Key departmental publications, e.g. annual reports, budget papers and program guidelines are available in our online archive.
Much of the material listed on these archived web pages has been superseded, or served a particular purpose at a particular time. It may contain references to activities or policies that have no current application. Many archived documents may link to web pages that have moved or no longer exist, or may refer to other documents that are no longer available.
Resource Assessment Commission, November 1993
ISBN 0 64429457
A.01 This appendix examines in some detail the three activities specifically mentioned in the Inquiry's terms of reference: building, tourism and mariculture. It provides a brief description of the contribution made by each sector to the Australian economy, together with current resource use and management issues.
A.02 Numerous other industries such as commercial fishing, mineral exploration, mining, manufacturing, transport and other service industries also make significant calls on coastal zone resources. This appendix does not provide an analysis of these industries; rather, it deals with building, tourism and mariculture as examples of the management problems that arise through coastal zone resource use.
A.03 Section A.1 examines a number of important matters stemming from building activity in the coastal zone, including urbanisation. Section A.2 examines some aspects of industrial development in coastal areas. The tourism industry is discussed in Section A.3, and Section A.4 examines the mariculture industry.
A.04 The coastal zone is the focus for much of Australia's building activity. This activity takes many forms: residential development and subdivision; commercial and industrial development; construction of roads and other infrastructure (such as water and sewerage services); development of recreation facilities and public amenities; tourist developments such as marinas and hotels; coastal protection works; and so on. The extent of this development has grown rapidly in the coastal zone in the last two decades.
A.05 The building industry Australia-wide contributes approximately 14 per cent to gross domestic product and employs approximately 8 per cent of the workforce (AUBRCC 1991). It consists of a variety of types of businesses, ranging from individual operators to large national construction companies. It is a volatile industry in which levels of activity fluctuate widely as part of the cyclical fluctuations in the Australian economy.
A.06 As a consequence of rapid population growth in many coastal cities and towns there has been a significant expansion of urban development into areas that were formerly dominated by rural activities. This urban expansion can be classified into two main categories. One consists of the spread of new residential and associated commercial areas around the perimeter of established towns and cities. These developments are typically suburban in character and frequently made up of 'standard' residential buildings. In many cases such developments are occupied by people wishing to live permanently in the area; in some cases, they serve mainly as holiday centres. The other category of urban expansion is the development of larger lots for semi-rural uses, mainly in the hinterlands of coastal cities and towns. This type of development is associated with a wide range of uses, from predominantly residential activities on larger-than-normal lots to 'hobby farm' activities on lots of up to 20 or more hectares.
A.07 Urbanisation has profound effects on many important coastal zone resources. It can result in the pollution of coastal waters by stormwater run-off and effluent disposal, degradation of beaches and other natural environments from improper or excessive use, a reduction in the area of bushland and wetlands, and habitat depletion.
A.08 Many of these impacts arise from urban lifestyles. When many urban settlements were originally established, very little consideration was given to the impact that urban living would have on the surrounding environment. Consequently, many urban stormwater and sewerage systems discharge directly into coastal rivers and waters, little thought having been given to the effects of such discharges on the quality of the receiving waters. In addition, many areas surrounding population centres have become over-exploited as people pursue recreation activities. Together these aspects of population growth and urbanisation have had serious effects on many natural resources (see Chapter 2).
A.09 Another source of impacts has been the development of new urban areas. In most cases such developments have caused resources to be transferred from one use to another; for example, from remnant bushland to residential estates. In some cases conservation objectives have been ignored during development processes, resulting in loss of habitats and overall environmental quality. New urban developments that are poorly managed can also spread undesirable impacts on resources associated with existing urban settlements.
A.10 Rural residential and hobby farm developments can exacerbate the problems of urban sprawl. The low density of these developments means that a proportionally larger area of land is converted to urban uses by a smaller number of people when compared with similar development in urban areas. If this type of development is poorly managed the potential impacts on remnant ecosystems and other resource uses can be significant.
A.11 An associated impact arises when this type of land use occurs adjacent to expanding urban areas and occupies land that could otherwise accommodate the growth of more conventional types of urban settlements. These quasi-urban forms of land use can place stress on the provision of services and infrastructure. Lower density usually means high unit costs of providing and maintaining services and facilities such as roads, water supply and education; unless those responsible for these developments pay the incremental costs of supplying these services, there will be a decline in the levels of services provided to the population of the area. In addition, the people that occupy developments of this kind often have high expectations (based on previous urban experiences) about the level of services that should be provided. Such expectations are often converted into demands on local governments and other service providers to supply additional facilities.
