Department of the Environment

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Publications archive


Key departmental publications, e.g. annual reports, budget papers and program guidelines are available in our online archive.

Much of the material listed on these archived web pages has been superseded, or served a particular purpose at a particular time. It may contain references to activities or policies that have no current application. Many archived documents may link to web pages that have moved or no longer exist, or may refer to other documents that are no longer available.

Subsidies to the Use of Natural Resources

Environmental Economics Research Paper No.2
This report was prepared by a consultant,
the National Institute of Economic an Industry Research (NIEIR),
for the Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories.
Commonwealth of Australia, 1996
ISBN 0 642 24864 8



Ackroyd, P. et al., Environmental Resources and the Market-place, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1985.

Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE), Australia’s natural resources : optimising present and future use, 1991.

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Occasional Paper on National Balance Sheets, for Australia: Issues and Experimental Estimates, 1989–1992, ABS Catalogue No. 5241.0.

Australian Year Books, 1988 and 1994.

Australian Methodology for the Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, and National Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1988 and 1990: Summary, Department of the Environ-ment, Sport and Territories, 1994.

Australian Methodology for the Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Workbook for Fuel Combustion Activities (excluding Transport), Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, July 1994.

Australia’s Environment: Issues and Facts, ABS Catalogue No.4140.0, 1992.

ABARE, Natural Resource Management: An, Economic Perspective, 1992.

——, Commodity Statistical Bulletins.

Barde, J. and Pearce, D., Valuing the Environment: Six Case Studies, Earthscan, London, 1991.

Bowes, M. and Krutilla, J., Multiple-Use Management: The Economics of Public Forest-lands, Resources for the Future, Washington, 1989.

Clare, R. and Johnston, K., Financial Performance of Government Business Enterprises: An Update, Economic Planning Advisory Committee(EPAC), 1993.

Cline, W.R., Global Warming: The Economic Stakes, Institute for International Economics, Washington, D.C., USA, 1992.

Common, Michael, Environmental Economics: An Introduction, Longman, 1988.

Commonwealth of Australia, Compendium of Ecologically Sustainable Development Recommendations, Canberra, 1992.

Commonwealth Grants Commission reports.

Community Energy Networks, Information Paper No. 8, Environmental Externalities: A World Survey of Policies and Methods, December 1991.

Department of Finance, Guidelines for Costing of Government Activities: A Discussion Paper, 1988.

Ecologically Sustainable Development Project Working Groups — final reports, Commonwealth of Australia, November, 1991. (ESD-A: agriculture; ESD-EU: energy use; ESD-EP: energy production; ESD-Fish: fisheries; ESD-T: transport; ESD-Tour: tourism; ESD-F: forest use).

Economic Planning Advisory Council, Issues in the Pricing and Management of Natural Resources, 1991.

—— , Profitability and Productivity of Government Enterprises, 1992.

Fankhauser, Samuel , The Social Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An Expected Value Approach, The Energy Journal, Volume 15, No. 2, 1994, pp.157–184.

House of Representatives Standing Committee on Environment, Recreation and the Arts, Fiscal Measures and the Achievement of Environmental Objectives, AGPS, 1987.

Industry Commission, Costs and Benefits of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Report 15, Canberra, 1991 (IC 1991a).

—— , Raw material pricing for domestic use, Report No. 21, 1992.

—— , Energy Generation and Distribution, Report No.11, Volume 2, 1991 (IC 1991b).

Jackson, T. and Marks, N., Measuring Sustainable Economic Welfare : A Pilot Index 1950–99, New Economics, 1994.

James, D., Using economic instruments for meeting environmental objectives: Australia’s experience, Environmental Economics Research Paper No. 1, DEST, 1993.

Jubb, C. and Underhill, B., Valuing the Environment: Theory, Methods and Proposed Application, Bureau of Industry Economics, Working Paper No. 59, Canberra, 1990.

Lowen, J. and Lewis, D., The Economics of Environmental Management, Phillip Allan, 1980.

McDougall, R.A., Energy taxes and green-house gas emissions in Australia, Monash University, 1993.

Mishan, E.J., Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Informal Introduction, Allen and Unwin, London, U.K., 1975.

Moran, A., Chisolm, A. and Porter, M., Markets, Resources and the Environment, Allen and Unwin and the Tasman Institute, 1991.

