Biodiversity publications archive

Reimbursing the future: an evaluation of motivational, voluntary, price-based, property-right, and regulatory incentives for the conservation of biodiversity

Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 9
M.D. Young, N. Gunningham, J. Elix, J. Lambert, B. Howard, P. Grabosky and E. McCrone
CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, the Australian Centre for Environmental Law, and Community Solutions
Biodiversity Unit, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, 1996
ISBN 0 642 24429 4

References

1994 Report of the Working Group on Water Resource Policy to the Council of Australian Governments. Mimeo, Canberra.

ACIL (1993) Making profits from farm bush: An assessment of the economic returns from the sustainable use of remnant vegetation on Western Australian wheatbelt farms. A Report to The Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management, ACIL Economics and Policy Pty Ltd.

AGB McNair (1993) Community attitudes survey. Report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority.

UN Conference on Environment and Development (1993) Agenda 21: the Earth Summit strategy to save our planet. Earth Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Alexandra, J. (1994) Market mechanisms to enhance sustainable management of the inland rivers. Australian Conservation Foundation. Unpublished.

Anon. (1994) Rate rebate scheme for the revegetation of high groundwater recharge areas in the City of Greater Bendigo. Loddon-Campaspe Regional Planning Authority.

Arthrington, A.H. and King, J. M. (1992) 'Developing an holistic approach for assessing environmental flow requirements of riverine ecosystems.' In Pigram, J. and Hooper, P. (eds) Water allocation for the environment. Proceedings of an International Seminar and Workshop, November (1991), Centre for Water Policy Research, University of New England, Armidale.

Atkins, K.; 23 May (1995) Letter to the authors. Senior Botanist, Dept of Conservation and Land Management.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council Task Force on Biological Diversity (1993) National strategy for the conservation of Australia's biological diversity. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (1993) Use of economic instruments in integrated coastal zone management. Report prepared for Coastal Zone Inquiry, Resource Assessment Commission, Canberra.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (1994) Value of agricultural commodities produced: Western Australia season 1991-92. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Catalogue No 7503.5.

Australian Manufacturing Council (1993/4) Best practice environmental regulation. Melbourne.

Australian Nature Conservation Agency (1993) A directory of important wetlands in Australia. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (1993) National Strategy for the conservation of Australia's biological diversity. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Aylward, B.A. (1993) The economic value of pharmaceutical prospecting and its role in biodiversity conservation. International Institute for Environment and Development, London Environmental Economics Centre, London.

Aylward, B.A.; Echeverria, J.; Fendt, L. and Barbier, E.B. (1993) The economic value of species information and its role in biodiversity conservation: Costa Rica's National Biodiversity Institute. International Institute for Environment and Development, London Environmental Economics Centre, London.

Aylward, B.A. (1992) 'Appropriating the value of wildlife and wetlands.' In Swanson, T.M and Barbier, E.B. (eds) Economy for the Wilds. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Ayres, I. and Braithwaite, J. (1992) Responsive regulation: Transcending the deregulation debate. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Backhouse, G.N. and Clark, T.W. (1995) 'Case studies and policy initiatives in endangered species recovery in Australia: Introduction.' Chapter 1 in Bennett, A.; Backhouse, G. and Clark, T. (eds) People and nature conservation: Perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.

Barber, C.V. and Churchill, G. (1987) Land policy in Irian Jaya: Issues and strategies. Government of Indonesia/World Bank, Jakarta.

Barbier, E. (1994) Priority setting for biodiversity conservation. Scoping Papers on National Issues in the Use of Economic Incentives for Conservation of Biodiversity. OECD, Paris.

Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C. and Folke, C. (1994) Paradise lost? The ecological economics of biodiversity. Earthscan Publications Ltd, London.

Barbier, E.B. (1992) 'Community-based development in Africa.' In Swanson, T.M. and Barbier, E.B.; Economics for the Wilds. Island Press, Washington D.C.

Bardach, E. and Kagan, R.A. (1982) Going by the book: The problem of regulatory unreasonableness. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Bates, G. (1995) 'Jurisdiction in relation to biodiversity on roadsides.' Report prepared for Transport Research Limited, Sustainable Development Series. Australian Road Research Board Working Document 95/003.

Beard, J.S. and Sprenger, B.S. (1984) 'Geographical data from the vegetation survey of Western Australia.' Vegetation survey of Western Australia. Occasional Paper No 2. Vegmap Publications, Perth.

Bennet, A.F. (1995) 'Conservation and management on private land – facing the challenge.' In Bennett, A.; Backhouse, G. and Clark, T. (eds) People and nature conservation: Perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.

Benshemesh, J. (1990) 'Management of Malleefowl with regard to fire.' Appendix 3 in Noble, J.C.; Joss, P.J. and Jones, G.K. (eds) The Mallee lands: A conservation perspective. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

Biodiversity Unit (1995) 'Native vegetation clearance, habitat loss and biodiversity decline.' Biodiversity Series, Paper No.6. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Biodiversity Unit (1994) 'Australia's Biodiversity: an overview of selected significant components.' Biodiversity Series Paper No. 2. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Bird Rose, D. (ed) (1995) 'Country in flames.' Proceedings of the 1994 symposium on biodiversity and fire in North Australia. Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 3. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories and North Australia Research Unit, Australian National University, Canberra and Darwin.

Bird, J. (1995) Letter to the authors. National Co-ordinator, Australian Bush Heritage Fund, 9 January 1995.

Bishton, B. and Coulls, P. (1994) 'Kangaroo island roadside vegetation clearance.' In Kangaroo Island Eco Action, Environment South Australia 3(4):14.

Blay and Piotrowicz (1993) 'Biodiversity and conservation in the 21st century: A critique of the Earth Summit 1992.' Environmental and Planning Law Journal 10(6):450 at 452.

Blomquist, W. (1992) Dividing the Waters. ICS Press, San Francisco.

Blyth, M. and Kirby, M. (1984) The impact of government policy on land degradation in the rural sector. Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Canberra.

Bohm, P. and Russell, C.S. (1985) Comparative analysis of alternative policy instruments.' In Kneese, A.V. and Sweeny, J.L. (eds) Handbook of natural resource and energy economics: Volume 1. North Holland, Amsterdam.

Botlain, D.B. (1990) Discordant Harmonies. Oxford University Press, New York.

Bowers J. (1994) Incentives and mechanisms for biodiversity: Observations and issues. CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, Canberra.

Boyd, K. (1992) 'Inland rivers need restoration (not more irrigation).' National Parks Journal 36 June:11-15.

Bradsen, J. (1987) 'Legal issues and institutional constraints.' In Chisholm, A. and Dumsday, R. (eds) Land degradation: Problems and policies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bradsen, J. (1992) 'Biodiversity legislation: species, vegetation, habitat.' Environmental Planning and Law Journal 9(6):175-180.

Bradsen, J. (1994) 'Vegetation clearance controls in South Australia.' Paper delivered to the Fenner Conference Sustainability: Principles and Practice. Canberra, November, 1994.

Bradstock, R.A. (1989) 'Dynamics of a perennial understorey.' In Noble, J.C. and Bradstock, R. (eds) Mediterranean landscapes in Australia: Mallee ecosystems and their management. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

Braithwaite, J. and Fisse, B. (1987) 'Regulation and the costs of corporate crime.' In Shearing and Stenning (eds) Private policing. Sage Publications, Beverley Hills.

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, Shame and Reintegration. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Braithwaite, R.W. and Werner, P.A. (1987) 'The biological value of Kakadu National Park.' Search 18(6):296-301.

