establish units to provide      State and Commonwealth  This will require consultation with      Essential 1994       -          
advice on indigenous interests  natural resource        representatives of indigenous                                            
as part of policy making for    management agencies     organisations and peak industry bodies.                                  
natural resource management                              Costs to be met from reallocation of                                    
(Section 10.4)                                          existing resources                                                       

Ensure that indigenous          ATSIC                   Funding to be met by reallocation of     High      1994       -          
organisations have sufficient                           existing resources                                                       
resources to participate in                                                                                                      
decision-making processes                                                                                                        
relating to development                                                                                                          
proposals (Section 10.4)                                                                                                         

Establish a joint Council on    Council for Aboriginal  As recommended by the Mining Committee   High      1994       -          
Aboriginal Land and Mining      Reconciliation          of the Council for Aboriginal                                            
(Section 10.4)                                          Reconciliation                                                           



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

Prepare an Aboriginal and       Ministerial Council on  Strategy preparation will require        Essential 1994-95    $1.5       
Torres Strait Islander          Forestry, Fisheries     assessment of indigenous interests in              to         million    
Fisheries Strategy (Section     and Aquaculture         fisheries; representation of indigenous            1995-96    per annum  
10.4)                                                   people on fishery advisory committees,                                   
                                                        measures to improve economic                                             
                                                        development and employment                                               
                                                        opportunities in fisheries and                                           
                                                        mariculture, and measures to improve                                     
                                                        relations between indigenous                                             
                                                        communities, fisheries agency staff and                                  
                                                        commercial fishers.  This should                                         
                                                        include evaluation by ATSIC of the                                       
                                                        experience of the ACIAR and successful                                   
                                                        indigenous commercial ventures                                           

Adopt a national policy on      Commonwealth and state  Current progress towards finalising      High      1994       -          
ownership of and access rights  governments and their   agreement on cultural heritage                                           
to indigenous cultural          relevant agencies       protection is slow and the categories                                    
property (Section 10.4)                                 covered are limited                                                      

Review Commonwealth             ATSIC, AHC, ANCA        The review should be conducted from      High      1994       -          
involvement in recording and                            within existing resources; however, the                                  
protecting indigenous heritage                          Council will require additional                                          
with a view to establishing an                          funding.  It will be necessary to                                        
Aboriginal and Torres Strait                            consult with indigenous organisations.                                   
Islander Heritage Council and                           The establishment of a Council is                                        
extending Commonwealth                                  estimated to require $3.5 million per                                    
heritage protection                                     annum.  This is not included in the                                      
legislation (Section 10.4)                              estimated cost for the National Coastal                                  
                                                        Action Program                                                           



9. Improve the research and information base for coastal zone resource use and management


Establish standards for         Commonwealth Spatial    The Spatial Data Committee should        Essential 1994       -          
collection and transfer of      Data Committee          establish a sub-committee to undertake                                   
data (Section 14.5)                                     this task and to enhance collaboration                                   
                                                        between relevant Commonwealth agencies                                   

Establish an integrated         NRIC                    To be developed in collaboration with    High      1994-95    $50 000    
national directory of marine                            relevant agencies including ERIN and               to         per annum  
and coastal data sets (Section                          state and local coastal resource                   1996-97               
14.5)                                                   managers                                                                 



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

Enhance the development of the  ERIN                    Should be developed in collaboration     High      1994-95    $300 000   
National Marine Information                             with relevant agencies including NRIC              to         per annum  
System (Section 14.5)                                   and state and local coastal resource               1996-97               
                                                        managers                                                                 

Facilitate the development of   National Coastal        Assistance should be conditional on      High      1994-95    $3         
local and state coastal         Management Agency       agreed standards for data collection               to         million    
resource inventories (Section                           and transfer.  Inventories would build             1996-97    per annum  
14.5)                                                   on existing data and data collection                                     
                                                        initiatives.  Allocation of funding                                      
                                                        should be linked to priorities                                           
                                                        established for the preparation of                                       
                                                        local and regional strategies                                            