Moran, A., Protecting the Environment Using Market Mechanisms, Tasman Institute, 1990.

National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, 1988 and 1990: Summary, Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra, 1994.

New South Wales EPA, Environmental evaluation studies data base, 1995 and various other publications in the Environmental Economics series.

Resource Assessment Commission (RAC), Methods for Analysing Development and Conservation Issues: the Resource Assessment Commission’s Experience, 1992.

—— , Multi-criteria Analysis as a Resource Assessment Tool, 1992.

—— , The Carrying Capacity Concept and its Application to the Management of Coastal Zone Resources, 1993.

OECD, Environmental Data Compendium, published annually.

—— , Benefits Estimates and Environmental Decision Making, 1992.

Pearce, D., Measuring Sustainable Development, Earthscan, 1993.

—— , Markandya,A., and Barbier, E.B., Blueprint for a Green Economy, Earthscan Publications Ltd., London, United Kingdom, 1989.

Policy Instruments for Responses to Environmental Concerns, paper prepared by NIEIR for the Electricity Supply Association of Australia (ESAA), March, 1994.

Rowe, R.D., Thayer, M., Lang, C., Externalities Valuation Methods: A Discussion of Techniques and Issues, Department of Energy and Minerals, Victoria, Australia, October 1992.

The SECV and the Greenhouse Effect, Discussion Paper No. 2, April, State Electricity Commission of Victoria (now disaggregated),1992.

Sen, A.K., Approaches to the choice of discount rates for social benefit-cost analysis, in Lind. R. (Ed.), Discounting for Finite Risk in Energy Policy, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C., USA, 1982.

Standing Committee on National Performance Monitoring of Government Trading Enterprises, Government Trading Enterprises’ Performance Indicators, 1989–90 to 1993–94, April 1995 (summary and data reports).

Techniques to Value Environmental Resources: An Introductory Handbook, AGPS, Canberra, 1995.

Technology Directory, Scitech Publications, Sydney, 1994.

Toyne, Phillip, The Reluctant Nation, ABC, Sydney, 1994.

Ware, J.A., Fiscal Measures and the Attainment of Environment Objectives: Scandinavian Initiatives and their Applicability to Australia, AGPS Canberra, 1985.

Weil, Steve, The New Environmental Accounting: A Status Report, The Electricity Journal, Volume 4, Number 2, March, 1991.

Wilks, L., A Survey of the Contingent Valuation Method, RAC Canberra, 1990.

World Resources, 1994–95, The World Resources Institute, Oxford University Press, 1994.

Young, M., Sustainable Investment and Resource Use, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, CSIRO Australia and the Parthenon Publishing Group, 1991.


Alternate Fuels in Australian Transport , Bureau of Transportation and Communications Economics, Information Paper No. 39, AGPS, 1994.

Abatement of greenhouse gases: policies and their impacts, NIEIR, Energy Working Party Papers, November 1994. The wide range is due mainly to difficulties in estimating forest sequestration rates and the costs of reforestation (land, planting, maintenance).

Armstrong, G., Environmental and Other Energy Externalities, NIEIR Energy Working Party Conference, July, 1992.

ABARE, Subsidies, Cross Subsidies and Community Service Obligations in Public Electricity and Gas Utilities, 1994.

Biomass in the Energy Cycle, Parts 1 and 2, Energy Research and Development Corporation, Canberra, 1995.

Carnovale, F., Acid Rain in Australia : A National Assessment, Victorian EPA, Melbourne, 1989.

Chernick, Paul and Caverhill, Emily, Methods for Valuing Environmental Externalities, The Electricity Journal , Volume 4, Number 2, March, 1991.

Costing and Pricing of Electricity in Victoria, Victorian Solar Energy Council, 1988.

Energy labelling and standards, Bureau of Industry Economics, Research Report 57, 1994.

Energy Research and Technology in Australia, Australian Science and Technology Council, 1994.

Environmental Costs of Electricity, Pace University Center for Environmental legal Studies, Oceana Publications, New York , September, 1990. Cosponsored by US DOE and NY State Energy and Research Development Authority. Information available from Pace University Center ELS (Fax 914–422–4180).

European Conference of Ministers of Transport/ OECD, Transport Policy and the Environment, 1992.

Externality Policy Development Project: Energy Sector, Identification of effects and externalities, Department of Energy and Minerals, Victoria.

