Publications archive - Coasts and Oceans
Key departmental publications, e.g. annual reports, budget papers and program guidelines are available in our online archive.
Much of the material listed on these archived web pages has been superseded, or served a particular purpose at a particular time. It may contain references to activities or policies that have no current application. Many archived documents may link to web pages that have moved or no longer exist, or may refer to other documents that are no longer available.
Final Report for the Department of the Environment and Heritage
S Duda, JH Myers and S Hoffman
Victorian Department of Natural Resources and Environment, 2003
Future work with these biocides is recommended to involve the investigation of the effects of the degradation products of these parent compounds to Australian biota. As a consequence of natural degradation processes in the aquatic environment, the antifouling biocides produce degradation products that may be more toxic than the many parent compounds. Also the determination of the effects of these biocides in mixtures is highly recommended. These biocides will always occur in conjunction with other agents in the water and their synergistic or antagonistic effects should be evaluated. Obviously an assessment of these two possibilities needs to be addressed to provide a complete assessment of the compounds in the aquatic environment.
The results of this study provide an estimate of the toxic effects of each of these biocides to H. banksii germination and rhizoid elongation and survival of C. insidiosum. There is currently limited information on the toxicity and mechanisms of action of each of these biocides to Australian aquatic flora and fauna. It is therefore recommended that the toxicity be determined to a wider range of aquatic phyla so as a more comprehensive assessment of the environmental impact these biocidal agents have on the Australian marine environment can be made.
The Australian Government's Natural Heritage Trust is to be acknowledged for the funding made available to undertake this project. Much of the work presented in this report formed part of the 2002 BSc (honours) theses by JHM and SH entitled 'Use of Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine in a Germination Inhibition Bioassay' and 'An Evaluation of New Antifouling Agents for use in Australian Temperate Waters using the Amphipod, Corophium insidiosum' respectively for the School of Ecology & Environment, Deakin University (Victoria, Australia). International Paints (Britain) dealing as Akzo-nobel Paints Ltd in Australia are to be acknowledged for supplying the antifouling paints investigated during this study. Gus Fabris, Bruce Brady and Leanne Gunthorpe provided advice and suggestions during discussions about this project.
Alzieu C, Sanuan J, Deltreil JP, Borel M. (1986) Tin contamination in Arcochon Bay: effects on oyster shell anomalies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 17: 493-498.
Anderson BS, Hunt JW, and Piekarski W. 1998. Recent advances in toxicity test methods using kelp gametophytes. In Wells PG, Lee K, and Blaise C. Microscale Testing in Aquatic Toxicology: Advances, Techniques, and Practice, CRC Press LLC, USA, pp255-268.
Anderson BS, Hunt JW, Turpen SL, Coulon AR and Martin M. 1990. Copper toxicity to microscopic stages of giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera: interpopulation comparisons and temporal variability. Marine Ecology Progress Series 68:147-156.
ANZECC 2000. Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Waters. Australian and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council.
Arch Chemicals, 1996. EU safety data for Zinc Omadine Powder Micronized. Arch Chemicals, Norwalk, CT.ASTM, Standard Guide for Conducting 10-day Static Sediment Toxicity Tests with Marine and Estuarine Amphipods, Designation: E 1367-99; pp 1-27.
Bidwell JR, Wheeler KW and Burridge TR. 1998. Toxicant effects on the zoospore stage of the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata (Phaeophyta: Laminariales). Marine Ecology Progress Series 163:259-265.
Boxall. ABA, Comber SD, Conrad AU, Howcroft J and Zaman N. 2000. Inputs, Monitoring and Fate Modelling of Antifouling Biocides in UK Estuaries. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:898-905.
Burridge TR and Shir MA. 1995. The Comparative Effects of Oil Dispersants and Oil/Dispersant Conjugates on Germination of the Marine Macroalga Phyospora comosa (Fucales: Phaeophyta). Marine Pollution Bulletin 31:446-452.
Burridge TR, Karistianos M and Bidwell J. 1999. The Use Of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal effluent Discharges in Southern Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 39:89-96.
Burridge TR, Lavery T and Lam PKS. 1995. Effects of Tributytin and Formaldehyde on the Germination and Growth of Phyllospora comosa ( Labillardiere) C. Agardh (Phaeophyta: Fucales). Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55:525-532.
Burridge TR, Lavery T and Lam PKS. 1995. Acute Toxicity Tests using Phyllospora comosa (Labillardiere) C. Agardh (Phaeophyta: Fuclaes) and Allorchestes compressa Dana (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Bulletin Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55:621-628.
Burridge TR, Portelli T and Ashton P. 1996. Effects of Sewage on Germination of Three Marine Brown Algal Macrophytes. Marine Freshwater Research 47:1009-1014.
Call D.J., Brooke L.T., Kent R.T., Knuth M.L., Poirier S.H., Hout J.M. and Lima A.R. (1987) Bromacil and Diuron Herbicides: Toxicity, uptake and elimination in freshwater fish. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16, 607-613.