A.12 Various conservation groups pointed to shortcomings in planning processes as a major cause of problems arising from urbanisation, including lack of long-term planning; inflexible planning mechanisms that cannot accommodate changes in demand for housing, employment, transport and community services; ad hoc development of housing and infrastructure without proper consideration of impacts on coastal environments; a lack of consistent goals and effective coordination; inadequate planning schemes to control undesirable forms of development such as ribbon development; little consideration for heritage and cultural values (including the values of indigenous people); lack of uniformity in criteria for requiring environmental impact assessments; and little consideration for cumulative effects of development (see, for example, Trinity Bay and Inlet Society, Submission 300; Shire of Alberton, Submission 269; Victorian National Parks Association, Submission 274; Queensland Conservation Council, Submission 298; Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 310).
A.13 Major management difficulties in coastal management arise from the accumulated impacts of numerous uncoordinated development decisions-the
so-called tyranny of small decisions. Examples are the impacts associated with overclearing of land and over-fishing, and loss of water quality as a result of nonpoint-source pollutants entering waterways from land adjoining rivers. In the case of urban development, an example of the way in which the impacts of small decisions accumulate to create a significant impact can be found in the pattern of growth associated with many small coastal towns: each additional subdivision may not of itself appear to be significant, but the impacts of all subdivisions over a longer period result not only in loss of amenity but also in loss in the quality of vital resources such as water.
A.14 The following are among the many management difficulties arising from the impacts of development in existing urban areas:
A.15 There are some national initiatives designed to improve the management of existing urban areas and so reduce the areas' impacts on the environment. The majority of Australian urban areas are located in the coastal zone, so these initiatives can have important effects on the management of coastal land. Among the initiatives are the National Housing Strategy, discussed in Chapter 16, and programs such as Building Better Cities, Integrated Local Area Planning, and the Australian Model Code for Residential Development, discussed elsewhere in this report.
A.16 Reforms to the management of urban growth and development being promoted nationally are largely directed at state and local governments, which, through the use of planning and building regulations, have direct control over the urban development process. The basis of the development control systems is similar in all states but the details vary. The case studies conducted by the Inquiry in collaboration with the states provide a description of the major elements of these systems in each state.
A.17 In general, planning schemes are used to allocate particular areas or zones to broad classes of land use, such as residential, industrial or public open space. Schemes generally specify the types of development that may be permitted in each area or zone and a process for determining whether a particular development can be approved. Most planning instruments provide for the amendment of schemes so that land can be converted from one category to another, provided that the proposed 'rezoning' complies with planning principles. Once planning approval has been sought for a development, a building or development approval is usually required before any construction can begin.
A.18 Although planning schemes have the potential to take account of a broad range of objectives in their preparation, they tend to be 'development facilitation' documents, paying little regard to broader issues of environmental or resource management.
A.19 Existing planning processes are generally confined to controlling building and subdivision at the design or pre-development stage. They offer very few ways of monitoring and managing impacts arising from particular developments. Because of this, management of the consequences of urban development is heavily dependent on the quality of the building and subdivision process and on the rigour of the processes by which amendments are made to the original plans.
A.20 Decision makers are frequently unable to identify the broader, diffuse consequences of their decisions, whereas the benefits of development are readily identifiable. Prospects of increased local economic activity and growth offered by land developers can thus be very influential.
A.21 State government planning agencies throughout Australia have recognised these concerns and are taking action to resolve some of the difficulties. The most common response has been the use of planning studies to identify areas of land capable of accommodating urban expansion and to guide the provision of infrastructure to support this expansion. The plans are sometimes incorporated in broader multiobjective regional planning exercises.
A.22 Most of Australia's manufacturing industry is located in the coastal zone, primarily because of the need for access to suitable ports for exporting to overseas and local markets. Development of manufacturing and associated activities usually requires substantial investment in building and construction activities and can lead to significant increases in development in the areas affected.