Externality Policy Development Project: Energy Sector, Consultants’ Summary Report for the Victorian Study (VEPDP, Summary ), Department of Energy and Minerals, October, 1993.

Government Pricing Tribunal of NSW, Review of Pricing Policies of Government Agencies Supplying Electricity and Related Services, 1994.

Haites, E., Environmental Externalities and Utility Regulation: Outstanding Issues; Proceedings of the Planning Our Electric Future Now Conference. Montreal, Quebec, November 1992.

—— , Potential Rate Impacts of Environmental Externality Regulation in the United States, Proceedings: 1994 Innovative Electricity Pricing. EPRI TR-103629, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, February 1994.

Hinchy, M . D. , Naughton, B.R., Donaldson, P.K., Belcher, S. & Ferguson, E. (1991), The Issue of Domestic Energy Failure, Project 4127.101, Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics (ABARE), AGPS, Canberra

Hohmeyer, O. (1989), Social Costs of Energy Consumption, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg.

IC, Mining and minerals processing in Australia, 1991.

—— , Energy generation and distribution, 1991.

—— , Petroleum Industry, Report 40, 1994.

——, Urban Transport, Report 37, 1994.

Interstate Commission, Road Use Charges and Vehicle Registration: A National Scheme, Volumes 1 and 2, 1990.

Johnson, M.J. and Rix, S., Powering the Future : The Electricity Industry and Australia’s Energy Future, Pluto Press, Sydney, 1991.

Jones, Zhao-Yang, Peng, Naugten, Reducing Australian energy sector greenhouse gas emissions, Energy Policy, April, 1994, pp.270–286.

Kemp, A . G. , Fiscal Aspects of Investment Opportunities in the UKCS and Norway, Denmark , The Netherlands, Australia, China, Alaska (North and South) and the US Outer Continental Shelf, University of Aberdeen, September, 1993.

Measuring the Economic Impact of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions, NIEIR and ESAA, September 1994.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy and the Environment: Policy Overview, 1989.

OECD, Electricity Supply in OECD Countries, 1992.

—— , Market and Government Failures in Environmental Management: the Case of Transport, 1992.

—— , Taxing Energy: Why and How, 1992.

—— , Energy Prices and Taxes. (Quarterly publication).

Philpott, R., Identification of effects and externalities, Externalities Policy Development Project: Energy Sector, Department of Manufacturing and Industry Development, Victoria, Australia, August 1992.

Review of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation : composition, structure and administrative arrangements, AGPS, Canberra, May, 1993.

Roberts,R.K., King, M.,Lang, C., et al, Incorporation of Externalities in Energy Planning: A Survey of Current Policies, Department of Energy and Minerals, Victoria , Australia , October 1992.

Royalty Discussion Paper, ANZMECC, September, 1991.

Steer, K., and Heiskanen, L., Options for Australian Air Quality Goals for Oxides of Sulphur, Public Review Document, November, 1993.

Stephen Bernow, Bruce Biewald and Donald Marron, Full-Cost Dispatch : Incorporating Environmental Externalities in Electric System Operation, The Electricity Journal, Volume 4, Number 2, March, 1991.

Stephen Georgiou et al, The Social Costs of Fuel Cycles, Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE), University College, London, 1993.

Stephens, M., Renewable Electricity for Australia, Discussion Paper No. 2, Energy Division, Department of Primary Industries and Energy, 1992, particularly pages 11, 12,13 and 25–27.

Stocker, L., Harman, F. & Topham, F., Comprehensive Costs of Electricity Supply in Western Australia , A report prepared for the Renewable Energy Advisory Council of the Government of WA, November, 1990.

Swan, P. (1990), ‘Real Rates of Return in Electricity Supply: New South Wales, Tasmania and Victoria ’, Economic Record, 1993(2), June, pp. 93–109.

Taxation of the Energy Industries, NIEIR Energy Working Party Papers, 23 June, 1995.

Transport Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Bureau of Transport and Communications Economics, September, 1994.

Victorian Transport Externalities Study, Volumes 1, 2, 3 and 4, Environment Protection Authority of Victoria (VEPA), May 1994.

Annual reports of state energy departments and agencies.


Annual reports and other papers produced by state and local government water authorities and the Murray–Darling Basin Commission.

Annual reports of state water authorities.

ABARE, Management of irrigation water in the Murray–Darling, 1991.