Review the research priorities  ASTEC                   This should include review of            High      1994       $300 000   
identified by this Inquiry and                          coordination arrangements for research                                   
examine the scope for better                            funding and priority setting, the                                        
coordination of research                                adequacy of arrangements for data                                        
efforts in these areas                                  collection, and the need for periodic                                    
(Section 14.5)                                          review of coastal research priorities                                    

Transfer of data between        All spheres of          This recommendation is consistent with   High      1994       -          
government agencies should be   government              ANZLIC's draft policy on the transfer                                    
based on the cost of                                    of land-related data                                                     
transferring that data                                                                                                           
(Section 14.5)                                                                                                                   

Maintain support for the Local  DEST                    This should include continuing support   Essential 1994-95    $300 000   
Government Environmental                                beyond the existing pilot program for              to         per annum  
Information Exchange Scheme                             environmental resource officers                    1996-97               
(Section 14.5)                                          attached to local government                                             
                                                        associations                                                             

Provide assistance to local     National Coastal        This should include the provision of     High      1994-95    $50 000    
authorities to make better use  Management Agency       advice on gaining access to specialist             to         per annum  
of information available for                            information, dissemination of knowledge            1996-97               
coastal resource management                             about 'best practice' information                                        
(Section 14.5)                                          systems, and the holding of workshops                                    

Increase funding of the Marine  DEST                    -                                        High      1994-95    $100 000   
and Coastal Community Network                                                                              to         per annum  
(Section 14.5)                                                                                             1996-97               



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

Develop coordinated             NRIC and ERIN           -                                        High      1994-95    $50 000    
information services oriented                                                                              to         per annum  
to the needs of coastal                                                                                    1996-97               
resource managers, the                                                                                                           
research community and                                                                                                           
relevant groups                                                                                                                  



10. Initiate education programs to increase the expertise available for coastal zone management


Inform local government         Local governments,      Costs included in estimates for          High      1994       -          
employees of the implications   with assistance from    community education                                                      
of the National Coastal Action  the National Coastal                                                                             
Program (Section 11.4)          Management Agency                                                                                

Ensure that local governments   All spheres of          Local governments will be required to    High      1994-95    $2         
have sufficient expertise to    government with         define the range of competence needed              to         million    
achieve the objectives of the   assistance from the     for the tasks associated with                      1996-97    per annum  
National Coastal Action         National Coastal        integrated coastal zone management.                                      
Program (Section 11.4)          Management Agency       Commonwealth assistance could be                                         
                                                        provided through such programs as the                                    
                                                        Local Government Development Program                                     
                                                        and the National Urban Development                                       
                                                        Program                                                                  

Establish key centres for       Australian Research     These centres should be funded from the  High      1994-95    $800 000   
teaching and research related   Council                 forthcoming round of grants.  The                  to         per annum  
to coastal resource                                     centres should be established so as to             1999-2000             
management, including a centre                          provide coverage of the full range of                                    
for indigenous natural                                  Australia's coastal zone environments                                    
resource management (Section                                                                                                     
11.4)                                                                                                                            

Tertiary institutions should    Tertiary institutions   Tertiary institutions should consult     High      1994       -          
ensure that integrated and                              with local government associations and                                   
strategic approaches to                                 other coastal managers about the scope                                   
management are incorporated in                          of courses relevant to coastal                                           
resource management courses                             management                                                               
(Section 11.4)                                                                                                                   



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       



11. Improve quarantine and surveillance measures


Establish a base facility on    Commonwealth            The facility should be staffed           Essential 1994       $200 000   
Saibai Island (Torres Strait)   Government              continuously and members of local                                        
for use by immigration,                                 indigenous communities should be                                         
quarantine and customs                                  employed to assist in quarantine                                         
officers                                                functions.  The employment of                                            
(Section 15.7)                                          quarantine assistants on Yorke, Sabai,                                   
                                                        Badu and Darney Islands should be                                        
                                                        continued                                                                

Enhancement of surveillance     Commonwealth            This should include equipping of         High      Ongoing    $1         
and interception capabilities   Government              Coastwatch with                                               million    
in northern coastal areas                               night-vision capacity for use in Torres                       per annum  
(Section 15.7)                                          Strait                                                                   