Brannock Humphreys, (1993) Daintree planning package. Brannock Humphreys, Brisbane.

Brereton, G. (1994) Macquarie Marshes management strategy. Stage 1 – biophysical investigations. Summary Report, Natural Resources Management Strategy.

Bridgewater, P.B.; Walton, D.W.; Bushby, J.R. and Reville, B.J. (1992) 'Theory and practice in framing a national system for conservation in Australia.' In Biodiversity – broadening the debate: A trilogy of discussion papers. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

Bromley, D. (1994) Property rights, economic incentives, and biodiversity conservation. Scoping papers on national issues in the use of economic incentives for conservation of biodiversity, OECD, Paris.

Brooker, M. G. (1992) Waterbirds of the Macquarie Marshes. Unpublished Report.

Brotherton, I. (1991) 'On the voluntary approach to resolving rural conflict.' Environment and Planning A, 22:925-39.

Brown, K.; Pearce, D.; Perrings, C. and Swanson, T. (1993) Economics and the conservation of global biological diversity. Working Paper No. 2., The Global Environment Facility, Washington D.C.

Burbidge, A.A. and Wallace, K.J. (1995) 'Practical methods for conserving biodiversity.' In Bradstock, R.A.; Auld, T.D.; Keith, D.A.; Kingsford, R.T.; Lunney D. and Sivertsen D.P. (eds) Conserving biodiversity: Threats and solutions. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Bureau of Industry Economics (1992) Environmental regulation: The economics of tradeable permits – a survey of theory and practice. Research Report 42, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Burrows, N.D.; McCaw, W.L. and Maisey, K.G. (1987) 'Planning for fire management in Dryandra Forest.' In Saunders, D.A.; Arnold, G.W.; Burbidge, A.A. and Hopkins, A.J.M. (eds) Nature conservation: The role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Cameron, J. and Elix, J. (1991) 'Measures for achieving land management and conservation objectives.' In Cameron, J. and Elix, J. (eds) Recovering ground: A case study approach to ecologically sustainable rural land management. Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne.

Cameron, J. and Elix, J. (1991) Recovering ground: A case study approach to ecologically sustainable rural land management. Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne.

Cameron, J. (1991) 'Kangaroos in Australia: Populations, distribution and means of control.' In Recovering ground: A case study approach to ecologically sustainable rural land management. Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne.

Campbell, A. (1992) Landcare in Australia. National Landcare Facilitator, Third Annual Report.

Campbell, A. (1994) 'The Landcare Programme, Australia.' In Partnerships in practice. Department of Environment, United Kingdom.

Campbell, A. (1994) Landcare: Communities shaping the land and the future. Allen and Unwin, Sydney. Cervigni, R. (1993) Biodiversity, incentives to deforest and tradeable development rights. Working Paper GEC 93-07, Centre for Social and Economic Research on Global Environment, University College London and University of East Anglia, London.

Chapman, C. (1994) 'Integrated catchment management and agricultural communities.' Australian Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 7(2).

Cheal, D.C. (1989) 'Strategies for conserving communities and species.' In Noble J.C. and Bradstock R.A. (eds) Mediterranean landscapes in Australia: Mallee ecosystems and their management. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

Christie, E. (1993) 'The eternal triangle: The biodiversity convention, endangered species legislation and the precautionary principle.' Environmental and Planning Law Journal 10(6):470 at 471.

Ciriacy-Wantrup, S.V. (1968) Resource conservation: Economics and policies. University of California Press, Berkeley.

City of Greater Bendigo (1994) City of Greater Bendigo report to residents 1994. Greater Bendigo City Council, Bendigo, Victoria.

Claiborne, L. (1993) 'The view from Airlie: Community based conservation in crisis.' Art Ortenberg Foundation, New York.

Clairs, T. and Young, M. D. (1995) Approaches to the use of incentives to conserve biodiversity. Working Document 95/1, CSIRO, Canberra.

Clark, C.W. (1976) Mathematical bioeconomics: The optimal management of renewable resources. Wiley Interscience, New York.

Clark, D. and Downes, D. (1994) Excerpts from a survey on economics and biodiversity in the United States. Prepared for limited distribution to the Expert Group on Economics and Biodiversity OECD, Centre for International Environmental Law, Washington DC.

Colman, D.R.; Crabtree, R.; Froud, J. and O'Carroll, L. (1992) Comparative effectiveness of conservation mechanisms. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Manchester.

Common, M. (1990) 'Policy instrument choice.' In Moving towards global sustainability: Policies and implications for Australia. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra. Commonwealth Department of Finance (1994) In pursuit of Australia's environment and resource use goals: The potential role of economic instruments. Issues for Discussion, Department of Finance, Canberra.

Commonwealth Department of Primary Industries Forest Service (1994) Sound practice indicator for visitor site management in state forests. Department of Primary Industries Forest Service, Brisbane.

Commonwealth Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories (1994) Status of Australia's biological diversity. Department of Environment, Sport and Territories. Unpublished manuscript.

Commonwealth Department of Tourism (1994) National ecotourism strategy. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Commonwealth Department of Treasury and Finance (1994) Submission to the Park Entry Fee System Review Panel. Hobart, May 1994.

Commonwealth Environment Protection Agency (1992) Development of a national state of the environment reporting system: Discussion paper. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.

Commonwealth of Australia, (1994) Working nation: The white paper on employment and growth. Presented by Prime Minister PJ Keating, 4th May 1994. Australian Government Publishing Service Canberra.

Commonwealth Senate Standing Committee on Industry, Science Technology, Transport, Communications and Infrastructure (1994) 'Fisheries reviewed.' Report of the Senate Standing Committee on Industry, Science Technology, Transport, Communications and Infrastructure. Parliament House, Canberra.

Community Education and Policy Development Group, Department of Environment and Land Management (1993) State of the environment report for South Australia. Department of Environment and Land Management, Adelaide.

Coordination Committee on Science and Technology, March, AGPS, Canberra.

Copley P. (1991) 'Feral and domestic cats in South Australia.' In Catherine Potter (ed) The impact of cats on native wildlife. Proceedings of a Workshop 8-9 May 1991, facilitated by the Endangered Species Unit, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Crinion, D. and Dyer, H. (1995) 'Tourism.' Sustainable development strategy. Working Paper 1, Kangaroo Island Sustainable Development Steering Committee, Office of Project Coordination, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Adelaide.

Crome, F.H.J. and Moore, L.A. (1990) 'Cassowaries in North-Eastern Queensland: Report of a survey and a review and assessment of their status and conservation and management needs.' Australian Journal of Wildlife Research 17:369-85.

Crosthwaite, J. (1995) 'A review of potential financial incentives to achieve nature conservation goals on private land.' In Bennett, A.; Backhouse, G. and Clark, T. (eds) People and nature conservation: Perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.

Cushman, J.H. (1994) 'An old farm is sprouting new ideas.' The New York Times 17 March, New York.

David Tyldesley and Associates and C.A.G. Management Consultants, (1992) Sustainable development and regional planning: A report for English Nature. London.

Davies, R.J.P. (1992) Threatened plant species of the Murray Mallee, Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island Regions of South Australia. Conservation Council of South Australia, Adelaide.

Dawson, F. (1994) 'Natural resources law and policy in the Northern Territory.' The Australasian Journal of Natural Resources Law and Policy 1(1).

Dawson, S. and Gunningham, N. (1995) Greening the supermarket shelves: Regulation of green labelling in Australia. Australian Centre for Environmental Law Working Paper, ANU Canberra.

