Atmosphere

Nitrogen oxides emissions standards for domestic gas appliances

Background study
Mr Bob Joynt, Environmental Consultant and Mr Stephen Wu, Combustion Engineering Consultant
Environment Australia, February 2000

References

(Standards quoted are assigned the year of the version seen. Standards are frequently modified and circulated in draft form.)

AATSE (1997). Inquiry into urban air pollution in Australia. Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Technology. ISBN 1 875618 37 6.

AG101 (1998). Approval requirements for domestic gas cooking appliances. AGA and ALPGA.

AG102 (1998). Gas water heaters. AGA and Standards Australia. Revision: draft for comment. (To be issued as AS4552).

AG103 (1998). Approval requirements for gas space heating appliances. AGA and ALPGA.

AG501 (1998). Code for industrial and commercial gas-fired appliances. AGA and Standards Australia. Issued as AS3814 (1998).

AG601 (1998). Gas installation code. AGA and ALPGA.

AGA (1998). Gas industry statistics 1998. The Australian Gas Association. September.

ANSI Z21.10.1 (1998). American national standard/CSA standard for gas water heaters. Volume I: Storage water heaters with input ratings of 75,000 Btu per hour or less. CSA and International Approval Services.

ANSI Z21.10.3 (1998). American national standard/CSA standard for gas water heaters. Volume III: Storage water heaters with input ratings above 75,000 Btu per hour, circulating or instantaneous. CSA and International Approval Services.

ANSI Z21.11.1 (1993). American national standard for gas fired room heaters. Volume I: Vented room heaters. American National Standards Institute.

ANSI Z21.11.2 (1997). American national standard for gas fired room heaters. Volume II: Unvented room heaters. American National Standards Institute.

ANSI Z21.86 (1998). American national standard/CSA standard for vented gas fired space heating appliances. CSA and International Approval Services.

AU-B-16047/92 (1992). Australian Patent Office Document Number.

AU-B-64743/90 (1990). Australian Patent Office Document Number.

Bavaro M, Saxby W and Tas I (1995). Electricity vs natural gas: Which household is really more greenhouse friendly? Clean Air, 29 (2) 21–25.

Benedeck K and Goodman T (1994). Survey of regulations affecting emissions from residential, gas-fired appliances. US Gas Research Institute, Topical Report GRI-94/0017.

BMU (1998). The EU eco-label: a guide to ecologically harmless products in Europe. Umwelt-Produkt-Info-Service no 1. Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe, Bundesumweltministerium. ISSN 0940-693 X.

Brown S (1998). Case studies of poor indoor air quality in Australian buildings. Proceedings of the 14th International Clean Air and Environment Conference, Melbourne, 1998, pp 205–210.

Cramer T. L. (1990). Combustion: Key to unlock energy stored in natural gas. GRID Gas Research Institute Digest, v 13 n2, p12–15, 17, summer 1990.

DIN3368 (1989). Gas appliances. Part 2: Central heating boilers, combination water heaters. Deutsches Institute fur Normung eV.

DIN4702 (1993). Central heating boilers. Part 3: Special gas boilers with atmospheric burners. Part 6: Condensing boilers for gaseous fuels. Deutsches Institute fur Normung eV.

DIN4788 (1990). Fanned gas burners. Part 2: Powered combustion systems. Deutsches Institute fur Normung eV.

EC (1990). Council directive of 29 June 1990 on the approximation of the laws of the member states relating to appliances burning gaseous fuels (90/396/EEC). The European Commission. Official Journal No 196/15, 26 July 1990. Modified by Directive 93/68/EEC.

EN26 (1995). Gas-fired instantaneous water heaters for domestic hot water production, fitted with atmospheric burners. European Committee for Standardisation. Draft.

EN89 (1997). Gas-fired storage water heaters for sanitary use. European Committee for Standardisation. Draft

EN297 (1997). Gas-fired central heating boilers – Type B11 and B11BS boilers fitted with atmospheric burners of nominal heat input not exceeding 70 kW. European Committee for Standardisation.

EN298 (1994). Automatic gas burner control systems for gas burners and gas burning appliances with or without fans. European Committee for Standardisation.

EN483 (1997). Gas-fired central heating boilers – Type C boilers of nominal heat input not exceeding 70 kW. European Committee for Standardisation.

EN613 (1997). Independent gas-fired convection heaters. European Committee for Standardisation.

EN676 (1997). Automatic forced draft burners for gaseous fuels. European Committee for Standardisation.

EN 1266 (1993). Independent gas-fired convective heaters including a fan to assist transportation of combustion air and/or flue gases. European Committee for Standardisation. Draft.

EN1596 (1994). Dedicated liquefied petroleum gas appliances – mobile and portable non-domestic forced draft direct fired air heaters. European Committee for Standardisation. Draft.

EN13203 (1998). Qualification of domestic hot water function of gas-fired appliances for domestic use. European Committee for Standardisation. Draft.

