Atmosphere

Review of literature on residential firewood use, wood-smoke and air toxics

Technical Report No. 4
Environment Australia, June 2002
ISBN 0 6425 4868 4

References

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ABS, 1976; Tasmanian Statistics, Survey of Household Energy Sources, Cat. No. 8204.6; Australian Bureau of Statistics, Hobart.

ABS, 1976; Census of Population and Housing; Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

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ABS, 1983; National Energy Survey: Household Appliances, Facilities and Insulation Australia June 1983, Cat. No. 8212.0; Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

ABS, 1987a; National Energy Survey Household Appliances, Facilities and Insulation Australia 1985-86, Cat. No. 8212.0; Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

ABS, 1987b; Domestic Energy and Firewood Usage, Tasmania 1987, Cat. No. 8204.6; Australian Bureau of Statistics, Hobart.

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ACT Government, 1997b; Environment Protection Regulations 1997; Government of Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, ACT. Available at: http://www.act.gov.au/environ/epa/index.html 

ACT Government, 2000; Environment Protection Legislation Amendment Act 2000; Government of Australian Capital Territory, Canberra, ACT. Available at: http://www.act.gov.au/environ/epa/index.html 

Aggarwal, A.L., Raiyani, C.V., Patel, P.D., Shah, P.G. and Chatierjee, S.K., 1982; Assessment of exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in air for various population groups in Ahmedabad, Atmospheric Environment 16(4), 867–870.

AHHA, 1999; Woodheater Sales, Australian Home Heating Association, presented to the Air Quality Coordinating Committee, WA Department of Environment and Planning, Perth, Western Australia.

Ainsworth, P. and Gow, S., 1998. Woodsmoke monitoring and community education: a local government perspective, in Particulate Pollution in Australian Rural Towns, K.A. Parton, Editor, UNE: Armidale. p. 59–68.

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Allen, J.M., Piispanen, W.H. and Cooke, M., 1983; Final Report on Combustion Modification to Reduce Wood Stove Emissions; Battelle Columbus Laboratories, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43201, USA.

Anderson, H.R., 1978; Respiratory abnormalities in Papua New Guinea children: the effects of locality and domestic wood smoke pollution, International Journal of Epidemiology 7(1), 63–72.

Anderson, H.R., 1979a; Chronic lung disease in the Papua New Guinea Highlands, Thorax 34, 647–653.

Anderson, H.R., 1979b; Respiratory abnormalities, smoking habits and ventilatory capacity in a Highland community in Papua New Guinea: prevalence and effect on mortality, International Journal of Epidemiology 8(2), 127–135.

Anon, 1986a; Missoula shatters emissions myths, Wood-n-Energy 6(11), 11–13.

Anon, 1986b; Real world study raps catalysts, Wood-n-Energy 6(10), 8–10.

ASFIWP, 1999; ACT Firewood Industry Code of Practice; ACT Solid Fuel Industry Working Party, Canberra, ACT. Available at: http://www.act.gov.au/environ/a-z.html#F 

Atkinson, R.W., Bremner, S., Anderson, H., Strachan, D., Bland, J.M., and de Leon, A.P., 1999; Short-term associations between emergency hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular disease and outdoor air pollution in London, Archives of Environmental Health, 54, 398–411.

Attwater, C.R. and Thorpe, V.J., 1997a; Perth Woodsmoke Campaign Evaluation Pre-Campaign Survey; for Environment Australia, Canberra.

Attwater, C.R. and Thorpe, V.J., 1997b; Tasmanian Woodsmoke Campaign Evaluation, for Environment Australia, Canberra.

Attwater, C.R. and Thorpe V.J., 1997c; Tasmanian Woodsmoke Campaign Evaluation Post Campaign Survey Results, for Environment Australia, Canberra.

Attwater, C.R. and Thorpe, V.J.,1997d; Perth Woodsmoke Campaign Evaluation Survey Results and Analysis, for Environment Australia, Canberra.

Attwater, C.R., Thorp, V.J. and Myriad Consultancy, 1999; Breathe the Benefits Campaign Evaluation Post-Campaign Survey Results, for Environment Australia, Canberra.

Austin, G. 1983; Firewood and the Consumer, in Firewood Forum, The Institute of Foresters of Australia Inc. Canberra 29–30 April 1983.

AWHA, 1997; Submission to the National Environment Protection Council Committee; Australian Wood Heating Association, Melbourne.