Dawson, S. (1994) Environmental labelling in Australia. Australian Centre for Environmental Law, Australian National University, Canberra.

de Klemm, C. and Shine, C. (1993) Biological diversity conservation and the law: Legal mechanisms for conserving species and ecosystems. The World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.

Defenders of Wildlife (1994) 'Defenders of Wildlife's Wolf Compensation Fund.' Fact Sheet. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington, DC.

Department of Finance (1994) Submission to HORSCERA Inquiry into management arrangements for inscribed World Heritage Areas. Canberra.

Dickman, C.R.; Pressey, R.L.; Lim, L. and Parnaby, H.E. (1993) 'Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales.' Biological Conservation 65:219-248.

Dixon, N. (1994) 'Protection of endangered species – how will Australia cope?' Environmental and Planning Law Journal 11(1):6 at 6.

Donald, B. (1994) 'Clearing way to curb land stripping crisis.' Financial Review 19 August 1994.

Driml, S.M. (1991) 'Research needs for rainforest economics.' In Goudberg, N.; Bonell, M. and Benzaken, D. (eds) Tropical rainforest research in Australia. Institute of Tropical Rainforest Studies, Townsville.

Driml, S.M. (1994) Protection for profit. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville.

Driml, S.M. (1995) Economic benefits of tourism in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns. In preparation.

Dunlop and Webb (1991) 'Flora and Vegetation.' In Haynes, C.D.; Ridpath, M.G. and Williams, M.A.J. (eds) Monsoonal Australia: Landscape, ecology and man in the northern lowlands. Balkema, Netherlands.Eckersley, R. (1993) 'Rationalising the environment: How much am I bid?' In Rees, S.; Rodley, G and Stilwell, F.; Beyond the market: Alternatives to economic rationalisation. Pluto Press, Leichardt, NSW.

Ecologically Sustainable Development Working Groups (1991) Final report – Executive summaries. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Elix J. and Lambert J. (1995) Bioregional planning for biodiversity conservation: Discussion paper. Unpublished Report to Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories. Elix, J. (1991) 'Native vegetation communities in association with productive lands.' In Cameron, J.I. and Elix, J. (eds) Recovering ground: A case study approach to ecologically sustainable rural land management, Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne.

New South Wales Environmental Protection Authority (1994b) Using economic instruments to control salinity in the Hunter River. Environmental Protection Authority, Chatswood.

New South Wales Environmental Protection Authority (1994a) Point/non-point source trading to reduce phosphorous discharges: Literature review. Environmental Protection Authority, Chatswood.

Farmar-Bowers, Q. (1995) Is there a road industry responsibility for biological diversity? Australian Road Research Board Working Document 95/002.

Farrier, D. (1995b) 'Implementing in-situ conservation.' Paper delivered to Environmental Treaties Conference, Darwin, July 1995.

Farrier, D. (1995c) 'Policy instruments for conserving biodiversity on private land.' In Bradstock, J. (ed) Conserving biodiversity: Threats and solutions. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton. Forthcoming.

Farrier, D. (1995a) 'Conserving biodiversity on private land.' Harvard Environmental Law Review 19(2):304-405.

Ferguson, I.S.; Weston, M.; Burgman, M.A.; Weston, C.J.; Spencer, R.D. and Miller, K. (1994) Save the Bush Program: Strategic planning report. School of Forestry, University of Melbourne, Parkville.

Figgis, P.J. (1994) Protection and management: Prerequisites for sustainability. Paper to Tourism Ecodollars Conference, Mackay.

Filion, F. (1994) 'Estimating the economic value of biodiversity.' Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Social and Economic Incentives for Conservation of Biodiversity. Different Drummer Summer 1994.

Fisher, R.H. (1993) 'Report on the conservation status of the Small Brown Azure Butterfly in South Australia.' Xanthopus 149:11-12.

Fisher, W.J. and Stanton J.P. (1991) 'Research needs for park management.' In Goudberg, N.; Bonell, M. and Benzaken, D. (eds) Tropical rainforest research in Australia. Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, Townsville.

Flaherty, A. (1995) American River Inlet (Pelican Lagoon). Briefing Notes prepared by the Marine and Coastal Community Network.

Floyd, A.G. (1987) 'Status of rainforest in Northern NSW.' In The rain forest legacy, Australian national rainforests study, Volume 1. Special Australian Heritage Publication Series 7(1), AGPS, Canberra.

Ford, H. (1979) 'Birds' In Tyler, M.J.; Twidale, C.R. and Ling, J.K. (eds) Natural history of Kangaroo Island. Royal Society of South Australia, Inc.

Forge, W. (1994) Incentives for nature conservation on private land. Victorian Conservation Trust, Melbourne.

Fox, M.D. (1990) 'Composition and richness of the New South Wales Mallee.' In Noble, J.C.; Joss, P.J. and Jones, G.K. (eds) The Mallee lands: A conservation perspective. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

Gales, N.J.; Shaughnessy, P.D. and Dennis, T.E. (1994) 'Distribution, abundance and breeding cycle of the Australian sea lion Neophoca cinerea (Mamalia: Pinnipedia).' Journal of Zoology 234:353-370.George, R.J.; McFarlane, D.J. and Speed, R.J. (1995) 'The consequences of a changing hydrologic environment for native vegetation in South-Western Australia.' In Saunders, D.A.; Craig, J.L. and Mattiske, E.M. (eds) Nature conservation 4: The role of networks. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Gilfedder, L. and Kirkpatrick, J.B. (1995) A survey of landholder attitudes and intentions towards the long term conservation of native lowland grasslands. Report to the Grasslands Ecology Unit Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Gillim and Associates (1993) Community perspectives on biological diversity. A qualitative report. Mimeo Report to CSIRO.

Giusti, G.A. (1993) Managing the human element in bio-regional and biodiversity planning: An extension approach. University of California Co-operative Extension, California.

Goldstein, J. (1994) 'Tradeable rights: A model for biodiversity protection.' Different Drummer 1(3):49-53.

Goldstein, J.H. and Heintz, H.T. (1993) 'Incentives for private conservation of species and habitat: An economic perspective.' In Fischer, H. and Hudson, W.E. (eds) Building economic incentives into the Endangered Species Act: A special report from Defenders of Wildlife. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington DC.

Goldstein, J.H. (1991) 'The prospects for using market incentives to conserve biological diversity.' Environmental Law 21(3):985-1014.

Gollin, M. A. (1993) 'An intellectual property rights framework for biodiversity prospecting.' In Reid, W.V.; Laird, S.A.; Meyer, C.A.; Gamez, R.; Sittenfeld, A.; Janzen, D.H.; Gollin, M.A. and Juma, C. (1993) Biodiversity prospecting: Using genetic resources for sustainable development. World Resources Institute, USA; Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica; Rainforest Alliance, USA; and African Centre for Technology Studies, Kenya.

Goodin R.E. (1992) Motivating political morality. Blackwell Press, Massachusetts.

Goucher, G. (1994) Post-drought recovery and sustainable drought preparedness. National Farmers Federation Submission to the Commonwealth government.

Government of Canada (1991) The state of Canada's environment. Government of Canada, Ottawa.

Grabosky, P.N. (1993) 'Green markets.' Administration, compliance and governability program, Working Paper No. 17. Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.

Grabosky, P.N. (1993) Rewards and incentives as regulatory instruments. Working Paper No13, Administration, Compliance and Governability Program, Research School of Social Sciences. Australian National University, Canberra.