A.23 The Inquiry commissioned case studies of developments at Kwinana in Western Australia, Gladstone in Queensland and Western Port in Victoria (AGC Woodward-Clyde 1993) to provide information about the implications of industrial development for resource management in non-metropolitan coastal areas. The studies identified the major resource uses associated with industrial development and the management problems that have arisen in these three areas.
A.24 The following were the main resource use problems identified in the case studies of industrial development at Kwinana, Gladstone and Western Port:
A.25 Some of these outcomes were a consequence of the desire of state governments to encourage developments. They actively encouraged industries to locate in specific locations, often by providing financial and other incentives, including exemptions from some approvals processes.
A.26 A number of initiatives have sought to tackle many of the problems arising from the development of secondary industries in coastal areas. For example, the Western Australian Government has a program to identify suitable sites within each region of the State.
A.27 Of the three study areas, Western Port is the only area in which industrial development proceeded, from the beginning, in accordance with a strategic plan. Substantial areas were set aside for industrial development, port requirements and adequate buffer zones between the industrial and residential areas. But Western Port now has considerably more industrial land than is at present needed and there is concern that the current study of port and industrial land allocations will result in industrial land being rezoned for other uses, leading to insufficient land being available in the future.
A.28 A number of strategic industrial development studies have been carried out by state government agencies, reflecting the view that deepwater ports and associated industrial estates are areas of state significance. In most cases, local government by-laws do not apply to these areas or have been suspended to facilitate state government involvement. Two recent draft studies, the Gladstone Industrial Land Use Study (AGC Woodward-Clyde 1993) and 'Towards Optimising Land Use in Kwinana' (Dames & Moore 1993), recommend that state-level management structures be established for ports and industrial estates. In addition, the Queensland Department of the Premier, Economic and Trade Development is considering using powers under the State Development and Public Works Organisation Act 1971 to establish a management committee to implement the recommendations of the Gladstone Industrial Land Use Study, with a management plan to replace local government planning regulations.
A.29 A number of other initiatives are being used to assist in the management of future developments. Responding to the high priority state governments have assigned to port and industrial development, port authorities have adopted a proactive approach to facilitating industrial development. For example, the Gladstone Port Authority has developed a 50-year strategic plan for the port and expects to spend $400 million to upgrade port facilities between 1992 and 2002.
A.30 Regional industrial land use strategies are also being used. An example is the Western Port Bay Strategy, released in 1992. The Strategy was prepared under the broad policy framework established by the Government's Coastal Policy for Victoria (1988). Its main purpose is to give effect to the general directions established by the Policy for all areas of coastal development. The Strategy deals with such issues as water quality, wetlands, planning controls, coastal settlement, and port and industrial development; it is an important attempt to integrate all resource demands, including environmental protection and conservation, into a single strategic approach for the future development of a coastal area.
A.31 Governments are becoming increasingly concerned about the environmental impact of coastal industrial development. For example, the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, in conjunction with the Gladstone Port Authority, is currently conducting the Curtis Coast Study, a major study of the coastline in the Gladstone region. The main objective of the Study is to identify strategies for maintaining and enhancing the natural and recreational values of the area while realising the area's potential for industrial development. It is anticipated that, through the application of zoning controls and management directions, an environmental framework will be established within which future development can occur.
A.32 In September 1993 the Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority completed a progress report on a four-year study identifying the environmental impact of waste discharged into the Indian Ocean. This study may lead to the establishment of new standards for industrial discharges to the marine environment.
A.33 In Western Port, the Victorian Environment Protection Authority administers the statutory State Environment Protection Policy, 'The Waters of Western Port Bay'. This Policy has a primary objective of protecting the beneficial uses of the region's water by, among other things, establishing water quality objectives.
A.34 Some mechanisms have been introduced for achieving greater integration of the activities of all major coastal resource users, including heavy industry. In this context, an interesting model is the Western Port Regional Planning and Coordination Committee, comprising representatives of state and local authorities, industry, and community and environmental groups. The Committee provides to the Minister for Planning and Development advice on matters of regional significance. Other integrating mechanisms commonly used are steering committees to oversee specific projects and interdepartmental committees to assist in the preparation of regional strategies and land use studies.
A.35 The involvement of local communities is usually an important component of land use planning investigations and strategies. For example, the draft Gladstone Industrial Land Use Study has used a number of techniques such as community surveys, public meetings and public exhibitions of documentation to secure the involvement of the local community.