Ayer, F.A. (ed.), 1981; Proceedings Conference on Wood Combustion Environmental Assessment. Conference on Wood Combustion Environmental Assessment, New Orleans, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC, USA.

Ayers, G.P., Keywood, M.D., Gras, J.L., Cohen, D., Garton, D. and Bailey, G.M., 1999; Chemical and Physical Properties of Australian Fine Particles: A Pilot Study; Division of Atmospheric Research, CSIRO, Report for Environment Australia.

Barfknecht, T.R., 1983; Toxicology of soot, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 9, 199–237.

Barrefors, G. and Petersson, G., 1995; Volatile hydrocarbons from domestic wood burning, Chemosphere 30(8): 1551–1556.

Baruch, R., 1997; The health effects of air pollution: results of Sydney studies, in Particulate Pollution in Australian Rural Towns, K.A. Parton, Editor, UNE: Armidale. p. 15–22.

Bates, D.V., 1996; Air pollution: time for more clean air legislation? British Medical Journal 312: 649–650.

Becker, F.C., Barnett, S.G., Cowden, J.W., Barnett, L., Graham, P. Van Den Bossche, K. and Hannan, K., 1985; Residential Wood Combustion Emission and Safety Guidebook; Environmental Resource Centre, Hiram College, Hiram, Ohio.

Bell, D.A. and Kamens, R.M., 1986; Photodegradation of wood smoke mutagens under low NOx conditions. Atmospheric Environment 20(2), 317–321.

Bendahmane, D.B., 1997; Air Pollution and Child Health: Priorities for Action, Environmental Health Project, Activity Report 38; US Agency for International Development.

Benner, B.A., Wise, S.A., Currie, L.A., Klouda, G.A., Klinedinst, D.B., Zweidinger, R.B., Stevens, R.K. and Lewis, C.W., 1995; Distinguishing the contributions of residential wood combustion and mobile source emissions using relative concentrations of dimethylphenanthrene isomers, Environmental Science and Technology 29(9), 2382–2389.

Bennett, W.D., Zeman, K.L., and Kim, C.S., 1996; Variability of fine particle deposition in healthy adults: effects of age and gender, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2, 153–165.

Berko, H.N., 1990; State of Knowledge Report on PAHs in Australia; Environment Australia, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/epg/airtoxics/docs/pahreport.pdf

Bobak, M., and Leon, D.A., 1992; Air pollution and infant mortality in the Czech Republic, 1986-88, The Lancet, 340, 1010–1014.

Boezen, H., van der Zee, S., Postma, D., and Vonk, J., 1999; Effects of ambient air pollution on upper and lower respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children, The Lancet, 353 (9156), 874–878.

Boyle, R., Dewundege, P., Hazi, J., Hearn, D., McIntosh, C., Morrell, A., Ng, Y.L. and Serebryanikova, R., 1996; Report on the Air Emission Trials for the National Pollutant Inventory Vol 1 and 2; Environment Protection Authority Victoria, Melbourne.

Brandon, R. and Murray, D., 1981; Pellet Wood Stokers: Evaluation and Testing of Available Systems, Institute of Man and Resources, Prince Edward Island, Canada.

Brauer, M., Bartlett, K., Regalado-Pineda, J. and Perez-Padilla, R., 1996; Assessment of particulate concentrations from domestic biomass combustion in rural Mexico, Environmental Science and Technology 30(1), 104–109.

Bumb, R.R., Crummett, W.B., Cutie, S.S., Gledhill, J.R., Hummel, R.H., Kagel, R.O., Lamparski, L.L., Luoma, E.V., Miller, D.L., Nestrick, T.J., Shadoff, L.A., Stehl, R.H. and Woods, J.S., 1980; Trace chemistries of fire: a source of chlorinated dioxins, Science 210(4468), 385–390.

Burnet, P., 1988a; Is technology working? Wood-n-Energy 8(3), 27–32.

Burnet, P., 1988b; The Northeast Cooperative Woodstove Study; EPA/600/S7-87/026, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park NC.

Burnet, P.G., Edmisten, N.G., Tiegs, P.E., Houck, J.E. and Yoder, R.A., 1986; Particulate, carbon monoxide, and acid emission factors for residential wood burning stoves, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 36(9), 1012–1018.

Burnett, R., Cakmak, S., Raizenne, M., Stieb, D., Vincent, R., Krewski, D., Brook, J., Philips, O. and Ozkaynak, H., 1998; The association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and daily mortality in Toronto, Canada, Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 48, 689–700.