Chagot D. Alzieu C., Sanjuan J. and Grizel H (1990) Sublethal and histolpathological effects of trace levels of tributyltin fluoride on adult oysters Crassotstrea. Aquat. Living Resour, 3, 121-130.
Dayan FE, Vincent AC, Romagni JG, Allen SN, Duke SO, Duke MV, Bowling JJ and Zjawieny JK. 2000. Amino- and Urea-Substituted Thiazoles Inhibit Photosynthetic Electron Transfer. J. Agriculture and Food Chemistry 48:3689-3693.
Environment Canada. 1995. Guidance Document on Measurement of Toxicity Test Precision using Control Sediments Spiked with a Reference Toxicant. EPS 1/RM/30. Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Environment Protection Authortiy. 1993. An Environmental Study of Tributyltins in Victorian Waters SRS 90/020. State Government of Victoria, Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.Ermolayeva E, and Sanders D, (1995) Mechanism of pyrithione-induced membrane depolarisation in Neurospora crassa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 61, No. 9, pp. 3385-3390, Sept.
Evans SM, Birchenough AC and Brancaato MS. (2000) The TBT Ban: Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire? Marine Pollution Bulletin 40: 204-211.
Evans SM. (1999) Tributyltin Pollution: the Catastrophe that Never Happened. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38:629-636.EXTOXNET: http://ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet/
Fernandez-Alba AR, Hernando MD, Piedra L and Chisti Y. 2002. Toxicity Evaluation of Single and Mixed Antifouling Biocides Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays. Analytica Chimica Acta 456:303-312. Goka K. 1999. Embryotoxicity of Zinc Pyrithione, An Antidandruff Chemical, in Fish. Environmental Research Section A 81:81-83.
Gorski J, and Burridge TR, in preparation. The Use of Biocidal Agents as a Potential Control Mechanism for the Kelp Species Undaria pinnatifida.Goulan H.and Yong W. (1995) Effects of tributyltin chloride on marine bivalve mussels. Water Research, Vol. 29, No.8, pp 1877-1884. Hay C.H. (1990) The dispersal of sporophytes of Undaria pinnatifida by coastal shipping in New Zealand, and implications for further dispersal of Undaria in France. British Phycological Journal, 25, 301-313.
Haynes D, Ralph P, Pranges J, and Dennison B. (2000a) The Impact of the Herbicide Diuron on Photosynthesis in Three Species of Tropical Seagrass. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41: 288-293. International Coatings, (November 2000) Information sheet.
Jacobson AH, Willingham GL. (2000) Sea-nine antifoulant: an environmentally acceptable alternative to organotin antifoulants. The Science of The Total Environment 258:103-110.Jacobson A, Mazza LS, Lawrence LJ, Lawrence B, Jackson S and Kesterson A. (1993) Fate of an antifoulant in an aquatic environment. In Racke KD, Leslie AR, editor. Pesticides in the urban environments, fate and significance. American Chemical Society Symp. Series 522. Washington: American chemical Society, 127-138.
Johnson A, Engey T. (2002) Contamination From Marine Paints- A Norwegian Perspective. Norwegian Defence Research Establishment Division for Environmental Toxicology, Kjeller, Norway.
Kevekordes K and Clayton MN. (1996) Using Developing Embryos of Hormosira Banksii (Phaeophyta) as a Marine Bioassay System. International Journal of Plant Science 157:582-585.
Kevekordes K and Clayton MN. (2000) Development of Hormosira Banksii (Phaeophyceae) Embryos in Selected Components of Secondary of Secondarily Treated Sewage Effluent. Journal of Phycology 36:25-32.
Kevekordes K. (2001) Toxicity tests using developmental stages of Hormosira Banksii (Phaeophyta) identify ammonium as a damaging component of secondary treated sewage effluent discharged into Bass Straight, Victoria, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 219:139-148.
Liu D, Pacepavicius GJ, Maguire RJ, Lau YL, Okamura H and Aoyama I. (1999) Survey For The Occurrence Of The New Antifouling Compound Irgarol 1051 In The Aquatic Environment. Water Research 33:2833-2843.
Mayer P, Cuhel R and Holm N. (1997) A Sample In Vitro Fluorescence Method for Biomass Measurements in Algal Growth Inhibition Tests. Water Research 31:2525-2531. Merck Index, (1984) Merck & Co., Inc (Rahway N.J. USA)Mensink B.P., Boon J.P., ten Hallers-Tjabbes C.C., van Hattum B. and J.H. Koeman. (1997) Bioaccumulation of Organotin compounds and imposex occurrence in a marine food chain (eastern Scheldt, the Netherlands). Environmental Technology, Vol 18, pp 1235-1244.Meylan W.M. and Howard P.H. (1995) Atom/fragment contribution method for estimating octanol-water partition coefficients. J. Pharm Sci 84: 83-92.Nias DJ, McKillup SC, Edyvane KS. (1993). Imposex in Lepsiella vinosa from Southern Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26: 380-384.
