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Key departmental publications, e.g. annual reports, budget papers and program guidelines are available in our online archive.

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More with Less - Initiatives to promote sustainable consumption

Environmental Economics Research Paper No.3
Prepared by Deni Greene Consulting Services,
Australian Consumers Association and National Key Centre for Design, RMIT for the
Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories

Commonwealth of Australia, 1996
ISBN 0 642 24869 9

Appendix 1 Survey of Initiatives to Change Consumption Patterns

Table of Contents

Travel/Transport

Vehicles, Fuel

Urban Form, Urban Design

Energy Efficiency

Food

Clothing

Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals

Chemicals/cleaning supplies

Product and material purchase, use, disposal, recycling

Water Use/Disposal

Gardens, vegetation and pets

Recreation

Investment

Miscellaneous - Covering Several Issues

Information Sources

 

Travel/Transport


Type* Operator** Date Description Ref

* infra = infrastructure; eco inst = economic instrument; info = information; reg = regulation; demo = demonstration; prod = manufacture of product; educ = education; lca = life cycle analysis; label = labelling; recog = recognition

**Comm = Commonwealth Government; State = State Government; LG = Local Government; NGO = non-government organisation; pvt sec = private sector; stat auth = statutory authority

infra State 1993- Perth Northern Suburbs Transit System rail and bus system created to improve efficiency, promote public transport use (22)
LG 1970's North Sydney dramatically decreased number of parking spaces to discourage car use by commuters (77)
infra State High Occupancy Vehicle lanes provided on Sydney Harbour Bridge and CBD arterials (1)
infra State High Occupancy Vehicle lanes provided on Melbourne's Eastern Freeway (1)
eco inst State $200 levy on parking spaces in Sydney CBD (1)
eco inst State Bridge and road tolls: Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney Harbour Tunnel, M4 Motorway, M5 Motorway, F6 Freeway (1)
eco inst State Bridge and road tolls, Queensland: Gateway Bridge, Sunshine Motorway, Logan Motorway (1)
infra State 1992 Trial of upgraded service on Sandringham rail line (Vic) to encourage increased use. (78)
infra State Electrification of Perth rail networks (1)
infra State Electrification of Brisbane rail (1)
infra State Extension to Brisbane-Gold Coast rail system (1)
infra State Adelaide O-Bahn guided track for buses along a segregated right of way (1)
infra State 1980's Upgrade of country rail services in Victoria: increased frequency, integration with bus service (77)
infra Comm 1992 Shellharbour, NSW, trial of computerised bus demand management system (1)
infra Hallet Cove and Sheidow Park, SA, trials of taxibus service operating in evening, linked to STA train services. 50 cent fare subsidised by STA (1)
infra Croydon Bus Service demand responsive bus service in Mooroolbark and Rowville; surcharge over Met fare kept by operator; in area not accessible by large buses (1)
eco inst Mt Barker Passenger Service multi trip ticket valid for 6 months; interchangeable (1)
infra pvt sec, State Aerial Taxis has convinced ACT Government to license 12 to 14 seater mini-buses as multicabs (1)
infra NGO Noarlunga Volunteer Transport Service, SA provides community transport (1)
infra LG Happy Valley, SA provides community transport (1)
infra LG Baulkham Hills Shire Council, NSW provides community transport (1)
infra Holroyd Community Transport Group Inc. provides community transport (1)
infra Hills Community Support Group, WA provides community transport (1)
infra NGO Ethnic Communities Council of SA provides community transport (1)
infra, info NGO on-going Bicycle Victoria, Ride To Work campaign: to get more people to ride to work more often by creating a network of workplace organisers, encouraging employers to install secure parking, lockers, and showers (80)
infra, info Fremantle, WA bicycle programs (2)
info, infra NGO 1994 Pedal to Work Project, Ballarat, Vic.: Commuter cycling; Community Awareness Campaign; Initiation of the revision of the Ballarat Bike Plan; Documentation of above process. (3)
infra LG, NGO 1994 South Melbourne established a 'History Trail' for walkers and cyclists (3)
eco inst Comm 1992 National Bicycle Strategy provided $4 million to local governments for pilot projects involving bicycle use (3)
info State New South Wales Bike Plan; RTA has Bicycle Advisory Council (3)
info NGO, State 1992 Bicycle Victoria, Riding a bike to work brochure (8)
info State You Can Make a Difference to Our Air, Victorian Government booklet promoting alternatives to car travel (10)
info, infra State 1991 Car pooling trial by RACV (92)
info State 1991 Information booklet from Victorian Government and RACV, Carpoolasaurus (17)
infra State 1994 NSW Government allocates funds for preliminary work on airport-City rail link; Parramatta-Hornsby link, and light rail from Pyrmont to Central. (29)
infra State, LG 1994 16 country NSW councils will build bicycle paths with funds from State Government (31)
infra State 1980s-'90s Yarra Bicycle Trail covering extensive area near Melbourne (80)
infra State, LG on-going Closing or restricting car access to roads, eg Swanston Walk, Melbourne, Canning Street, Carlton (Vic) (80)
infra State, LG Comm on-going Installation of bicycles lanes on arterial roads around Melbourne to encourage commuting by bicycles: resurfacing of kerbside lane, road marking, signs, eg St Kilda Road, Sydney Road, Swanston Walk (80)
infra LG, NGO Installation of bicycle racks outside shops, eg Prahran (80)
infra Comm. 1993 Strategic public transport development for ACT by National Capital Planning Authority (133)
infra State 1993 Integrated transport strategy for Greater Sydney (134)