Grabosky, P.N. (1994) 'Green markets: Environmental regulation by the private sector.' Law and Policy 16(4):419-448.

Graham, A. (1994) An assessment of the impacts and effects of pathways and trails on the physical and biological characteristics of four tropical soils on the Atherton Tablelands. Report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns.

Green, G. and Lal, P. (1993) Charging users of the Great Barrier Reef: A report to the Great Barrier Marine Park Authority. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Canberra.

Grodsky, J.A (1995) 'Certified green: The law and future of environmental labelling.' Yale Journal on Regulation 10:147.

Gunningham, N. (1987) 'Negotiated non-compliance: A case study of regulatory failure.' Law and Policy 9(1)69-97.

Halstead, C. (1993) 'Tourism management at Flinders Chase National Park.' Australian Ranger Autumn 26:49-50.

Hamilton, N.T.M. and Cocks, K.D. (1993) 'A small-scale spatial analysis system for maritime Australia.' Assessment and Management of Natural Resource Systems Program, CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, Working Document 93/9.

Hanna, H. (1995) 'Primary industry in Kangaroo Island.' Sustainable Development Strategy, Working Paper 2. Kangaroo Island Sustainable Development Steering Committee, Office of Project Coordination, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Adelaide.

Harrington, G.N.; Mills, D.M.D.; Pressland, A.J. and Hodgkinson, K.C. (1984) 'Semi-arid woodlands.' In Harrington, G.N.; Wilson, A.D. and Young, M.D. (eds) Management of Australia's Rangelands. CSIRO, Melbourne.

Harris, S. (1976) The Green Paper on rural industry: Where do we go now? National Rural Press Club, Canberra.Haynes, C.D.; Ridpath, M.G. and Williams, M.A.J. (eds) (1991) Monsoonal Australia: Landscape, ecology and man in the northern lowlands. Balkema, Netherlands.

Henry, D. and Olson, A. (1992) A review of Commonwealth grants to voluntary conservation organisations. Prepared for the Commonwealth Minister for Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism and Territories.

Hill, B.J. and Wassenberg, T.J. (1990) 'Fate of discards from prawn trawls in Torres Straits.' Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41:53-64.

Hill, S.B. and Dale, A. (1995) Biodiversity conservation: Developing a research and policy agenda for Canada.' Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec. Unpublished manuscript.

Hobbs, R.J. and Saunders, D.A. (1991) 'Re-integrating fragmented landscapes – a preliminary framework for the Western Australian Wheatbelt.' Journal of Environmental Management 33:161-167.

Hobbs, R.J. and Saunders, D.A. (1993) 'Can we reintegrate fragmented landscapes?' In Hobbs, R.J. and Saunders, D.A. (eds) Reintegrating fragmented landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Hobbs, R.J.; Saunders, D.A. and Arnold, G.W. (1993) 'Integrated landscape ecology: A Western Australian perspective.' Biological Conservation 64:231-238.

Hodge, I. (1991) 'Incentive policies and the rural environment.' Journal of Rural Studies (7)4:373-84.

Hodgkinson, K.C. and Griffin, G.F. (1982) 'Adaptation of shrub species to fire in the Arid Zone.' In Barker, W.R. and Greenslade, P.J.M. (eds) Evolution of the flora and fauna of arid Australia. Peacock Publications, Adelaide. Hodgkinson, K.C. (1993) 'Prescribed fire for shrub control in sheep Rangelands.' In Delfosse, E.S. (ed) Pests of pastures: Weed, invertebrate and disease pests of Australian sheep pastures. CSIRO Information Services, Melbourne.

Hooy, T. and Shaughnessy, G. (eds) (1992) Terrestrial and marine protected areas in Australia 1991. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

Hopkins J.M. and Saunders D.A. (1987) 'Ecological studies as a basis for management.' In Saunders, D.A.; Arnold, G.W.; Burbidge, A.A. and Hopkins, A.J.M. (eds) Nature conservation: The role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Hopkins, A. (1995) Making Safety Work. Allen and Unwin, Sydney.

Hopper, S.D.; van Leeuwen, S.; Brown, A.P. and Patrick, S.J. (1990) Western Australia's endangered flora and other plants under consideration for declaration. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth.

Horwarth and Horwarth (1993) 'Economics of Tourism.' In Context report: Cairns region tourism strategy. Office of the Coordinator General, Brisbane.

House of Representatives Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts (1992) Biodiversity: The contribution of community based programs.

House, S. and Moritz, C. (1991) 'Impacts of rainforest fragmentation on flora and fauna.' In Goudberg, N.; Bonell, M. and Benzaken, D. (eds) Tropical rainforest research in Australia. Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, Townsville.

Huthwaite, P. (1995) 'Incentives for Landcare; Proceedings of 25th Outlook Conference.' Commodity markets and natural resources. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Canberra. Industry Commission (1992) 'Cost recovery for managing fisheries.' Report No. 17. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Inns, R.W.; Aitken, P.F. and Ling, J.K. (1979) 'Mammals.' In Tyler, M.J.; Twidale, C.R. and Ling, J.K. (eds) Natural history of Kangaroo Island. Royal Society of South Australia Inc.

International Institute for Sustainable Development (1994) Making budgets green: Leading practices in taxation and subsidy reform. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Manitoba.

Irwin, F. and Williams I.R. (1986) 'Catchments as planning units.' Journal of Soil Conservation (NSW) 42(1).

Jacobs, M. (1992) Environmental economics, decision rights and the countryside: A discussion paper for the Countryside Commission. C.A.G. Management Consultants, London.

James, C.D.; Landsberg, J. and Morton, S.R. (1995) 'Ecological functioning in Arid Australia and research to assist conservation of biodiversity.' Draft submitted to Pacific Conservation Biology, February.

James, D. (1993) Using economic instruments for meeting environmental objectives: Australia's experience. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Johnson, W. J. (1992) 'The Macquarie Marshes: Overdue for environmental restoration.' National Parks Journal 36 August:9-12.

Johnson, W. J. (1994) Breeding of colonially nesting waterbirds in the Macquarie Marshes. Draft paper prepared by New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.

Jones, J. and Farrier, D. (1995) 'Access to Australia's genetic resources.' Paper delivered to Environmental Treaties Conference, Darwin, July 1995.

Jones, J.B. (1992) 'Environmental impact of trawling on the seabed: A review.' New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 26:59-67.

Jones, M.A. (1993) The CAMPFIRE Programme: A case study. IUCN Protected Areas Programme/CNPPA, Gland, Switzerland.

Jones, R.E. and Kitching, R. (1991) 'Biological inventory.' In Goudberg, N.; Bonell, M. and Benzaken, D. (eds) Tropical rainforest research in Australia. Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, Townsville.

Kangaroo Island Sustainable Development Committee (1995) Kangaroo Island sustainable development strategy 1995/6. Final Draft.

Karingal Consultants (1994) 'Australian wildflower industry: A review.' A report for the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Research Paper No. 94/9. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.

Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. (1991) Guidelines for establishing marine protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Kelman, S. (1983) 'Economic incentives and environmental policy: politics, ideology and philosophy.' In Schelling, T. (ed) Incentives for Environmental Protection. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, USA.

Kingsford, R.T. and Thomas, R.F. (1995) The Macquarie Marshes in arid Australia and it's waterbirds: A 50 year history of decline. Environmental Management. In press.