Burton, B.A. and Senzel, A.J., 1984; Residential Wood Combustion Study: 1980–1982 Executive Summary, prepared for US EPA Air and Toxics Division, Region 10, 1200 Sixth Ave. Seattle, Washington, USA.

Bush, P.B., Neary, D.G., McMahon, C.K. and Taylor, J.W., 1987a; Suitability of hardwoods treated with phenoxy and pyridine herbicides for use as firewood, Archive of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 16, 333–341.

Bush, P.B., Taylor, J.W., McMahon, C.K. and Neary, D.G., 1987b; Residues of Lindane and Chlorpyrifos in firewood and woodsmoke, Journal of Entomological Science 22(2), 131–139.

Butcher, S.S. and Ellenbecker, M.J., 1982; Particulate emission factors for small wood and coal stoves, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 32(4), 380–384.

Butcher, S.S. and Sorenson, E.M., 1979; A study of wood stove particulate emissions, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 29(7): 724–728.

Calle, E.E. and Zeighami, E.A., 1984; Health risk assessment of residential wood combustion. Indoor Air Quality. P. J. Walsh, C. S. Dudney and E. D. Copenhaver (eds); CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 39–53.

Calloway, C.P., Li, S., Buchanan, J.W. and Stevens, R.K., 1989; A refinement of the potassium tracer method for residential wood smoke, Atmospheric Environment 23(1), 67–69.

Cannon, J.A., 1984; Air quality effects of residential wood combustion, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 34(9), 895–897.

Carnovale, F., 1997; Ambient Air Monitoring of Particulate Matter in Tasmania, Department of Environment and Land Management, Hobart, Tasmania.

Chesterman, R.B., 1984; Emissions from Woodburning Heaters, Department of the Environment, Hobart, Tasmania.

Chestnut, L., Schwartz, J., Savitz, D., and Burchfiel, C., 1991; Pulmonary function and ambient particulate matter: epidemiological evidence from NHANES 1 (First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), Archives of Environmental Health, 46 (3), 135–145.

Chow, J.C., Fairley, D., Watson, J.G., DeMandel, R., Fujita, E.M., Lowenthal, D.H., Lu, Z., Frazier, C.A., Long, G. and Cordova, J., 1995; Source apportionment of wintertime PM10 at San Jose, Calif, Journal of Environmental Engineering 121(5), 378–387.

Commonwealth of Australia, 1998; Clear the Air, Government of Australia; Canberra, available at: http://www.environment.gov.au/atmosphere/airquality/clear_the_air.html

Coates, J.F., Hitchcock, H.H. and Heinz, L., 1982; Environmental Consequences of Wood and Other Biomass Sources of Energy, Office of Strategic Assessments and Special Studies, US EPA Washington DC.

Cooper, J.A., 1980; Environmental impact of residential wood combustion emissions and its implications, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 30(8), 855–861.

Core, J.E., Cooper, J.A. and Neulicht, R.M., 1984; Current and projected impacts of residential wood combustion on Pacific Northwest air quality, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 31(2), 138–143.

Correll, R., Jaasma, D.R. and Mukkamala, Y., 1997; Field Performance of Woodburning Stoves in Colorado During the 1995–96 Heating Season, EPA-600/R-97-112, USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Washington DC.

Crane, W.J.B., 1983; The biology of wood formation, in Firewood Forum, 29–30 April 1983, Canberra, The Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA).

Daigler, G.E., Markello, S.J. and Cummings, K.M., 1991; The effect of indoor air pollutants on Otitis Media and asthma in children, Laryngoscope 101, 293–296.

Dal Piva, F., 1983; Obtaining firewood – Nature Conservation Ordinance and permits, in Firewood Forum, 29–30 April 1983, Canberra, The Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA).

Dasch, J.M., 1982; Particulate and gaseous emissions from wood-burning fireplaces, Environmental Science and Technology 16(10), 639–645.

Davidson, C.I., Lin, S.F., Osborn, J.F., Pandey, M.R., Rasmussen, R.A. and Khalil, 1986; Indoor and outdoor air pollution in the Himalayas, Environmental Science and Technology 20(6), 561–567.

DeAngelis, D.G., Ruffin, D.S., Peters, J.A. and Reznik, R.B., 1980; Source Assessment: Residential Wood Combustion, EPA-600/2-80-042b; US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.

Dennis, R.J., Maldonado, D., Norman, S., Baena, E. and Martinez, G., 1996; Woodsmoke exposure and risk for obstructive airways disease among women, Chest 109(1), 115–119.