 

Vehicles, Fuel


reg Comm 1986 ADR 37/00 ADR41/100 requiring new petrol engined vehicles to operate on unleaded petrol (1)
eco inst Comm, State Encouragement of natural gas vehicles (CNG is free of excise) ESD trans
demo, info LG 1994 North Sydney is evaluating an electric car (3)
info Comm 1993 Brochures on pre-1986 cars that can use unleaded petrol (5)
info State, pvt sec BP, Vic EPA, JMJ brochure on reducing vehicle air pollution, How to stop exhausting the supply of clean air (9)
info, educ LG, pvt sec annual Maryborough RACV Energy Breakthrough, students build, race vehicles powered by human or alternative energy sources; Energy Expo run at same time as race (23)
eco inst Comm 1994 Commonwealth increased the excise on leaded petrol; Shell halved the lead in its leaded petrol to reduce lead in air (27)
info Comm annual The annual fuel consumption guide from the Department of Primary Industries and Energy covers new cars, 4-wheel drives, and light commercial vehicles (56, 57)
info State 1994 EPA (NSW) information brochure Environment Matters: Unleaded Petrol and Pre-1986 Vehicles (61)
info Comm 1994 EPA (Commonwealth) Fact Sheet on air lead levels and children's health (63, 75)
info Comm 1994 EPA (Commonwealth) pamphlet Switching to Unleaded Petrol (64)
prod pvt sec on-going Solar Challenge auto race from Darwin to Adelaide encourages development of better solar-powered cars (82)
infra State 1994 Sydney has introduced buses powered by CNG (93)
info State, pvt sec 1994 Information pamphlet listing pre-1986 cars that can run on unleaded petrol (116)
info State, pvt sec 1991 Lean Machine Awareness Week supported by the Energy Information Centre, the Grand Prix, RAA, and Mobil promoted appropriate vehicles and fuels, maintenance, improved driving skills, and reduced driving (117)

 