Kirkpatrick, J.B. (1991) 'The geography and politics of species endangerment in Australia.' Australian Geographical Studies 29(2):246-254. Kitchener, D.J.; Chapman, A. and Muir, B.G. (1980) 'The conservation value for mammals of reserves in the Western Australian Wheatbelt.' Biological Conservation 18:179-207.

Korn, T. (1993) Water management in the Macquarie Marshes – A sociological perspective. NSW Agriculture. Unpublished paper.

Lal, P.; Holland, P. and Power, P. (1992) 'Competition between recreational and commercial fishers: Management options and economic research.' Research Report 92.11. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Canberra.

Lambeck, R.J. (1995) Managing for biodiversity and sustainable agriculture in the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Unpublished Notes.

Lambert, J. and Elix, J. (1993) 'Remnant vegetation in the rural landscape.' Consultancy Report on LWRRDC Involvement in National Research, Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation. Occasional Paper, No 04/93. Canberra.

Lampert, R. (1981) The great Kartan mystery. Department of Prehistory, Australian National University, Canberra.

Land Use Consultants (1994) Countryside Schemes and Nature Conservation. London, UK.

Lange, R.T. (1979) 'Native vegetation.' In Tyler, M.J.; Twidale, C.R. and Ling, J.K. (eds) Natural history of Kangaroo Island. Royal Society of South Australia Inc.

Lefroy, E.C.; Hobbs, R.J. and Scheltema, M. (1993) 'Reconciling agriculture and nature conservation: Toward a restoration strategy for the Western Australian Wheatbelt.' Chapter 23 in Saunders, D.A.; Hobbs, R.J. and Ehrlich, P.R. (eds) Nature conservation 3: The reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Lohman, L.S. (1994) 'Economic incentives in environmental policy: Why are there white ravens?' In Opschoor, H. and Turner, K. (eds) Economic Incentives and Environmental Policies: Principles and Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Lyons, S. (1991) 'Research pact may help rain forests pay for their keep.' Boston Globe 4th November 1991.

M't Sas-Rolfes (1994) 'Trade in endangered species: Is it a option?' Economic Affairs 14(3):2.

Main, A.R. (1987) 'Management of remnants of native vegetation – A review of the problems and the development of an approach with reference to the Wheatbelt of Western Australia.' In Saunders, D.A.; Arnold, G.W.; Burbidge, A.A. and Hopkins, A.J.M. (eds) Nature conservation: The role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Makeswaran, D. and Meyers-Levy, J. (1990) 'The influence of message framing and issue involvement.' Journal of Marketing Research 27:361-67.

Makokha, F. (1994) 'West's 'bio-pirates' are costing Africa millions in lost species revenues.' The East African December 5-11.

Malcolm, C.V. (1983) 'Wheatbelt salinity.' Western Australian Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 52.

Malcolm, W.B. (1987) 'Sydney rock oysters.' Agfact F3.1.1

Manidis Roberts Consultants and Taylor Environmental Consulting (1994) Data summary 1993 visitor use survey: Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. Report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns.

Manidis Roberts Consultants (1994) Ecotourism: An investigation into a national ecotourism accreditation scheme. Commonwealth Department of Tourism, Canberra.

Mather, G. (1993) Aquaculture: An Australian environmental review. Total Environment Centre Inc., Sydney.

McDonald, W.S.; Cocks, K.D.; Wood, N.H.; Ive, J.R. and Yapp, G.A. (1994) 'The future population of Australia's coastal lands.' Australian Geographical Studies 31(2):177-188.

McFarlane, D.J.; George, R.J. and Farrington, P. (1993) 'Changes in the hydrologic cycle.' In Hobbs, R.J. and Saunders, D.A. (eds) Reintegrating fragmented landscapes. Springer-Verlag, New York.

McGuire, W. (1985) 'Attitudes and attitude change.' In Lindzey, G. (ed) The handbook of social psychology 3rd ed, Vol. II. Random House, New York.

McNeely, J.A. (1988) Economics and biological diversity: Developing and using economic incentives to conserve biological resources. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

McNeely, J.A. (1993) 'Economic incentives for conserving biodiversity: Lessons from Africa.' Ambio Vol. 22 (2-3):144-50.

Mitchell, B. and Hollick, M. (1993) 'Integrated catchment management in Western Australia: Transition from concept to implementation.' Environmental Management 17(6):735-743.

Moran, D. and Osgood, D. (1994) Debt for nature swaps and biodiversity conservation. Scoping papers on national issues in the use of economic incentives for conservation of biodiversity. OECD, Paris.

Moran, D. and Pearce, D. (1994) Economic incentives and biodiversity loss in OECD countries. Scoping Papers on National Issues in the Use of Economic Incentives for Conservation of Biodiversity. OECD, Paris.

Morgenweck, R.O. (1993) 'Summary ideas for increasing private landowners incentives under the Endangered Species Act.' In Fischer, H. and Hudson, W.E. (eds) Building economic incentives into the Endangered Species Act: A special report from Defenders of Wildlife. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington DC.

Morton, S. and Newsome, A. (1994) Assessment of scientific basis for addition of parts of Davenport Downs Station to the Diamantina Lakes National Park. Report of a consultancy carried out by CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology for Stanbroke Pastoral Company and Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. CSIRO, Canberra.

Morton, S.R.; Short, J. and Barker, R.D. (1995) 'Refugia for biological diversity in arid and semi-arid Australia.' Biodiversity Series. Paper No.4. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Biodiversity Unit.

Muir, K. and Bojö, J. (1994) Economic policy, wildlife and land use in Zimbabwe. Environment Working Paper No. 68. World Bank, Washington DC.

Muir, W.K (1967) 'Under what circumstances can law bring about attitude change?' In Grossman and Grossman (eds) Law and Change in Modern America. Goodyear Publishing Co., Pacific Palisades, CA.

Municipal Association of Victoria and the Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1994c) A joint review into rating and conservation. Municipal Association of Victoria and the Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Due for release.

National Centre for Studies in Travel and Tourism (1992) Tourism strategy. Report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns.

National Centre for Studies in Travel and Tourism (1993) 'Visitor forecasts.' In Context report: Cairns region tourism strategy. Office of the Coordinator General, Brisbane.

National Farmers' Federation (1994) National Rangeland management strategy. National Farmers' Federation Position Paper. National Farmers' Federation, Canberra.

National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee (1994) National greenhouse gas inventory, 1988 and 1990. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

National Parks and Wildlife Service (1987) Conservation parks of Kangaroo Island. Management Plan. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Adelaide.

Native Vegetation Council (1994) Submission to the Joint Committee on Living Resources. Unpublished.

New South Wales Department of Land and Water Conservation (1995) Planning guidelines for native vegetation protection and management in NSW. Department of Land and Water Conservation New South Wales, Sydney.

New South Wales Department of Water Resources and New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (1986) Water management plan for the Macquarie Marshes. Department of Water Resources, New South Wales.

New South Wales Department of Water Resources (1991) Water resources of the Castlereagh, Macquarie and Bogan Valley. Department of Water Resources, New South Wales.

New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service and New South Wales Department of Water Resources (1994) Macquarie Marshes water management plan review: Issues paper. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service and Department of Water Resources, Sydney.

New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (1993) Macquarie Marshes natural reserve: Plan of management. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service.

New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service (1995) Draft project plan. Western Region Biodiversity Conservation Project. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

Nias, R.C.; Kennedy, M.; Reynolds, C. and Habel, S. (1993) A regional action plan for the conservation of threatened species and ecological communities in the Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area. World Wide Fund for Nature, Sydney.