Dragun, A.K., The Economics of Water Use in the Hunter Region, CRES, ANU, Canberra, 1986.

Dwyer Leslie (1991), Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Drinking Water Quality Program: A Contingent Valuation Approach, report prepared in conjunction with the Sydney Water Board.

Government Pricing Tribunal of NSW, Water: An Interim Report, 1993 and Report of the Working Party on Water, Waste water Demand, Engineering and Cost Issues, 1993.

Industry Commission, Water Resources and Waste Water Disposal, Report No. 26, AGPS, Canberra, 1992.

International experience of private provision in water, sewerage and drainage services, London Economics, 1992.

Johnson, J. and Rix, S. (eds.), Water in Australia : Managing Economic, Environmental and Community Reform, Pluto Press, Sydney.

Major Urban Water Authorities of Australia, Submissions to the Industry Commission Inquiry into Water Resources and Wastewater Disposal, 1991.

National Water Quality Management Strategy, Policies and Principles: A Reference Document, April 1994.

Report of the Working Group on Water Resource Policy to the Council of Australian Governments , February, 1994, and Second Report of the Working Group on Water Resource Policy to COAG, February, 1995.

Report of the Expert Group on Asset Valuation Methods and Cost Recovery Definitions for the Australian Water Industry, Working Group on Water Resource Policy, February, 1993.

Annual reports of state water agencies.

Waste water

Algae Management Strategy for the Murray– Darling Basin, Murray–Darling Basin, Ministerial Council, August, 1993.

Choices for clean waterways, discussion paper, NSW Department of Planning, March, 1994.

Clean Waterways Programme, Sydney Water Board, Annual Reports.

Dealing with land based marine pollution — progressing an Australian agenda, report by John R. Sands and Associates for the Commonwealth Environment Protection Agency, 1993.

Heilman, J.G., The Politics and Economics of Privatisation: The Case of Wastewater Treatment, University of Alabama, 1992.

Our Sea, Our Future: major findings of the State of the Marine Environment Report (SOMER) for Australia, DEST Ocean Rescue 2000 Program, 1995.

Rural Drinking Water Quality: Summary Report, Departments of Conservation and Natural Resources, and Health and Community Services, July, 1994.

Young, D., et. al., An economic perspective on the management of the occurrences of blue-green algae, ABARE Outlook 93, Canberra, 1993.

Solid waste disposal

Bureau of Industry Economics, Waste Management and Landfill Pricing — A Scoping Study, Occasional Paper 12, AGPS, Canberra, 1993.

Industry Commission, Report on Recycling, Report No. 6, Volumes I and II, AGPS, Canberra, 1992.

—— , Waste Management and Recycling:Survey of Local Government Practices, AGPS, Canberra, 1990.

—— , Environmental Waste Management Equipment, Systems and Services, Report No. 33, September, 1993.

Litter Research and Recycling Association, Recycling Audit and Garbage Bin Analysis: NSW and Victoria, 1993.

Monitoring of Performance Against Waste Minimisation and Recycling Targets: Final Report, prepared by Maunsell Pty Ltd, August 1994 for the federal Environment Protection Agency (Maunsell, 1994).

National Waste Minimisation and Recycling Strategy, Commonwealth Environment Protection Agency and Department of the Arts, Sport, the Environment and Territories, 1991.

Stanley, J and Maunsell Pty Ltd, The Cost of Waste Disposal in Melbourne, sponsored by Visy Recycling, June, 1992.

John Stanley and Associates, Proposed waste disposal site at Clayton Road, South Clayton: Review of economic issues involved in determining site suitability for landfill, report for City of Oakleigh, Victoria, 1991.

State EPA’s and waste disposal agencies’ annual and other reports, for example, Recycling and Resource Recovery Council, Victoria, Annual Report, 1993–94.


ABARE, Forestry and conservation: an examination of policy alternatives, 1990.

ABARE, Fiscal Approaches of State Forest Management Agencies, Report to the Resource Assessment Commission (RAC), 1990.

ABARE, Pricing and allocation of logs in Australia, 1991.

Australian Accounting Research Foundation, Accounting for Self-Generating and Regenerating Assets, September 1995 discussion paper.

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Forest Product Statistics publications.

Australian Conservation Foundation, The Impact of Logging on Water Production in the Thomson River Catchment, 1992.