Urban Form, Urban Design


eco inst Comm, state, pvt sec 1991 Green Street Joint Venture to increase density of development (2), p87
reg State, LG WA State Government assistance to local councils for reviewing residential regulations to promote affordable housing and increase densities (3)
eco inst stat auth 1993 Victorian Urban Land Authority's Roxburgh Park development allows houses to be built to lot lines; encourages higher density, solar access (3)
info State 1993 The Low Energy Suburb. Greenhouse Neighbourhood Project. Booklet describing project on alternative urban design (13)
info Comm 1995 AMCORD Urban, Australian Model Code for Residential Development issued in 1992, updated 1995 provides a basis for assessing medium and higher density housing (58)
info, demo pvt sec 1995 Village Green at Narellan Gardens, NSW, a development by Monarch is a small lot subdivision (58)
info, demo pvt sec, State 1995 The Heights, Loganlea aims to demonstrate efficient use of residential land - in terms of energy, services, and infrastructure, low maintenance, and diversity (58)
info, demo pvt sec, LG 1994 Gelland Place, West Croydon, SA is a medium density development using AMCORD Urban Guidelines (58)
reg State Victoria's dual occupancy regulations allow a second residence to be added to an existing lot.
demo StateComm, pvt sec Lynch's Bridge is Australia's largest inner urban medium density housing project (68)
demo State, Comm, pvt sec Ultimo-Pyrmont redevelopment including improved public transport, private and public housing, new and improved infrastructure. A Better Cities project (69)
demo State, Comm, pvt sec Revitalisation of Inner North-East suburbs to encourage urban consolidation and improve employment opportunities and access to services. A Better Cities project (69)
demo State, Comm, pvt sec Elizabeth/Munno Para New infrastructure and environmental improvement to achieve more compact urban growth patterns and overcome social disadvantage. A Better Cities project (69)
demo State, Comm, pvt sec Western Shore, Hobart urban consolidation and provision of community housing (69)
demo NGO on-going The Halifax EcoCity Project in Adelaide provides a model for a sustainable city. Presently consisting only of drawings and scale models, it proposes a mixed development for 1000 people on 2.4 ha. (95)
prod, info pvt sec 1994 Regent Gardens, built by AV Jennings in Adelaide features energy and water efficiency: 75% of houses qualify for 5-star design awards; guidance is provided to residents on efficiency and stormwater management. (100)
info State Melbourne's Sprawl - Time to Act, information on higher density living (111)

 