EPAV (1993). Indoor air quality in domestic premises in Victoria A review. Environment Protection Authority, Victoria.

Garrett M, Hooper B and Hooper M (1996). Low levels of indoor nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde influence health in children. Proceedings of the 13th International Clean Air and Environment Conference, Adelaide, 1996, pp 643–648.

Immig J, Rich S and Brown S (1997). Indoor air quality guidelines for Sydney Olympic facilities. CSIRO Building Construction and Engineering Technical Report TR97/3.

Hassler R, Mahlmann I and Schoenheit I (1998). Assessing the success of the German Eco-label: Examination of the effectiveness of the label from the viewpoint of companies using the label and chosen experts. Institute for Market-Environment-Society eV.

Heihink W. G. (1994). Market developments of condensing boilers in The Netherlands in the field of residential heating.

JIS S2103 (1991). Gas burning cooking appliances for domestic use. Japanese Institute of Standards.

JIS S2109 (1991). Gas burning water heaters for domestic use. Japanese Institute of Standards.

JIS S2122 (1991). Gas burning space heaters for domestic use. Japanese Institute of Standards.

Keywood M, Beer T, Ayers G, Gillett, Powell J, Manins P and Kreibich H (1998). Determination of personal exposure to NO2 using passive gas samplers: a pilot study. Proceedings of the 14th International Clean Air and Environment Conference, Melbourne, 1998, pp 618–622.

NEN1078 (1987). Standards for natural gas installations – General. The Netherlands.

NEPC (1998a). National Environment Protection Measure for ambient air quality. National Environment Protection Council, 26 June 1998.

NEPC (1998b). Ambient air quality: Final impact statement for the ambient air quality National Environment Protection Measure. National Environment Protection Council, 26 June 1998.

Nitschke M, Smith B, Ruffin R, Pilotto L, Pisaniello D and Abramson M (1998). Are new indoor nitrogen dioxide guidelines needed? Proceedings of the 14th International Clean Air and Environment Conference, Melbourne, 1998, pp 62–65.

OGSV (1998). Regulatory impact statement: Gas safety (installation) regulations 1998. Victoria, Office of Gas Safety, 9 October 1998.

Ovenden N. A. and Williams T. P. (1997). EP-01: Low emission cooker burners – meeting the environment challenge. Paper presented to the 20th World Gas Conference, 1997.

Pereira C. J. and Amiridis M. D. (1995). Chapter 1 – NOx Control from Stationary Sources. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 587.

R & D Magazine Circle 380. Steel insert improves indoor air quality. R & D Magazine, September, 1996, pp 46.

RAL (1998). Information sheet on the German environmental label scheme "Blue Angel": Current facts and figures, Status January 1999. RAL Deutsches Institut fur Gutesicherung und Kennzeichnung eV.

RAL (1999). Environmental label German "Blue Angel": Product requirements. RAL Deutsches Institut fur Gutesicherung und Kennzeichnung eV.

Raghavan J. and Reuther J. (1994). Topic Report GRI-94/0275: Survey of emissions-reduction technology applicable to gas-fired appliances. Gas Research Institute – Space Conditioning and Appliances, August 1994.

Reuther J. J. and Billick I. H. (1996). Porous insert technology for emissions reduction from gas appliances. Appliance Engineer, October 1996, pp 92–95.

Ro S. and Scholten A. (1994). Comparison of catalytic and catalytically stabilised domestic natural gas burners. Paper presented to the 20th World Gas Conference, 1997.

Saxby W (1998). Urban air quality issues – The domestic use of natural gas. Gas Industry Conference. The Australian Gas Association.

SCAQMD (1999). Public workshop notice: Proposed amended Rule 1121 – Control of nitrogen oxides from residential type, natural gas-fired water heaters. South Coast Air Quality Management District.

Schweitzer J, Ogink R and der Kinderen J (1998). Improving NOx- and CO-measurements: A challenge for improving the environmental impact of gas appliances. Proceedings, International Gas Research Conference, Copenhagen, 1998 pp473-483.

Steer K, Mitchell R, Cadzow R and Skourtis D (1991). Measurement of gas stove combustion products in domestic kitchens in Adelaide. South Australia, Department of Environment and Planning, Air Quality Laboratories.

Sudo Y. and Nielsen J. K. (1997). New applications of gas in the home. Report of Committee E, 20th World Gas Conference, 1997.

Todd J, Saxby W, Prasad D, Wilson C and Kinrade P (1997). Residential and local sources of air pollution in Australia. Report of Task Group 3 of the AATSE Inquiry into Urban Air Pollution in Australia. Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering.

VDI (1999). VDI Handbuch Reinhaltung der Luft, Teile 1–6. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure.

Warnatz J. et al (1995). Combustion. Springer Publishing. Section 17.6, pp 233 –235.

Yamada N and Desprets M (1997). Update on NOx measuring methods and emission levels. Part of the report of IGU Committee E to the 20th World Gas Conference, Copenhagen. http://www.wgc.org/proceedings/rep/cr.html .

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