Review Australia's quarantine   AQIS                    Such a review is consistent with the     High      1994       -          
strategy (Section 15.7)                                 recommendations of the 1988 Lindsay                                      
                                                        Committee report and should focus on                                     
                                                        the Northern Australia Quarantine                                        
                                                        Strategy                                                                 

Review role that Australian     Department of Defence   -                                        High      1994       -          
defence forces could play in    and Coastwatch                                                                                   
civil surveillance (Section                                                                                                      
15.7)                                                                                                                            

Adopt national domestic         State and Commonwealth  Funding be maintained for research       High      1994       -          
guidelines for handling         governments             program into management and eradication                                  
ballast water (Section 15.7)                            of exotic marine pests and diseases                                      
                                                        introduced through ballast water                                         

Review options for dealing      Ministerial Council on  The review should include consideration  Essential 1994       -          
with breaches of fisheries      Forestry, Fisheries     of options for greater involvement of                                    
regulations (Section 15.7)      and Aquaculture         Australia's indigenous people.  Results                                  
                                                        of the review should be taken into                                       
                                                        account in developing the Aboriginal                                     
                                                        and Torres Strait Islander Fisheries                                     
                                                        Strategy                                                                 



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       



12. Improve funding arrangements and the use of economic instruments


Adopt cost-based charges for    State governments,      -                                        Essential 1994       -          
supply of water and disposal    water agencies                                                                                   
of waste water and other                                                                                                         
wastes (Section 13.5)                                                                                                            

Adopt tradeable permit systems  State governments,      Development of these systems should      High      1995       -          
to help meet water quality      water agencies          assist in implementation of the                                          
criteria (Section 13.5)                                 National Water Quality Management                                        
                                                        Strategy                                                                 

Extend cost recovery            All spheres of          Concessions for lower income groups may  Essential Ongoing    -          
arrangements for coastal zone   government              be required                                                              
resource uses and, where uses                                                                                                    
have adverse environmental                                                                                                       
consequences, implement                                                                                                          
charging arrangements that                                                                                                       
limit use (Section 13.5)                                                                                                         

Developers meet full costs of   Relevant local and      The proceeds of developer contributions  Essential Ongoing    -          
new developments through        state governments       should be distributed to agencies that                                   
developer contributions         agencies                incur the costs associated with each                                     
(Section 13.5)                                          development; identification and funding                                  
                                                        by governments of costs associated with                                  
                                                        social or community service obligations                                  
                                                        to be undertaken on a case-by-case                                       
                                                        basis                                                                    

Extend use of performance       Relevant local and      Bonds should be used unless equally      High      1994       -          
bonds for development projects  state governments       effective enforcement measures are                                       
in the coastal zone (Section    agencies                available                                                                
13.5)                                                                                                                            

Adopt specific levies to help   State and local         This measure should be adopted only      High      Ongoing    -          
finance coastal zone            governments             when shown to be necessary; the revenue                                  
management (Section 13.5)                               should be set aside for coastal zone                                     
                                                        management and funding arrangements                                      
                                                        should be fully transparent to the                                       
                                                        community                                                                



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                  Responsibility          Comments                                 Priority  Completion Cost       

Introduce a tax on              State governments       Revenue obtained should be distributed   High      1995       -          
accommodation charges in the                            to state agencies and local government                                   
coastal zone (Section 13.5)                             authorities on a competitive basis for                                   
                                                        activities directed at achieving                                         
                                                        coastal zone management objectives,                                      
                                                        particularly those related to tourism                                    
                                                        and recreation                                                           

Initiate pilot programs to      DEST                    This will require collaboration with     High      1994-95    $250 000   
research, design implement and                          DPIE, state coastal coordinating                   to         per annum  
promote use of economic and                             committees and other relevant agencies             1996-97               
financial instruments (Section                                                                                                   
13.5)                                                                                                                            