Energy Efficiency


reg LG Leichhardt Council, Development Control Plan 17 for new buildings and major renovations: Requires: solar access to internal and external living areas, shading, insulation in roofs and walls, solar water heating, an energy performance report for major developments (3)
demo stat auth 1993 ACT Electricity and Water built a model energy efficient house to present a practical example of passive solar design, water and energy efficiency within an affordable price range (83)
demo stat auth, State 1992 Dept of Planning, NSW, Pacific Power, and Sydney Electricity sponsored an Energy Efficient Housing Competition to develop a brief for a number of townhouses to be built in a middle ring suburb accessible to good transport and services (85)
info stat auth 1995 National Capital Planning Authority is offering the Australia Award for Urban Design: among other criteria projects must be exemplars of sustainability and environmental responsibility, with respect to energy efficiency, public transport, etc. (91)
eco inst stat auth 1993 SEQEB conducted a pilot program offering $250 rebates for new energy efficient homes (67)
info, demo State, pvt sec 1994 The State Energy Commission of Western Australia sponsored a competition to find the design of the ideal energy efficient house for Broome (67)
info, eco inst State 1995 Energy Victoria is promoting the use of Remote Area Power Systems with a Renewable Energy Assistance Program (46)
demo pvt sec, stat auth 1993 Model green homes at Roxburgh Park are energy efficient, incorporating double glazing, solar water heating, shading (3)
reg State Legislative requirements for insulation in new homes - ACT and Victoria. In ACT all new houses must achieve a four star rating (101)
info Comm, State, LG Five Star Design Home Energy Rating Scheme, initially by GMI Council; now handled in Victoria by Energy Victoria (81)
reg LG Brunswick Code for Energy Efficiency imposes mandatory obligations covering siting, glazing, and appliances, and guideline on draft control (70)
info State House Plan Energy Consultation and House Energy Rating, services offered by Energy Victoria for fees of $50 and $100 (45)
info State 1995 The House Energy Rating Software Package is available to builders, designers, architects and planners for $450 (47)
info, demo pvt sec, State 1995 The Housing Industry Association and Energy Victoria promoted energy efficiency at the Home Ideas Show and displayed an energy efficient home, which will be transported and awarded as a prize in a home show competition (50)
prod stat auth 80s Gas and Fuel Corp. Development of more efficient gas water heater (81)
info State 1993 'Home Greenhouse Saver' personal actions to reduce greenhouse effect, brochure of DCNR, Victoria (16)
info State 1994 'School Greenhouse Saver' personal actions to reduce greenhouse effect, brochure of EPA, Victoria (18)
info State 1990 The Energy Decision Maker, Energy Information Centre booklet on how to save energy and reduce bills
info, label State, stat auth several dates Energy Labelling of appliances to encourage purchase of energy efficient models; booklets containing ratings and information (55)
info, advert stat auth, pvt sec Gas and Fuel Corp. Promotion of natural gas heating to replace electric heating (4)
eco inst Comm, pvt sec 1995 EnergyCard is a no-deposit, low interest credit facility to promote purchase of solar hot water systems. Developed by the Commonwealth, managed by AGC. (40)
prod pvt sec 1995 Email has launched a CFC and HFC-free green fridge
prod pvt sec 1995 Solarfan, a NSW company has released a solar fan for removing hot air from the roof cavity of houses. (41)
info State 1993 Portable Heaters, an information booklet from Energy Victoria (49)
reg State 1995 Minimum Energy Performance Standards adopted for refrigerators, freezers and electric storage water heaters to take effect in 1997-8. (50)
info State 1993 Choosing a Hot Water System, advice to consumers (51)
info State 1995 Home Heating Hints advice for households (48)
info, label stat auth, pvt sec 1995 Energy efficiency rating system adopted for gas-fired central heating units and water heaters (50), (102)
info State 1993 Heating and cooling advisory service offered to consumers for $30 fee. (52)
info State 1995 Solar Hot Water booklet provides advice to consumers (53)
eco inst State 1995 Queensland homeowners are offered a grants of $500 or $300 to install solar panels for water heating systems. Grants are also available to public housing tenants. Manufacturers are offering additional subsidies. (89)
demo LG on-going Brunswick Electricity Supply Department (now part of CitiPower) installed solar panels and windmills to generate electricity. (90)
eco inst LG 1994 Armidale City Council offers interest free loans for insulation for new houses. New England Electricity offers interest free loans for heat-exchange solar hot water systems, heat pumps and reverse cycle air conditioners. They have also commissioned a passive solar, energy efficient display home (94)
info NGO 1994 Good Energy Management Kit prepared by Nature and Society Forum in Canberra to raise awareness about the way people use energy (96)
educ State Energy Technology and Society Teacher Resource Kit for ages 13-17, produced by Energy Victoria. Cost is $80.
educ NGO 1993 How to Save Energy in Local Government, advice on energy efficiency, car pooling, renewable energy, etc. (84)
educ State, stat auth on-going Energy Information Centres in Queensland, Victoria, WA, SA, NSW. Similar centres in ACT and Tasmania. Provide advice about appliances, heating, cooling etc. (84)
info LG on-going Concord Council runs a Domestic Thermal Assessment Program which allows property owners to request an energy rating on plans when they lodge building permit applications (98)
info stat auth 1994 SEQEB promoted energy efficient home designs and use of compact fluorescent lamps (104)
info, feedback LG 1993-95 Brunswick Electricity Supply Department included comparative information on customers' bills about consumption during previous billing periods and showed greenhouse emissions from consumption
info stat auth 1993 Residential Lighting Information Booklet produced by State Electricity Commission of Victoria (115)
info, eco inst stat auth 1990 SECV provided incentives and education to promote sales of compact fluorescent light globes (118)
info State 1993 A mobile renewable energy demonstration unit visits rural centres, shows, other events to show stand-alone renewable energy systems. (119)
infra State, stat auth, pvt sect 1994 Stringybark Grove is a group of 10 townhouses in Lane Cove, NSW designed to conserve energy and water. (131)