DEP SA, 1987; Domestic Incineration and Domestic Heating a Survey of Local Councils 1987, Department of Environment and Planning, Adelaide South Australia.

DEP SA, 1994a; Environmental Protection (Burning) Policy 1994; Department of Environmental Protection, Adelaide, South Australia. Available at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_reg/epp1994415/ 

DEP SA, 1994b; Environmental Protection (Air Quality) Policy 1994; Department of Environmental Protection, Adelaide, South Australia. Available at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_reg/epqp1994460/index.html 

DEP WA, 2000a; Perth Air Quality Management Plan: Consultation Draft; Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, Western Australia.

DEP WA, 2000b; Perth Air Quality Management Plan; Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, Western Australia.

DLPE, 2001; National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality: Monitoring Plan for the Northern Territory; Department of Lands, Planning and Environment, Darwin, Northern Territory. Available at: http://www.lpe.nt.gov.au/enviro/wmpcreg/AirQ/AQPlan/AQPlan.htm 

Dockery, D., Pope, C.A. III, Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, J.H., Fay, M.E., Ferris, B.G., and Speizer, F.E., 1993; An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities, New England Journal of Medicine 329, 1753–1759.

Dockery, D., Speizer, F., Stram, D., Ware, J., Spengler, J. and Ferris, J., 1989; Effects of inhalable particles on respiratory health of children, American Journal of Respiratory Disease 139, 587–594.

Dockery, D.W. and Pope, C.A., 1994; Acute respiratory effects of particulate air pollution, Annual Review of Public Health 15, 107–132.

Dockery, D.W., Schwartz, J., and Spengler, J. D., 1992; Air pollution and daily mortality: associations with particulates and acid aerosols, Environmental Research 59, 362–373.

DPIWE, 2000a; Discussion Paper on Air Quality Management and Policy Development; Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania. Available at: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/env/PropForEnvProtPol.html 

DPIWE, 2000b; Response to Public Comments on the Discussion Paper on Air Quality Management and Policy Development; Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania. Available at: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/env/PropForEnvProtPol.html 

DPIWE, 2000c; Proposal for a Draft Environmental Protection Policy; Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania. Available at: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/env/PropForEnvProtPol.html 

DPIWE, 2001a; Draft Environment Protection Policy (Air Quality) and Regulatory Impact Statement; Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart.

DPIWE, 2001b; Ambient Air Quality in Launceston and Hobart; Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania. Available at: http://www.dpiwe.tas.gov.au/env/airqual.html 

Driscoll, D., Milkovits, G. and Freudenberger, D., 2000; Impact and Use of Firewood in Australia; CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, available at http://www.environment.gov.au/bg/bushcare/publications/firewood/index.htm

Duncan, M., Bohr, H.L. and Burr, M., 1982; Pollutant removal from wood and coal flue gases by soil treatment, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 32(11), 1175–1179.

Dunn, R.J., 1983; Wood smoke in Canberra, in Firewood Forum, 29–30 April 1983, Canberra, The Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA).

Edgerton, S.A., Khalil, M.A.K. and Rasmussen, R.A., 1986; Source emission characterization of residential wood-burning stoves and fireplaces: fine particle/methyl chloride ratios for use in chemical mass balance modeling; Environmental Science and Technology 20(8), 803–807.

EHD, 2001; A Final Report on Implementation of the Strategy for Waste Management and Pollution Control in the NT; Environment & Heritage Division, Darwin, Northern Territory. Available at: http://www.lpe.nt.gov.au/enviro/poldoc/wmstrat/WMPC%20Strategy.pdf 

EIC, 2000; Woodheater certification database; Energy Information Centre, Adelaide, South Australia.

Environment ACT, 1995; Tuggeranong Valley Case Study, attachment to State of the Environment Report 1995; Environment ACT, Canberra, ACT

Environment ACT, 1997; Environmental Protection Act Fact Sheet no. 6: Air Pollution from Domestic Premises; Environment ACT, Canberra, ACT. Available at: http://www.act.gov.au/environ/epa/index.html 

Environment ACT, 1999; Environment Protection (Air) Policy 1999; Environment ACT, Canberra, ACT. Available at: http://www.act.gov.au/environ/epa/index.html 

Environment ACT, 2000; State of the Environment Report 2000; Environment ACT, Canberra, ACT. Available at: http://www.envcomm.act.gov.au/Soe2000 

Environment ACT, 2001; 'Don't Burn Tonight' press release; Environment ACT, Canberra, ACT. Available at: http://www.act.gov.au/environ/events/dontburn.html 

Environment Australia, 2000; Breathe the Benefits, available at http://www.environment.gov.au/woodsmoke.html

EPA NSW, 1996; Paper on Air Pollution from Solid Fuel Home Heaters; New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, Chatswood, New South Wales.