Okamura H, (2002) Photodegradation of the antifouling compounds Irgarol 1051 and Diuron released from a commercial antifouling paint. Chemosphere, 48, 43-50.Okamura H, Watanabe T, Aoyama I, Hasobe M, (2002) Toxicity evaluation of new antifouling compounds using suspension-cultured fish cells. Chemosphere, 46, 945-951.
Regolia L., Chanb H.M., de Lafontaine Y. and Igor Mikaeliand (2001) Organotins in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments of the Quebec city harbor area of the St. Lawrence river. Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 53, issue 2, pp 115-126.Rohm & Hass (1992)
Shuster, S. (1984) The etiology of dandruff and the mode of action of therapeutic agents. Br. J. Dermatol. 111, 235-342.
Sadiq M. (1992) Toxic Metal Chemistry in Marine Environments. Marcel Dekker, New York, New York, America.Sanderson J.C. and Barrett N (1989) A survey of the distribution of the introduced Japanese macro algae, Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar in Tasmania, Dec. 1988. Department of Sea Fisheries, Tasmania, Tech. Report, No. 38.
Scarlett A, Donkin ME, Fileman TW and Donkin P. (1999) Occurrence of the Marine Antifouling Agent Irgarol 1051, within Costal- water Seagrasses from Queensland, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 38:687-691.
Taylor RB, Peek JTA and Rees TAV. (1998). Scaling of ammonium uptake by seaweeds to surface area: volume ratio: geographical variation and the role of uptake by passive diffusion. Marine Ecology Progress Series 169:143-148.
Terlizzi A, Fraschetti S, Gianguzza P, Faimali M and Boero F. (2001). Environmental Impact of Antifouling Technologies: state of the art and perspectives. Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11:311-317.Thomas K.V, Blake S.J, Waldock M.J, (2000) Antifouling paint booster biocide contamination in UK marine sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 40, No. 9, pp. 739-745.
Thursby GB and Steele RL. (1995). Sexual Reproduction Tests With Marine Seaweeds. In Rand GM. Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology Effects, Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment, 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C., USA, pp.171-187.
Thursby GB, Anderson BS, Walsh GE and Steele RL. (1993). A Review of the Current Status of Marine Agal Toxicity Testing in the United States. Environmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment. In Landis WG, Huges JS and Lewis MA, Eds, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp.362-377.
Tidepool Scientific (1996) Toxcalc Users Guide Version 5.0. Tidepool Scientific Software. Tolsa I, Readman JW, Blaevoet A, Ghilini S, Bartocci J and Horvat M. (1996) Contamination of Mediterranean Costal Waters by Organotins and Irgarol 1051 Used in Antifouling Paints. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32:335-341.
Turley PA, Fenn RJ and Ritter JC. (2000) Pyrithiones as Antifoulants: Environmental Chemistry and Preliminary Risk Assessment. Biofouling 15:175-182.
Van Leeuwen CJ, Maas-Diepeveen JL, Niebeek G. Vergouw WHA, Griffioen PS, and Luijken MW. (1985). Aquatic toxicological Aspects of Dithiocarbamates and Related Compounds. I. Short-term Toxicity Tests. Aquatic Toxicology 7: 145-164.
Van Leeuwen CJ, Van Hameren P, Bogers M, and Griffioen PS. (1986) Uptake, Distribution and Retention of Zineb and Ziram in Rainbow Trout (Salmo Gairdners). Toxicology 42: 33-46.
Voulvoulis N, Scrimshaw MD and Lester JN. (1999) Analytical Methods For The Determination of 9 Antifouling Paint Booster Biocides in Estuarine Water Samples. Chemosphere 38:3503-3516.
Voulvoulis N, Scrimshaw MD and Lester JN. (2000) Occurrence of Four Biocides Utilised in Antifouling Paints, as Alternatives to Organotin Compounds, in Water and Sediments of a Commercial Estuery in the UK. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40:938-946.
Voulvoulis N, Scrimshaw MD and Lester JN. (2002) Partitioning of Selected Antifouling Biocides in the Aquatic Environment. Marine Environmental Research 53:1-6. Waite, M.E., Waldock, M.J., Thain, J.E., Smith, D.J. and Milton, S.M. (1991). Reductions in TBT concentrations in UK estuaries following legislation in 1986 and 1987. Mar. Environ. Res. 32, 89-111.Willingham GL and Jacobson AH, (1993) Efficacy and environmental fate of a new isothiazolone antifoulant. In: proceedings of the third Asia-Pacific conference of the paint research association. International Centre for Coatings Technology, 13.1-14.13.Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, (1952) Marine fouling and its prevention. US Naval institute: Washington DC.