Australian Heritage Commission and WA Department of Conservation and Land Management, Draft Report on National Estate Values in the Southern Forest Region of South Western Australia, 1992.

Buxton, M., Integrating conservation and development through the planning process: the case of vegetation protection and restoration, a paper to the National Greening Australia Conference, 4–6 October, Fremantle, Western Australia, 1994.

Byron, R.N., A Review of the RAC Consultancy Report by ABARE on Fiscal Approaches of State Forest Management Agencies, 1992 (Report to the RAC).

Cameron, J. and Penna, I., The Wood and the Trees, Australian Conservation Foundation , 1988.

Dames and Moore, Description of Non-wood Users of Australia’s Forest and Timber Resources, Report to the RAC, 1991.

Dickson, R., Ecological Impacts of Forest Use: A Survey of Completed Research, 1993, Report to the RAC Inquiry (see below).

Dragun, A., An Economic Appraisal of the Public Forests of East Gippsland, 1990.

—— , The Subsidisation of Logging in Victoria, LaTrobe University, 1995.

Durning, A.T., Redesigning the Forest Economy, State of the World, 1994, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., 1994.

Economic Research Associates Pty Ltd, An Assessment of Techniques for Assessing Community Values Attached to Forest and Timber Resources, Report to the RAC, 1990.

Final Report — Forest Use, Ecologically Sustainable Development(ESD) Working Group, AGPS, November, 1991.

Grey, Francis, Estimating Value, an unpublished report prepared for the Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, January, 1994 (draft).

McAllister, I., Community Attitudes to the Environment, Forests and Forest Management in Australia, Report to the RAC, 1991.

National Forest Policy Statement: A New Focus for Australia’s Forest, Commonwealth of Australia, 1992.

National Plantations Advisory Committee 1991, Integrating Forestry and Farming: Commercial Wood Production on Cleared Agricultural Land, 1991.

Native Vegetation Clearance, Habitat Loss and Biodiversity Decline, Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 6, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra, 1995.

NSW Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee, Report on the Forestry Commission, 1990.

OECD, Renewable Natural Resources: Economic Incentives for Improved Management, 1989.

—— , Market and Government Failures in Environmental Management: Wetlands and Forests, 1992.

Preece, N. and Van Osterzee, P., Ecoz-Ecology Australia and James,D., Ecoservices Pty Ltd, Two Way Track: Biodiversity, Conservation and Ecotourism, Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 5, Biodiversity Unit, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, 1995.

Read, Sturgess and Associates, Study of the Thomson River Catchment, regarding the values of forests for water catchment, 1992.

Resource Assessment Commission (RAC), Forest and Timber Inquiry, Final Report , AGPS, 1992.

Streeting, M. and Hamilton, C., An Economic Analysis of the Forests of South–Eastern Australia, Research Paper No. 5, RAC Inquiry (see above), 1991.

—— , and Imber, D., The Pricing of Australian Woodchip Exports, Report to the RAC Inquiry (see above), 1991.

The conservation of bio-diversity, ESD Working Party Report, July 1991.

Victorian Auditor General’s Department, Timber Industry Strategy, Report No. 22, 1993.

Webb, L., Brereton, J. Le G., Whitelock, D., (Eds.), The Last of Lands: Conservation in Australia, Jacaranda Press, 1969. Paters on conservation/ bio-diversity values included, particularly in Part II, for example The Australian Flora, Trace, Webb and Williams, pp.75–82 and Australian Plants and Chemical Research, Webb, pp.82–90.

World Resources Institute, Directory of Country Environmental Studies: An Annotated Bibliography of Environmental and Natural Resource Profiles and Assessments, 1992.

Worrell, R., Trees and the Treasury: Valuing Forests for Society: Forestry, Economics, Decision-making and the Environment, World Widelife Fund (WWF), United Kingdom, 1992.

Annual reports of state forestry departments and agencies.

Natural attractions for recreation and tourism

Annual Reports, etc., from State departments and agencies responsible for conservation, national parks, land management, etc.

Boo, E., Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls, World Wildlife Fund, Washington, 1990.

Commonwealth Department of Tourism (CDT), Tourism : Australia’s Passport to Growth: A National Tourism Strategy, CDT, Canberra, 1992.

Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act, 1992.