Noble, J.C. and Bradstock, R.A. (1989) 'An historical overview of ecological studies.' In Noble, J.C. and Bradstock, R.A.;(eds) Mediterranean landscapes in Australia: Mallee ecosystems and their management. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

Noble, J.C. and Vines, R.G. (1993) 'Fire studies in the Mallee (Eucalyptus Spp.) communities of Western New South Wales: Grass fuel dynamics and associated weather patterns.' Rangeland Journal 15:270-97.

Noble, J.C. (1995) Fires and mesomarsupials: The regulation of native shrub populations in Australian wooded rangelands. Sixth Queensland Fire Research Workshop, Land Use Study Centre, University of Southern Queensland and Queensland Emergency Services, Brisbane.

Northcote, K.H. (1979) 'Soils.' In Tyler, M.J.; Twidale, C.R. and Ling, J.K. (eds) Natural history of Kangaroo Island. Royal Society of South Australia Inc.

Northern Territory Government (1994) A conservation strategy for the Northern Territory. Northern Territory Government Printer.

Northern Territory Government (1994) Northern Territory tourism development masterplan. Northern Territory Government Printer.

O'Toole, R. (1994) 'Introduction.' Different Drummer 1(3):3-7.

OECD (1989) Water resource management: Integrated policies. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris.

OECD (1990) 'Guidelines for the use of economic instruments in environmental policy.' Env/EC 40(23) October, Paris.

OECD (1993) Economic instruments for the conservation of domestic and global biodiversity: Project proposal. Expert Group on Economic Aspects of Biodiversity. Environment Policy Committee, OECD, Paris.

OECD (1994a) Contracting for genetic resources. Group on Economic and Environment Policy Integration. Expert Group on Economic Aspects of Biodiversity, Paris.

OECD (1994b) Towards sustainable agriculture production: Cleaner technologies. OECD, Paris.

OECD (1994c) Economic incentives for the conservation of biodiversity: Conceptual framework and guidelines for case studies. Group on Economic and Environment Policy Integration. Expert Group on Economic Aspects of Biodiversity, Paris.

OECD (1994d) Economic incentive measures for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity: A survey of OECD member countries. Group on Economic and Environment Policy Integration. Expert Group on Economic Aspects of Biodiversity, Paris.

OECD (1995) Biological diversity: Economic incentive measures for conservation and sustainable use. Group on Economic and Environment Policy Integration. Expert Group on Economic Aspects of Biodiversity, Paris.

OECD (1995b) Making markets work for biological diversity: The role of economic incentives measures. OECD, Paris. (In press).

OECD (1991) Environmental policy: How to apply economic instruments. Paris.

Old, K. (1994) Utilisation and conservation of australian plant genetic resources: The role of monopoly privilege. Honours Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Law, Australian National University, October 1994.

Olson, M. (1965) The Logic of collective action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Pace, A.C. (1980) 'Self regulation and codes of practice.' In Journal of Business Law 24. Panayotou, T. and Glover, D. (1994) Economic and financial incentives for biodiversity conservation and development. Paper presented at the IUCN/ADB Regional Conference on Biodiversity Conservation, June 6-8, Manila.

Panayotou, T. (1994a) Economic instruments for environmental management and sustainable development: Rough draft. International Environment Program, Harvard Institute for International Development. Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA.

Panayotou, T. (1994b) 'Conservation of biodiversity and economic development: The concept of transferable development rights.' Environmental and Resource Economics 4:91-110.

Parker, P. (1993) Biosphere reserves in Australia: A strategy for the future. Written for the Australian National Commission for UNESCO as a report for the Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Paton, D.C. (1990) 'Budgets for the use of floral resources in Mallee-Health.' In Noble, J.C.; Joss, P.J. and Jones, G.K. (eds) The Mallee lands: A conservation perspective. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

Patrick, S.J. (1985) Possible extinct and extremely rare plants of the Wheatbelt of Western Australia. Rare and geographically restricted plants of Western Australia. Report No 28. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como. Unpublished Report.

Pearse, H.P. and Jessee, J. (1994) Economic instruments for managing the resources of forest landscapes. Environment Canada. University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

Pender, P.J.; Willing, R.S. and Cann, B. (1992) 'NPF by-catch a valuable resource?' Australian Fisheries 51(2):30-31.

Perrings, C. and Pearce, D. (1994) 'Threshold effects and incentives for the conservation of biodiversity.' Environmental and Resource Economics 4:13-28.

Perrings, C.; Folke, C. and Mäler, K.G. (1992) The ecology and economics of biological diversity: Elements of a research agenda. Beijer Discussion Paper Series No.1. Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.

Peter D. Hart Research Associates Inc. (1995) 'Strategic recommendations for a communications campaign on biodiversity.' Belden and Russonello Research and Communications (1995) Communicating Biodiversity: Focus Group Research Findings. Undated.

Platt, S.J. and Ahern, L.D. (1994) Nature conservation on private land in Victoria, Australia: The role of Land for Wildlife. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Melbourne.

Poole, P. J. (1993) 'Indigenous peoples and biodiversity protection.' In Shelton, H.D. (ed) The social challenge of biodiversity conservation. Working Paper No. 1. The Global Environment Facility, Washington, DC.

Preece, N.; van Oosterzee, P. and James, D. (1995a) 'Two way track'. Biodiversity conservation initiative and ecotourism: An investigation of linkages, mutual benefits and future opportunities. Biodiversity Series, Paper No.5. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories.

Preece, N.; van Oosterzee, P. and James, D. (1995b) Biodiversity and Ecotourism: Strategy for integration. Draft Report for the Biodiversity Unit. Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, Darwin.

Prest, J. (1995) 'Licensed to kill: A study of the interpretation of the endangered species protection legislation in NSW.' A Paper presented at the 2nd Annual ACEL Defending the Environment Conference, Adelaide, 20-21 May.

Priddel, D. and Wheeler, R. (1994) 'Mortality of captive-raised Malleefowl, Leipoa ocellata, released into a Mallee remnant within the Wheat-Belt of New South Wales.' Wildlife Resources 21:543-52.

Priddel, D. (1990a) 'Conservation of the Malleefowl in New South Wales: An experimental management strategy.' In Noble, J.C.; Joss, P.J. and Jones, G.K. (eds) The Mallee lands: A conservation perspective. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

Priddle, D. (1990b) Conservation statement and strategy for the management of Malleefowl in New South Wales. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.

Priddle, D. (1995) Effect of age at release on the survival of captive-reared Malleefowl. Draft, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. Unpublished.

Primack, R.B. (1993) Essentials of conservation biology. Sinauer Associates Inc, Sunderland, Massachusetts.

Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage (1995a) A rescue plan for the Greater Bilby (Macrotis lagotis) in Queensland. Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.

Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage (1995c) Environmental considerations associated with tree clearing on leasehold and other crown lands in Queensland. Unpublished.

Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage (1995b) Draft state guidelines for broadscale tree clearing on leasehold and other state lands in Queensland. Unpublished.

Queensland Department of Lands (1993) Mulga region position paper: A study of the inter-dependence of the environment, pastoral production and the economy. Government of Queensland, Brisbane.

Rainforest Conservation Society of Queensland (1986) Tropical rainforests of North Queensland: Their conservation significance. Report to the Australian Heritage Commission, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Rainforest Conservation Society of Queensland (1994) The natural values of the Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Area: A revision. Report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns.

Reid, W.V. (1993) 'The economic realities of biodiversity.' Issues in Science and Technology 10(2):48-55.