EPA NSW, 1997; Proposed clean air (domestic solid fuel heaters) regulation 1997, New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, Chatswood, NSW.

EPA NSW, 1998; Action for Air: The New South Wales Government's 25 year air quality management plan; New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, Chatswood, NSW.

EPA NSW, 1999; Environmental Guidelines for Selecting, Installing and Operating Domestic Solid Fuel Heaters; New South Wales Environment Protection Authority, Chatswood, NSW.

EPA QLD, 1999; South-East Queensland Regional Air Quality Strategy; Queensland Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, Queensland. Available at: http://www.env.qld.gov.au/environment/environment/airfeature/ 

EPA VIC, 1997; Air Quality Management Plan – Taking Stock: Port Phillip Region; Victorian Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, Victoria. Available at: http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/resource/ 

EPA VIC, 1998a; Air Emissions Inventory: Port Phillip Region; Victorian Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, Victoria. Available at: http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/resource/ 

EPA VIC, 2000a; Draft Air Quality Improvement Plan: Port Phillip Region; Victorian Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, Victoria. Available at: http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/resource/ 

EPA VIC, 2000b; National Pollutant Inventory Domestic Survey Study Darwin and Alice Springs Area Final Report, Victorian Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, Victoria. Available at: http://www.lpe.nt.gov.au/enviro/poldoc/npi/pdf/Housesurvfinalrptpdf.pdf 

EPA VIC, 2000c; Draft State Environmental Protection Policy (Air Quality Management) ; Victorian Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, Victoria.

EPA VIC, 2000d; Melbourne Mortality Study Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Melbourne 1991–1996; Victorian Environment Protection Authority, Melbourne, Victoria. Available at: http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/resource/ 

Ferrier, J.D., Lorenzon, R.J. and Smith R.E., 1985; Feasibility of Firewood for Domestic Use in Victoria; School of Environmental Planning, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Fisher, G.W., 2000; Christchurch Air Pollution Study, Clean Air 34(3), 28–29.

Fisher, G., Kingsland, S. and Kuschel, G., 1997; Christchurch Inventory of Total Emissions, Report No. R97/7, Canterbury Regional Council, Christchurch NZ.

Fisher, L.H. and Houck, J.E., 1997; EPA:RWC Technology Review – Published Literature List, OMNI Environmental Services, Beaverton, Oregon.

Foster, E., 1996; Health Effects of Suspended Particulate, Report R96(2); Canterbury Regional Council, Christchurch, NZ.

Freeman, D.J. and Cattell, F.C.R., 1990; Woodburning as a source of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Environmental Science and Technology 24(10), 1581–1585.

Gay, L. and Shelton, J.W., 1985; Investigation of the Dilution Tunnel Method for Measuring Particulate Matter Emissions from Wood Heaters, Shelton Energy Research, Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA.

Gilmour, I.A. and Walker, J.C.F., 1995; Efficiencies and emissions of woodheaters. Clean Air 29(1), 31–39.

Gras, J., 1996; The Perth Haze Study; Division of Atmospheric Research, CSIRO, Melbourne.

Gras, J.L., Gillett, R.W., Bently, S.T., Ayers, G.P. and Firestone, T., 1992; CSIRO-EPA Melbourne Aerosol Study Final Report; CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria.

Gras, J.L., Keywood, M.D., Ayers, G.P. and Cohen, D., 2000; Aerosol microphysics in Launceston, Tasmania, Clean Air 34(2), 33–36.

Groves, K., 1983; Wood and other fuels for Canberra, in Firewood Forum, 29–30 April 1983, Canberra, The Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA).

Hall, R.E. and DeAngelis, D.G., 1980; EPA's research program for controlling residential wood combustion emissions, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 30(8), 862–867.

Harkov, R. and Greenberg, A., 1985; Benzo(a)pyrene in New Jersey – results from a twenty-seven-site study, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 35, 238–243.

Hawthorne, S.B., Miller, D.J., Barkley, R.M. and Krieger, M.S., 1988; Identification of methoxylated phenols as candidate tracers for atmospheric wood smoke pollution. Environmental Science and Technology 22(10), 1191–1196.