Cox,A., and Waring, T., Economic assessment in resource conflict: some lessons from the RAC inquiry into the Kakadu Conservation Zone, in Natural Resource Management — an Economic Perspective, ABARE, 1992.

Dixon, J. and Sherman, P., Economics of Protected Areas : A New Look at Benefits and Costs, Earthscan, London, 1990.

Driml, S., Protection for Profit: Economic and Financial Values of Protected Areas, Research Publication No. 35, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 1994.

Dwyer, L. and Forsyth, P., Effectiveness of Environmental Policy Instruments — A Case Study of Australian Tourism, University of Western Sydney, 1990.

Hodder, M., The Costs and Benefits of Fencing National Parks and Reserves in South Australia, 1980.

Hundloe, T., Vanclay, F. and Carter, M., 1987, Economic and Socio Economic Impacts of Crown of Thorns Starfish on the Great Barrier Reef, Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Griffith University, Report to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville.

Imber, D., Stephenson, G. and Wilks, L., A contingent valuation survey of the Kakadu Conservation Zone, Report No. 3, RAC Inquiry, 1991.

Lindberg, K., Policies for Maximising Nature Tourism’s Ecological and Economic Benefits, 1991.

Messer, J. and Mosley, J., The Value of National Parks, Australian Conservation Foundation, 1980.

Ligtermoet, E., Recreational Value and Use of the Inland Waters of Gippsland, Sport and Recreation Victoria , Department of Water Resources Victoria, Report No. 45, May 1989.

Standing Committee on Environment, House of Representatives, Biodiversity: The Role of Protected Areas, AGPS, 1993.

Ulph, A . N. , An Economic Evaluation of National Parks, 1981.

Whelan, T. (ed.), Nature Tourism: Managing for the Environment, Island Press, Washington, 1991.

Agricultural inputs

Dawn, T., Tulpule, V. and Toussaint, E., Agricultural chemicals — their use in Australian agriculture, Australian Commodities — ABARE , Vol. 1, No. 4, December 1994, pp.501–507.

Faeth, P. (ed.), Agricultural Policy and Sustainability: Case Studies from India, Chile, the Philippines and the United States, World Resources Institute, 1993.

Final Report — Agriculture, Ecologically Sustainable Working Group, AGPS, November, 1991.

Mattinson, B.C. and D.A. Morrison (1985), A Cost-Benefit Study of Alternative Strategies for Reducing the Algae Nuisance in the Peel-Harvey Estuary, Western Australian Department of Agriculture.

National Registration Authority (NRA) reports.

State agricultural departments’ and agencies’ annual and other reports.

Walpole, S.C.,Sinden, J.A. and Yapp, T.P., The Opportunity Costs of Land Degradation on Agriculture in New South Wales, SCS4, Land and Water Resources Development Corporation, Canberra, December, 1992.

Wynen, E. and Edwards, G., Towards a Comparison of Chemical-Free and Conventional Farming in Australia, Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 34, Number 1, April, 1990, pp.30–45.


ABARE, Resource rent in fisheries, 1990.

—— , Cost recovery for managing fisheries, 1991.

—— , By catch management options in the south east fishery, 1992.

Annual reports of Australian Fishing Management Authority (AFMA) and state departments and agencies.

ANZECC, Maritime Accidents and Pollution: Impacts on the Marine Environment from Shipping Operations, paper for Public Comment, March, 1995.

Bio-economic Risk Assessment of the Potential Introduction of Exotic Organisms Through Ships’ Ballast Water, Report No. 6, Ballast Water Research Series, Australian Quarantine Inspection Service, Canberra, April 1994.

Final Report — Fisheries, Ecologically Sustainable Working Group, AGPS, November 1991.

Industry Commission, Cost recovery for managing fisheries, 1992.

Jones, M.M., Fishing debris in the Australian marine environment, Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, 1994.

—— , Marine Organisms Transported in Ballast Water:A Review of the Australian Scientific Position, Bureau of Rural Resources, Bulletin No. 11, Canberra, 1991.

OECD, Review of Fisheries in OECD Member Countries, 1993.

Our Oceans, Our Future: Summary of findings, State of Marine Environment Report (SOMER), DEST, 1995.

Review of cost recovery for Commonwealth fisheries, March, 1994.

Senate Standing Committee on Industry, Science, Technology and Communications , Report on Fisheries, 1993.

Weber, D., Safeguarding Oceans, State of the World, 1994, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., 1994.

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