Reid, W.V.; Laird, S.A.; Meyer, C.A.; Gamez, R.; Sittenfeld, A.; Janzen, D.H.; Gollin, M.A. and Juma, C. (1993) Biodiversity prospecting: Using genetic resources for sustainable development. World Resources Institute, USA; Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Costa Rica; Rainforest Alliance, USA; African Centre for Technology Studies, Kenya.

Resource Assessment Commission (1993) Coastal zone inquiry final report. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.

Ridpath, M.G. (1991) 'Feral mammals and their environment.' In Haynes, C.D.; Ridpath, M.G. and Williams, M.A.J. (eds) Monsoonal Australia: Landscape, ecology and man in the northern lowlands. Balkema, Netherlands.

Robinson, A.C.; and Dennis, T.E. (1988) 'The status and management of seal populations in South Australia.' In Augee M.L. (ed) Marine mammals of Australasia: Field biology and captive management. The Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney.

Roe, R. and Allen, G.H. (1993) 'Studies on the Mitchell Grass Association in South Western Queensland: Pasture and wool production under different rates of stocking and continuous or rotational grazing.' Rangeland Journal 15(2):302-19.

Rose, B. (1995) Land management issues: Attitudes and perceptions amongst Aboriginal people of central Australia. Central Land Council, Alice Springs.

Rowling, K.R. (1987) The need for catch controls in the Gemfish Fishery. Internal Report No. 26. NSW Department of Agriculture, Fish Research Institute.

Rowling, K.R. (1994) 'Gemfish, Rexea solandri.' In Tilzey, R.R.J. (ed) The South East Fishery: A scientific review with particular reference to quota management. Bureau of Resource Science, Canberra.

Rubin, S.M. and Fish, S.C. (1994) 'Biodiversity prospecting: Using innovative contractual provisions to foster ethnobotanical knowledge, technology, and conservation.' Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 5(1):23-58.

Russell, N.P.; Furness, G.W. and Colman, D.R. (1991) Introducing cross-compliance into the CAP: An illustration for the oilseeds sector. Paper for annual Conference of Agricultural Economics Society. Lincoln University, New Zealand, August 1991.

Russell-Smith, J.; McKenzie, N.L and Woinarski, J.C.Z. (1992) 'Conserving vulnerable habitat in Northern and North-Western Australia: The rainforest archipelago.' In Moffatt, I. and Webb, A. (eds) Conservation and development issues in Northern Australia. NARU, Darwin.

Sadlier, R.A. and Pressey, R.L. (1994) 'Reptiles and amphibians of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales.' Biological Conservation 69:41-54.

Sattler, P.S. (1986) 'Introduction.' In Sattler, P.S. (ed) The Mulga Lands. Royal Society of Queensland, North Quay, Queensland.

Sattler, P.S. (1994) The greater conservation gain from a "New" Kangaroo industry for the Mulga Lands: Ecologically sustainable management. Paper presented to the Conference on Conservation Through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.

Saunders, D.A.; Hobbs, R.J. and Margules, C.R. (1991) 'Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: A review.' Conservation Biology 5(1):18-32.

Saunders, D.A. (1989) 'Changes in the avifauna of a region, district and remnant as a result of native vegetation: The wheatbelt of Western Australia. A case study.' In Biological Conservation 50: 99-135.

Saunders, D.A. (1993) 'A community-based observer scheme to assess avian responses to habitat reduction and fragmentation in South-Western Australia.' Biological Conservation 64:203-218.

Schelling, T. (ed.) Incentives for environmental protection. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, USA. Schmiechen, J. (1992) Drysdale River National Park: Visitor management and aboriginal heritage issues. MEnvStud Thesis. Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide.

Schmiechen, J. (ed) (1995) Draft National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Tour Operators Forum. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Tour Operators Forum, 6-8 May 1995.

Scougall, S.A.; Majer, J.D. and Hobbs, R.J. (1993) 'Edge effects in grazed and ungrazed Western Australian Wheatbelt remnants in relation to ecosystem reconstruction.' In Saunders, D.A.; Hobbs, R.J. and Ehrlich, P.R. (eds) Nature conservation 3: The reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Sedjo, R. (1994) Contractual agreements for genetic resources. Scoping Papers on National Issues in the Use of Economic Incentives for Conservation of Biodiversity. OECD, Paris.

Sedjo, R.A. and Simpson, R.D. (1994) Contracting for genetic resources. Submission to OECD Expert Group on Economic Aspects of Biodiversity. OECD, Paris.

Sherman, L. (1993) 'Defiance, deterrence and irrelevance: A theory of the criminal sanction.' Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 30 445-473.

Silverstein, J. (1994) 'Taking Wetlands to the bank: The role of wetland mitigation banking in a comprehensive approach to wetlands protection.' Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 22:129.

Slangen, L.H.G. (1991) 'Policies for nature and landscape conservation in Dutch Agriculture: An evaluation of objectives, means, effects and programme costs.' European Review of Agricultural Economics 19(3):331-50.

Smith, P.J.; Pressey, R.L. and Smith, J.E. (1994) 'Birds of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales.' Biological Conservation 69:315-38.

South Australian Department of Land Management (1993) Report to the Minister of Environment and Land Management on Kangaroo Island areas recommended for protection under the Wilderness Protection Act, 1992. Wilderness Advisory Committee.

Southgate, R. (1994) Draft recovery plan for the Greater Bilby. A report submitted to the Australian Nature Conservation Agency. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Alice Springs.

Squillace, M. (1995) 'An American perspective on environmental impact assessment in Australia.' Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 20(1):43-119.

Stafford Smith, M. (1994) 'Sustainable production systems and natural resource management in the Rangelands.' Natural Resources. Outlook '94 Conference. ABARE Publication, Canberra.

Stavins, R.N. (1990) Innovative policies for sustainable development in the 1990s: Economic incentives for environmental protection. Background Paper No. 1. Workshop on the Economics of Sustainable Development, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

Survey Research and Consultancy Unit, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland (1991) Impact assessment of the World Heritage Listing. Report to the Resource Assessment Commission, Canberra.

Sustainable Resource Management Committee (1994) Draft report in preparation for the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management. Unpublished.

Sutton, P. (1995) Developing a method for biodiversity auditing. Green Innovations, Melbourne.

Swales, S. (1994) Fish communities within the Macquarie River. NSW Fisheries. Pyrmont, Sydney.

Swanson, T. (1994) Efficient financial mechanisms for biodiversity conservation. Scoping Papers on National Issues in the Use of Economic Incentives for Conservation of Biodiversity. OECD, Paris.

Task Force on Economic Instruments and Disincentives to Sound Environmental Practices (1994) Economic instruments and disincentives to sound environmental practices: Final report of the Task Force. Government of Canada, Ontario.

Taskforce on Regional Development (1993) Developing Australia: A regional perspective – Report to the Federal Government. Canberra. Taylor, A.C.; Sherwin, W.B. and Wayne, R.K. (1994) 'Genetic variation of microsatellite loci in a bottlenecked species: The Northern Hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii).' Molecular Ecology 3:277-290.

Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. (eds) (1994) Toward an interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: A framework for setting priorities in the national reserves system cooperative program. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting held in Adelaide at the South Australian Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 7-11 February. Draft.

Thackway, R. and Cresswell, I.D. (eds) (1995) An interim biogeographic regionalisation for Australia: A framework for setting priorities in the National Reserves System Co-Operative Program. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.