A.36 Another public participation mechanism receiving increasing support is the use of advisory committees to enable interest groups to have early input into project proposals and to review documentation throughout the course of the approvals process. Such a committee has been established for a joint Shell-Mobil project in Western Port. The role of the committee is to provide advice on environmental documentation.
A.37 In the last decade tourism has emerged as one of Australia's most significant growth industries. In 1990-91 the tourism industry contributed around 5.4 per cent to Australia's gross domestic product and directly and indirectly accounted for approximately 450 000 jobs. The industry is expected to grow significantly in future. Since many major tourist destinations are located in the coastal zone, expansion of tourist facilities is expected to place increasing demand on coastal zone resources.
A.38 Although the state capitals are major tourist attractions, tourism is a decentralised industry capable of diversifying and adding value in many parts of Australia. As pointed out in Chapter 2, its economic and social significance is growing rapidly in many parts of the coastal zone. It is generally labour intensive and provides employment opportunities for many types of skills. Although a considerable number of large corporations are now involved in the tourist industry, small businesses predominate. This is because there are relatively few barriers to the entry of new businesses that can provide the goods and services used directly and indirectly by the industry.
A.39 The natural resources of the coastal zone are particularly important for the future of the industry. In particular, the natural beauty of the coastal environment, its cultural heritage, the numerous attractions now located in the zone, and the increasing availability of support facilities and infrastructure will play important roles in the growth of the industry.
A.40 The industry's growth will also be affected by government policies and programs, particularly those connected with the traditional public sector role of providing social and economic infrastructure and community services. Many tourism projects may fail to achieve their full potential if these services and infrastructure are not provided efficiently (Grey et al. 1991); at the same time, governments are becoming increasingly concerned to ensure that tourist activities do not adversely affect the natural resources on which so many of them depend and that are critical to conservation objectives.
A.41 Tourism has impacts beyond its direct economic and employment benefits: it also has important social and resource effects. The social impacts are not well documented. They are, however, often associated with undesirable impacts arising from tourism developments such as loss of visual amenity, destruction of wetlands, reduced water quality, the effects on popular beaches of seasonal fluctuations in visitor numbers, dune damage from four-wheel-drive vehicles, and damage to islands, reefs and other resources as a consequence of increases in visitor numbers and activities.
A.42 Resource use conflicts generated by tourism development and tourism activities include disputes that arise between local communities and local authorities about proposed developments and between visitors and local communities about the use of local resources. Resort proposals in Queensland and northern New South Wales in recent years are examples of projects that have attracted fierce opposition from local environmental groups.
A.43 Among the key management issues identified by Inquiry participants are ineffective and inadequate management of tourism developments, fragmentation of management mechanisms, difficulties experienced by local government in providing infrastructure support, and insufficient involvement of community groups, including indigenous groups, in management processes.
A.44 Because of concerns about conflicts that have arisen in dealing with tourism development, governments have begun to take a major part in developing strategic approaches to the management of the industry.
A.45 At the national level, two recent initiatives aim to provide a framework for development of the tourism sector. One is the National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development (1992), which seeks to establish a framework for developing and managing the tourism industry in such a way as to conserve both natural resources and built heritage assets and minimise negative environmental, social and cultural impacts. The second initiative, the National Tourism Strategy, is discussed in Chapter 16.
A.46 A 'package' of regional tourism initiatives worth $42 million over four years was announced by the Prime Minister in February 1993 and included in the 1993-94 Commonwealth Budget. The package is aimed at encouraging the growth of tourism in regional and rural areas by, among other things, exploiting opportunities in emerging markets such as rural tourism and backpacking. One part of the package, the Regional Tourism Development Program, is particularly relevant to regional coastal zone management; it is discussed in Appendix B.
A.47 Strategic approaches to tourism are also increasingly being used within regional and local areas to guide tourism development. Examples are the tourism strategy developed for the North West Cape region of Western Australia and the Trinity Inlet Management Program in north Queensland (see Box A.1).
Box A.1 Strategic approaches to tourism development
North West Cape, Western Australia
A study was commissioned to assess the types of developments that may be feasible in the North West Cape region and the constraints on and potential adverse impacts of these developments. The study aimed to provide developers with information to facilitate future development and realise the tourism potential of the area.