Hawthorne, S.B., Krieger, M.S., Miller, G.J. and Mathiason, M.B., 1989; Collection and quantification of methoxylated phenol tracers for atmospheric pollution from residential wood stoves, Environmental Science and Technology 23(4), 470–475.

Hawthorne, S.B., Miller, D.J., Langenfeld, J.J. and Krieger, M.S., 1992; PM10 high-volume collection and quantitation of semi- and nonvolatile phenols, methoxylated phenols, alkanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from winter urban air and their relationship to wood smoke emissions, Environmental Science and Technology 26(11), 2251–2262.

Hayden, A.C.S., 2000; Fireplaces: Studies in Contrasts, Hearth Association, USA, available at http://hearth.com/what/more/skip.html 

Hoek, G., Schwartz, J., Groot, B. and Eilers, P., 1997; Effects of ambient particulate matter and ozone on daily mortality in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Archives of Environmental Health, 52(6), 455–464.

Honicky, R.E., Akpom, C.A. and Scott, J., 1983; Infant respiratory illness and indoor air pollution from a woodburning stove, Pediatrics 71(1), 126–128.

Honicky, R.E., Osborne, J.S. and Akpom, C.A., 1985; Symptoms of respiratory illness in young children and the use of wood-burning stoves for indoor heating. Pediatrics 75(3), 587–593.

Houck, J.E., 1998; Submission to Dioxin Inventory Review.

Hough, M.L. and Kowalczyk, J.F., 1983; A comprehensive strategy to reduce residential woodburning impacts in small urban communities, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 33(11), 1121–1125.

Hueglin, C., Gaegauf, C., Kunzel, S. and Burtsher, H., 1997; Characterization of wood combustion particles: morphology, mobility and photoelectric activity, Environmental Science and Technology 31(12), 3439–3447.

IFA, 1983; Firewood Forum, April 29–30, 1983, Canberra, The Institute of Foresters of Australia Inc. ACT Branch.

ITCI, 1981; Fuelwood Cropping Investment Seminar Papers; The International Tree Crops Institute, Melbourne.

Jaasma, D.R. and Shelton, J.W. 1987; Technology for Efficiency Measurement of Woodburning and Other Solid Fuel Appliances: Phase II Report, Report DOE/CE/23858-2, US Department of Energy.

Jaasma, D.R., Champion, M.C. and Shelton, J.W., 1990; Woodstove smoke and CO emission: comparison of reference methods with the VPI sampler, Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 40(6), 866–871.

Kamens R.M., Rives, G.D., Perry, J.M., Bell, D.A., Paylor, R.F., Goodman, R.G. and Claxton, L.D., 1984; Mutagenic changes in dilute wood smoke as it ages and reacts with ozone and nitrogen dioxide: an outdoor chamber study, Environmental Science and Technology 18, 523–530.

Kamens, R., Bell, D., Dietrich, A., Perry, J., Goodman, R., Claxton, L. and Tejada, S., 1985; Mutagenic transformations of dilute wood smoke systems in the presence of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Analysis of selected high-pressure liquid chromotagraphy fractions from wood smoke particle extracts, Environmental Science and Technology 19, 63–69.

Kamens, R.M., Fulcher, J.N. and Zhishi, G., 1986; Effects of temperature on wood soot PAH decay in atmospheres with sunlight and low NOx, Atmospheric Environment 20(8), 1579–1587.

Kamens, R.M., Guo, J., Guo, Z. and McDow, S.R., 1990; Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by heterogeneous reactions with N2O5 on atmospheric particles, Atmospheric Environment 24A(5), 1161–1173.

Kamens, R.M., Karam, H., Guo, J., Perry, J.M. and Stockburger, L., 1989; The Behaviour of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on atmospheric soot particles, Environmental Science and Technology 23(7), 801–806.

Keles, N., Ilicali, O. C., Deger, K., 1999; Impact of air pollution on prevalence of rhinitis in Istanbul, Archives of Environmental Health, 54(1), 48–52.

Kerby, J. and Beer, A., 1984; Domestic Solid Fuel Use in South Australia, Rept. Figure 1 Bk.No. 84/45; Energy Division Department of Mines and Energy, Adelaide, South Australia.

Keywood, M.D., Ayers, G.P., Gras, J.L., Gillett, R.W. and Cohen, D.D., 2000; Size distribution and sources of aerosol in Launceston, Australia, during winter 1997, Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 50, 418–427.

Khalil, M.A.K., Edgerton, S.A. and Rasmussen, R.A., 1983; A gaseous tracer model for air pollution from residential wood burning, Environmental Science and Technology 17(9), 555–559.

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