Thackway, R. and Stevenson, P. (eds) (1989) Nature conservation outside reserves: A summary of government programs promoting nature conservation on lands outside parks and reserves. Report Series No. 11. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

Thomson, N.J. (1986) 'Fiscal incentives for Australian bushland.' Environmental Management 10(5):591-7.

Tilzey, R.R.J. (ed) (1994) The South East Fishery: A scientific review with particular reference to quota management. Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra.

Tinbergen, I. (1950) On the theory of economic policy. Elsevier, North Holland. Tisdell, C.A. (1988) 'Sustaining and maximising economic gains from tourism based on natural sites: Analysis with reference to the Galapagos.' In Tisdell, C.A.; Aislabie, C.J. and Stanton, P.J. (eds) Economics of tourism: Case study and analysis. Department of Economics, University of Newcastle.

Tisdell, C.A. (1994) Biodiversity conservation and the local community: Incentives, institutions and mechanisms of support. Scoping Papers on National Issues in the Use of Economic Incentives for Conservation of Biodiversity. OECD, Paris.

Tothill, J.C. and Gillies, C. (1992) The pasture lands of northern Australia. Tropical Grassland Society of Australia, Occasional Publication No.5. St Lucia, Queensland. Turner, K and Opschoor, H. (1994) 'Environmental economics and environmental policy instruments: Introduction and overview.' In Opschoor, H. and Turner, K. (eds) Economic Incentives and Environmental Policies: Principles and Practice. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Tyler, T. (1990) Why people obey the law. Yale University Press, New Haven.

U.S. Department of the Interior (1994) The impact of federal programs on wetlands: Volume II. A Report to Congress by the Secretary of the Interior. Washington, D.C.

UNEP (1994) 'Measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of its components.' Global Biodiversity Assessment, UNEP, Nairobi.

USE Consultants and AGC Woodward Clyde (1993) Differential rating for ecologically sustainable development. Municipal Association of Victoria, Melbourne.

Vickery, F. (1994) Seal Bay management strategy. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Adelaide.

Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1992) Draft flora and fauna guarantee strategy: Conservation of Victoria's biodiversity. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Melbourne.

Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1994a) Planning guide for native vegetation retention. Draft only.

Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1994b) Notes Submitted to the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council. Seventh meeting. Unpublished.

Victorian Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (1994c) Notes Submitted to the Sustainable Resource Management Committee for the Standing Committee on Agriculture and Resource Management. Unpublished.

Victorian Environment Protection Authority (1994) 'Victoria's environment protection system: Innovative approaches and economic instruments.' Environmental Economics Update (Environment Protection Authority, NSW) 4:1-6.

Wallace, K.L. and Moore, S.A. (1987) 'Management of remnant bushland for nature conservation in agricultural areas of South-Western Australia - operational and planning perspectives.' In Saunders, D.A.; Arnold, G.W.; Burbidge, A.A. and Hopkins, A.J.M. (eds) Nature conservation: The role of remnants of native vegetation. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.

Wassenberg, T.J. and Hill, B.J. (1990) 'Partitioning of material discarded from prawn trawlers in Moreton Bay.' Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41:27-36.

Watson, H. and Chambers, D.W. (1989) Singing the land; signing the land. Deakin University Press, Geelong.

Webster, S. and Felton, M. (1993) 'Targeting for nature conservation in agricultural policy.' Land Use Policy January.

Werren, G. (1992) A regional action plan for the conservation of rare and/or threatened Wet Tropics biota: Proceedings of a workshop of technical specialists. Report to the Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns.

Werren, G. (1993) 'Conservation strategies for rare and threatened vertebrates of Australia's Wet Tropics Region.' Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 34(1):229-241.

Western Australian Department of Agriculture (1991) Situation statement: Soil and land conservation programme in Western Australia. Division of Resource Management, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (1992) 'A survey of the wildlife and vegetation of Purnululu (Bungle Bungle) National Park and adjacent area.' Research Bulletin Number 6.

Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management (1992) A nature conservation strategy for Western Australia. Draft for Public Comment.

Western Australian Government (1992) State of the environment report. Government of Western Australia, Perth.

Wet Tropics Management Authority (1992) Wet Tropics plan: Strategic directions. Wet Tropics Management Authority Cairns.

Wet Tropics Management Authority (1994) Visitor Facilities Audit. Unpublished.

Wet Tropics Management Authority (1995) Wet Tropics backgrounder: What is World Heritage? Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns. White House Office on Environmental Policy (1993) Protecting America's Wetlands: A fair, flexible and effective approach. Washington DC.

Wilcox, D.G. and Cunningham, G.M. (1994) 'Economic and ecological sustainability of current land use in Australia's Rangelands.' In Research and development for sustainable use and management of Australia's Rangelands. Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation Occasional Paper No.06/93, Canberra. Williams, J. (1995) Letter to the authors. Manager, Environmental Protection Unit, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, June, 1995.

Wilson, G.; Dexter, N.; O'Brien, P and Bomford, M. (1992) Pest animals in Australia: A survey of introduced wild mammals. Kangaroo Press/Bureau of Rural Resources, Canberra.

Winter, J.W. (1991) 'Rainforest non-volant mammals in North-Eastern Australia: Where to now?' In Goudberg, N.; Bonell, M. and Benzaken, D. (eds) Tropical rainforest research in Australia. Institute for Tropical Rainforest Studies, Townsville.

Winter, J.W.; Atherton, R.G.; Bell, F.C. and Pahl, L.I. (1991) 'Rainforest dynamics, disturbance and alienation in Northern Queensland.' In Werren, G. and Kershaw, P. (eds) The rainforest legacy: Australian national rainforests study, Vol.3. Australian Heritage Commission, Canberra.

Woinarski, J.C.Z. (1989) 'Broombush harvesting in Southeastern Australia.' In Noble, J.C. and Bradstock, R. (eds) Mediterranean landscapes in Australia: Mallee ecosystems and their management. CSIRO, East Melbourne.

World Commission on Environment and Development (1990) Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1994) Guidelines for protected area management categories. IUCN Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas, Cambridge.

World Conservation Union; United Nations Environment Program and the World Wide Fund for Nature (1991) Caring for the Earth: A strategy for sustainable living. Earthscan edition, Gland, Switzerland.

World Resource Institute (1992) Global Biodiversity Strategy. World Resource Institute. Washington, DC. World Resources Institute; World Conservation Union and the United Nations Environment Program (1992) Global biodiversity strategy: Guidelines for action to save, study and use Earth's biotic wealth, sustainably and equitably. Paris, France.

World Wide Fund for Nature Australia (1995) Vegetation protection – No regrets: The importance of vegetation protection for the conservation of biological diversity, sustainable land-use, and ameliorating the enhanced greenhouse effect. Research Report. World Wide Fund for Nature, Australia, Sydney.

Young M.D. and McCay, B. (1995) Building equity, stewardship and resilience into market-based property-right systems. World Bank, Washington D.C. Forthcoming.

Young, M.D. (1992) Sustainable investment and resource use: Equity, environmental integrity and economic efficiency. Man and the biosphere series. Parthenon Carnforth and UNESCO Paris.

Young, M.D. (1993) For our children's children: Some practical implications of Inter-generational equity and the Precautionary Principle. Resource Assessment Commission Occasional Publication No. 6.

Zann, L.P. (1995) 'Our sea, our future.' In Major findings of the state of the marine environment report for Australia. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.

Zimbardo, P. and Lieppe, M.R. (1991) The psychology of attitude change and social influence. Temple University, Philadelphia.