The study was commissioned and funded jointly by the Western Australian and Commonwealth Governments. It included the investigation and assessment of potential sites for tourism development; consideration of the economic, social and environmental impacts of tourism development; an examination of the accessibility, seasonality and infrastructure needs of development; and an assessment of the tourism carrying capacity of the area.
The study incorporated a number of the essential characteristics of strategic management:
Trinity Inlet, Queensland
The Trinity Inlet Management Program in the Cairns area adopted a strategic approach to planning for the future development of the tourism industry. Preparation of the plan involved several state government agencies and local government, who signed a management agreement to proceed with plan preparation and implementation. There was also extensive public participation: public comment was sought, a consultative committee was established, and a community survey was conducted to determine broad community views.
A.48 As discussed in Chapter 2, with the exception of oyster and pearl production, the Australian mariculture industry has grown substantially in recent years, mainly because of the growth in finfish and prawn farming. Although these segments of the industry are still in their infancy, they have the potential to develop stronger domestic markets and, in the longer term, become an important and valuable export industry.
A.49 In 1990-91, the last year for which data are available, the gross value of maricultural production was about $172 million (RAC 1993m, p. 61). Australia's share of world production of these products will depend to a large extent on the containment of costs, marketing campaigns directed at substituting aquaculture products for other products on the domestic market, and the successful development of overseas markets (Treadwell et al. 1992, p. 4).
A.50 The growth in demand for maricultural products is attributable to a number of factors, among them growing consumption of seafood as an alternative to meat, the high quality of the products, and declining catches from wild fisheries.
A.51 The major competitive strength of the mariculture industry is the high quality of its products; the maintenance of a clean, disease-free production environment is critical to its existence and growth. The industry has a number of important attributes:
A.52 The mariculture industry has great potential to exploit its natural advantages but realisation of this potential is dependent on a number of factors, such as the availability of suitable sites that provide clean water and the presence of supporting infrastructure (including suppliers of feed and broodstock, manufacturers of equipment and providers of services). But the interests of other coastal users must be taken into account when consideration is given to development applications. There is a degree of community opposition to the use of coastal resources for mariculture, primarily because of its environmental and aesthetic impacts and the restriction it places on access to coastal resources for activities such as recreational boating and fishing.
A.53 The Inquiry conducted case studies in three areas-the Huon-Channel area in Tasmania (where salmon are farmed), the Clarence River in New South Wales (prawn farming) and Circular Head in Tasmania (oyster growing). These studies, together with submissions to the Inquiry, revealed a number of problems associated with the use of resources for mariculture, including degradation of resources, conflicts with other resource uses, and a lack of information about the effects of the industry on resources.
A.54 The adverse environmental impacts of mariculture developments were of particular concern to some groups and individuals (for example, Coast and Wetland Society, Submission 54; Nature Conservation Society, Submission 87; Municipality of Circular Head, Submission 310; Total Environment Centre, Submission 585). Their concerns include destruction of natural habitat, loss of visual amenity, water pollution from fish food, waste and processing facilities, threats to native fauna, depletion of wild populations as a consequence of collecting breeding stock and eggs, reliance on wild fish populations for feed requirements, and the effects of escaped species breeding in the wild.
A.55 The dominant environmental issue affecting the mariculture industry is water quality. At Circular Head, for example, oysters have been adversely affected by water pollution caused by the upstream disposal of dairy effluent. This contamination has led to closures of mariculture farms (Tasmanian Aquaculture Cooperative Society Ltd, Submission 163; Municipality of Circular Head, Submission 310). In the Georges River in Sydney, where a number of Sydney rock oyster farms operate, industrial development has reduced the quality of the water to such an extent that experts and the public have expressed concern about the quality of the oysters and measures have been taken to ensure that the oysters are fit for human consumption.
A.56 Many of the impacts of current mariculture practices are not fully understood. For example, there is a shortage of information about the effects arising from the use of chemicals and antibiotics, although it is known in general terms that metabolic wastes, excess feed and remnants of fertilisers are nutrient rich and can result in algal blooms and water pollution. There is also considerable uncertainty about the extent of environmental degradation caused by mariculture operations, but it is highly probable that fragile ecosystems (including coastal lagoons, lakes, wetlands, and areas that are poorly flushed by tidal action) are particularly susceptible (Treadwell et al. 1992; Mather 1993).