Initiate a detailed review of   BRS, ABARE and BIE      The review should examine the effects    High      1994       -          
the environmental implications                          of such policies on the objectives of                                    
of government policies and                              the National Coastal Action Program                                      
programs pertaining to                                                                                                           
industries operating in the                                                                                                      
coastal zone (Section 13.5)                                                                                                      

Provide adequate funds to       All spheres of          The Inquiry estimates that               Essential 1994-95    -        
ensure the National Coastal     government              implementation of the National Coastal             to                  
Action Program is achieved                              Action Program will require                        1996-97             
(Section 17.4)                                          approximately $23 million for each year                                
                                                        for the first three years of the                                       
                                                        program.  The Commonwealth government                                  
                                                        should increase its levels of                                          
                                                        expenditure on coastal zone management                                 
                                                        to ensure that the Program is                                          
                                                        implemented without delay                                              

Review allocation of resources  All spheres of          -                                        Essential 1994       -        
for coastal zone management in  government                                                                                     
light of the objectives and                                                                                                    
principles of the National                                                                                                     
Coastal Action Program                                                                                                         
(Section 17.4)                                                                                                                 



Table 18.1 (cont'd) Implementation of the Inquiry's recommendations: responsibilities, priorities, timing and costs


Recommendation                    Responsibility         Comments                                  Priority Completion Cost      

The provision of funds for        All spheres of         Funding should also be conditional on     Essentia Ongoing    -         
coastal zone management should    government             the specification of monitoring,          l                             
be conditional on policies and                           evaluation and reporting arrangements                                   
programs being in accordance                                                                                                     
with national coastal zone                                                                                                       
objectives (Section 17.4)                                                                                                        

Develop a standardised            National Coastal       This should be done in conjunction with   High     1995       $150 000  
accounting format to assist in    Management Agency,     state, Commonwealth and local government                                
monitoring and evaluating         Commonwealth and       agencies                                                                
expenditures on important         state Departments of                                                                           
aspects of coastal zone           Finance                                                                                        
management (Section 17.4)                                                                                                        



- Nil.
Note: Costs are incremental only; it is assumed that policy development, planning and review are part of normal government agency functions and therefore do not need to be costed
separately. Additional expenditures may be required once the objectives of the National Coastal Action Program have been agreed by governments and relevant agencies have
reviewed their priorities and budgets to ensure that the objectives are achieved.


18.2 MONITORING AND EVALUATING IMPLEMENTATION

18.06 Monitoring progress in implementing the National Coastal Action Program is essential for ensuring that the requirements of the Program are being met; monitoring will provide a sound basis for evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the Program in improving the management of Australia's coastal zone resources.

18.07 Responsibility for monitoring and evaluating the Program's implementation should lie primarily with the National Coastal Management Agency. Coordination with state coastal coordinating committees and local authorities will be required. All aspects of the implementation agenda require monitoring which should focus on the following:

18.08 Provided it has access to the necessary information the National Coastal Management Agency will be able to monitor elements of the Program for which it has direct responsibility. To adequately monitor progress in implementing the Program as a whole, however, it will need to monitor progress in implementing those many parts of the Program for which local governments and state and Commonwealth agencies are responsible. Provision of information to the National Coastal Management Agency should be the responsibility of the state and Commonwealth coastal coordinating committees; it will be necessary to consider the extent to which monitoring of the resources in the coastal zone is required to adequately evaluate the progress being made with the Program.

18.09 The results of monitoring the implementation of the National Coastal Action Program should be disclosed in the annual report of the National Coastal Management Agency to the Council of Australian Governments. These and other reports of the agency should be publicly available.

18.3 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

18.10 To ensure that the National Coastal Action Program is implemented without undue delay, it is essential that governments agree to implement relevant aspects of the Program according to the Inquiry's proposed implementation agenda.

R.68 The Inquiry recommends that

governments adopt the agenda for implementing the National Coastal Action Program;

18.11 The Program must be carried out in an effective and efficient manner and it is essential that an effective monitoring and evaluation program be put in place.

R.69 The Inquiry recommends that

implementation of the National Coastal Action Program be monitored and evaluated by the National Coastal Management Agency. The Agency should report annually to the Council of Australian Governments and its report should be publicly available.