 

Food


reg Comm Requirements for describing foods as 'organic' (105)
reg State on-going Hunting and fishing regulations covering quotas of fish, shellfish, minimum size permitted, limited seasons for hunting, fishing (79)
info NGO 1989 'Defining Organic,' Information about organic foods, in Choice (124)
info pvt sect no date Is It Really Organic, information brochure for consumers by National Association for Sustainable Agriculture of Australia (NASAA) (125)
info pvt sect no date Poster on NASAA certified food (135)
reg pvt sect 1992 Organic Produce Advisory Council national standards for organic and biodynamic produce (136)

 

Clothing


info NGO 1994 ACF launched the Eco Sweater, an organic wool sweater (86)
info NGO on-going Promotion of use of wool for clothing by Wool Board (105)
info NGO 1993 Choice magazine article: The wearing of the green; information on environmental aspects of materials (122)
prod pvt sect 1995 Patagonia is producing a polyester clothing fabric called Synchilla from recycled plastic bottles (137)

 

Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals


prod prod Blackmore's products claim to use environmentally friendly ingredients, less packaging
infra, LCA pvt sec 1994 Body Shop offers a refill service at its shops. It claims to undertake life cycle analysis on its raw materials and packaging (73)
prod pvt sec on-going Marketing of bicarb soda toothpaste (105)

 

Chemicals/cleaning supplies


info, reg LG, State pvt sec 1993 Measures to control discharge of phosphorus to combat blue-green algae in NSW waterways include limits on phosphates in detergent, and an information campaign (3, 37)
label pvt sec 1994 Voluntary labelling of phosphate content of detergents by manufacturers, (3, 37)
reg, info, infra Comm DAS brochure - laws and means for disposal of yellow extinguishers (containing halon), The Nasty Truth About Yellow Extinguishers (11)
infra, reg Comm Halon banks for disposal of halons set up by DAS in each state (11)
info State 1994 EPA Victoria information bulletin on various controls on ozone depleting substances (20)
reg State 1990 EPA Victoria ban on manufacture of products using CFCs and aerosol products unless exempt (20)
reg, info State 1993 EPA (NSW) booklet on Ozone Depleting Substances and their Alternatives (62)
reg, info Comm 1991 NHMRC National Plan for Domestic Chemicals (121)
reg Comm on-going Scheduling and restriction of poisons through Standard for Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (87)
reg Comm 1995 Prohibition on use of chlordane and dieldrin for termite control (88)
prod pvt sec 1993 Marketing of laundry detergents without fillers (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Availability of refillable containers for cleaning products (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Availability of broader spectrum of use for cleaning products (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Promotion of use of scented oils instead of room fresheners (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Marketing of recycled and unbleached paper products, eg toilet paper, serviettes, paper towels (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Marketing of recycled plastic garbage bags (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Marketing of low phosphate, no phosphate detergents (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Marketing of no perfume detergents (105)
prod pvt sec on-going Marketing of less environmentally damaging cleaning products (105)
info State 1994 EPA publication on Home Renovations and Lead Based Paint (120)
info Comm 1991 National survey of chemicals used in the house/community understanding of hazards by Reark Research (138)
reg Comm 1992 Code of Practice produced by Agricultural and Veterinary Chemical Council for labelling home garden and domestic pest control products (139)
info Comm 1995 Brochures by EPA on reducing hazards associated with lead in paint (139a 139b)

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