A.57 The case studies also highlighted conflicts between the mariculture industry and other coastal resource users. In south-east Tasmania, for example, salmon farming impinges on wildlife conservation, visual amenity, recreation, other industrial development and agricultural activities. Mariculture can also compete with tourism operators for the use of inlets and protected waters (particularly in highly populated coastal areas of South Australia, Tasmania and northern New South Wales) and with indigenous people for access to traditional fishing grounds.
A.58 The mariculture industry is currently managed by a multiplicity of government agencies, predominantly at the state and local levels. The Commonwealth Government has little involvement in direct management, its role being confined to national policy development and some research into related issues. State and local governments manage the regulation of the industry, including development approvals, selection of species to be cultivated, and regulation of production. State governments also conduct research into new techniques and species for the industry.
A.59 Although local government is principally responsible for development approvals, development and licensing of mariculture ventures usually require both state and local government approval. Development applications to local authorities are usually referred to various government departments for comment on such matters as impacts on environmental protection and public health.
A.60 The mechanisms used to manage the mariculture industry vary considerably between states. Several states have committees to coordinate mariculture approvals processes. Some states-Tasmania and South Australia, for example-use management plans to assist in planning for the industry's future development. Submissions to the Inquiry and the mariculture case studies highlighted a number of deficiencies in current management mechanisms relating to the industry, many of these deficiencies being seen as the 'teething problems' of new segments of the industry.
A.61 Numerous submitters drew attention to the fact that mariculture developments are subject to a plethora of regulations and approvals processes administered by a number of different government agencies (Coast and Wetland Society, Submission 54; Great Barrier Reef Pearl Farmers Association, Submission 384; Australian Conservation Foundation, Submission 301).
A.62 There has been a tendency to use and modify procedures that were designed mainly for other purposes, usually the management of commercial fishing, in the management of mariculture. This has caused a number of difficulties, including a lack of flexibility, failure to provide for the participation of interest groups in the assessment process, and the absence of adequate environmental impact assessment procedures (Tasmanian Department of Primary Industry, Submission 283). Because the principal regulatory agencies were initially established to regulate the wild fisheries, they have had difficulty developing management systems that are appropriate to the needs of the mariculture industry (O'Sullivan 1990).
A.63 Evidence received by the Inquiry also suggests that proposed mariculture developments are not always effectively assessed during the approvals process. In some cases, fish farms have been established after inadequate consideration of environmental effects or conflicts with other resource users. Moreover, existing mechanisms do not adequately take account of the cumulative impacts of mariculture developments (National Fishing Industry Council, Submission 485; Brabazon Point Residents, Submission 270; Russell, Submission 303; Environment Centre NT Inc., Submission 366). The degree to which environmental impact is assessed by state governments varies considerably. For example, in Tasmania only one environmental impact statement has been prepared for a marine farming development, while numerous ventures have been allowed to proceed. On the other hand, in New South Wales most environmental aspects are considered either separately or, if the proposal is a designated development (for example, prawn farms), under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979, whereby a comprehensive environmental impact assessment is carried out.
A.64 The industry and management agencies are not well supplied with information about resources, including biological baseline and site-specific information. Better information and more research would benefit the industry by increasing and diversifying production, and it would facilitate more effective assessment and monitoring of environmental impacts. Table A.1 shows major issues requiring more research and development.
A.65 The most significant national initiative for the mariculture industry is the draft National Strategy on Aquaculture, which was released in 1993. This Strategy proposes a number of goals that are consistent with the National Coastal Action Program (see Chapter 16).
Species General Market Hatchery Grow-out Spawners Salmonids Production Consumer preferences, Low survival Feed quality and economics value adding, export feeding (improve FCR), potential genetics Prawns Production Value adding, Low survival, Expensive feeds, low Unreliable economics integrated marketing post-larval quality FCR, domestication supply Barramundi High cost of Identification of Sudden mortality Low FCR, cannibalism Poor broodstock production market niche, quality syndrome disease Pacific Water quality site Export potential Lease carrying oysters availability capacity Mussels Site availability Identification of Disease, fouling, Variable Production market niche improved survival settlement economics Freshwater Production Identification of Pond stock Genetics, Small size at crayfish economics market niche assessment, pond domestication maturity design Giant clams Production Market identification Economics Site availability economics
Source: ANZFAC (1992b).